Essonne

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Essonne
Parc-chateau-courances-essonne, autre vue de trois quart arriere cropped.jpg
Drapeau fr departement Essonne.svg
Blason departement fr Essonne.svg
Essonne-Position.svg
Location of Essonne in France
Coordinates: 48°30′N02°17′E / 48.500°N 2.283°E / 48.500; 2.283 Coordinates: 48°30′N02°17′E / 48.500°N 2.283°E / 48.500; 2.283
Country France
Region Île-de-France
Prefecture Évry-Courcouronnes
Subprefectures Étampes
Palaiseau
Government
   President of the Departmental Council François Durovray [1] (LR)
Area
1
  Total1,804 km2 (697 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
  Total1,301,659
  Rank 14th
  Density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 91
Arrondissements 3
Cantons 21
Communes 194
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Essonne (French pronunciation:  [ɛsɔn] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a department of France in the northern Île-de-France region. It is named after the river Essonne. In 2019, it had a population of 1,301,659 across 194 communes. [3]

Contents

Essonne was formed on 1 January 1968 when Seine-et-Oise was split into smaller departments. Its prefecture is Évry-Courcouronnes. Its INSEE and postcode number is 91.

History

The Essonne department was created on 1 January 1968,[ why? ] from the southern portion of the former department of Seine-et-Oise.

In June 1963, Carrefour S.A. opened the first hypermarket in the Paris region at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois (although the word "hypermarché" was first used only in 1966). Based on the ideas put forward by the American logistics pioneer Bernardo Trujillo, [4] the centre offered on a single 2,500 m2 (26,909.78 sq ft) site a hitherto unknown combination of wide choice and low prices, supported by 400 car parking spaces.

In 1969, the communes of Châteaufort and Toussus-le-Noble were separated from Essonne and added to the department of Yvelines.

Geography

Essonne belongs to the region of Île-de-France.

It has borders with the departments of:

All of northern Essonne department belongs to the Parisian agglomeration and is very urbanized. The south remains rural.

Principal towns

The most populous commune is Évry-Courcouronnes, the prefecture. As of 2019, the 5 most populous communes are: [3]

CommunePopulation (2019)
Évry-Courcouronnes 66,851
Corbeil-Essonnes 51,234
Massy 50,644
Savigny-sur-Orge 36,577
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois 35,830

In descending order, the other communes over 25,000 population are: Athis-Mons, Palaiseau, Vigneux-sur-Seine, Viry-Châtillon, Ris-Orangis, Yerres, Draveil, Grigny, Brétigny-sur-Orge, Étampes, Brunoy and Les Ulis. [3] Milly-la-Forêt is a notable example of its more rural communes.

Main sights

Politics

The department's most high-profile political representative has been Manuel Valls, Prime Minister of France from 31 March 2014 to 6 December 2016. He visited its main town Évry to deliver remarks following the Charlie Hebdo massacre of January 2015. The president of the Departmental Council is François Durovray, elected in 2015.

Presidential election, second round

ElectionWinning CandidateParty%2nd Place CandidateParty%
2022 [5] Emmanuel Macron LREM 65.43 Marine Le Pen FN 34.57
2017 [6] Emmanuel Macron LREM 72.18 Marine Le Pen FN 27.82
2012 François Hollande PS 53.43 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 46.57
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 52.08 Ségolène Royal PS 47.92
2002 [6] Jacques Chirac RPR 84.96 Jean-Marie Le Pen FN 15.04
1995 [7] Jacques Chirac RPR 53.30 Lionel Jospin PS 15.04

Members of the National Assembly

ConstituencyMember [8] Party
Essonne's 1st constituency Francis Chouat La République En Marche!
Essonne's 2nd constituency Franck Marlin The Republicans
Essonne's 3rd constituency Laëtitia Romeiro Dias La République En Marche!
Essonne's 4th constituency Marie-Pierre Rixain La République En Marche!
Essonne's 5th constituency Cédric Villani Ecology Democracy Solidarity
Essonne's 6th constituency Amélie de Montchalin La République En Marche!
Essonne's 7th constituency Robin Reda The Republicans
Essonne's 8th constituency Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Debout la France
Essonne's 9th constituency Marie Guévenoux La République En Marche!
Essonne's 10th constituency Pierre-Alain Raphan La République En Marche!

Demographics

Population development since 1876:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1876135,911    
1881140,027+0.60%
1891151,726+0.81%
1901164,617+0.82%
1911177,385+0.75%
1921187,188+0.54%
1931271,094+3.77%
1936286,896+1.14%
1946293,932+0.24%
1954350,987+2.24%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1962478,691+3.96%
1968673,325+5.85%
1975923,063+4.61%
1982988,000+0.98%
19901,084,824+1.18%
19991,134,238+0.50%
20061,198,273+0.79%
20101,215,340+0.35%
20161,287,330+0.96%
source: [9] [10]

Place of birth of residents

Place of birth of residents of Essonne in 1999
Born in metropolitan France Born outside metropolitan France
84.7%15.3%
Born in
overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2Non-EU-15 immigrants
1.8%2.8%4.0%6.7%
1 This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as Pieds-Noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), as well as to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.

2 An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

Tourism

Sister regions

Essonne is twinned with:

See also

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Évry, Essonne Part of Évry-Courcouronnes in Île-de-France, France

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Boutigny-sur-Essonne Commune in Île-de-France, France

Boutigny-sur-Essonne is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France.

Palaiseau Subprefecture and commune in Île-de-France, France

Palaiseau is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 16.9 km (10.5 mi) from the centre of Paris. Palaiseau is a sub-prefecture of the Essonne department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Palaiseau.

Arrondissements of the Essonne department

The 3 arrondissements of the Essonne department are:

  1. Arrondissement of Étampes, with 75 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 130,464 in 2016.
  2. Arrondissement of Évry, with 51 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 536,258 in 2016.
  3. Arrondissement of Palaiseau, with 68 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 620,608 in 2016.
Arrondissement of Évry Arrondissement in Île-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Évry is an arrondissement of France in the Essonne department in the Île-de-France region. It has 51 communes. Its population is 536,258 (2016), and its area is 469.0 km2 (181.1 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Palaiseau Arrondissement in Île-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Palaiseau is an arrondissement of France in the Essonne department in the Île-de-France region. It has 68 communes. Its population is 620,608 (2016), and its area is 484.0 km2 (186.9 sq mi).

The following is a list of the 21 cantons of the Essonne department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

Ballancourt-sur-Essonne Commune in Île-de-France, France

Ballancourt-sur-Essonne is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. Inhabitants of Ballancourt-sur-Essonne are known as Ballancourtois.

Bouray-sur-Juine Commune in Île-de-France, France

Bouray-sur-Juine is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les conseillers départementaux". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 4 May 2022.
  2. "Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. 1 2 3 Populations légales 2019: 91 Essonne, INSEE
  4. Soulabail, Yves (2020-09-30). "Bernardo Trujillo, son enseignement lors des séminaires MMM". Carrefour Un combat pour la liberté. (in French). Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  5. "Les résultats du second tour de l'élection présidentielle". France 24 (in French). 2022-04-19. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  6. 1 2 "Présidentielles". www.interieur.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  7. "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle de 1995 par département - Politiquemania". www.politiquemania.com. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  8. Nationale, Assemblée. "Assemblée nationale ~ Les députés, le vote de la loi, le Parlement français". Assemblée nationale.
  9. "Historique de l'Essonne". Le SPLAF.
  10. "Évolution et structure de la population en 2016". INSEE.