Eucalyptus

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Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus tereticornis flowers, capsules, buds and foliage.jpeg
Buds, capsules, flowers and foliage of E. tereticornis
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Subfamily: Myrtoideae
Tribe: Eucalypteae
Genus:Eucalyptus
L'Hér. [1]
Type species
Eucalyptus obliqua
Species
Distribution.eucalyptus.png
Natural range
Synonyms [1]
  • AromadendrumW.Anderson ex R.Br., 1810
  • EudesmiaR.Br., 1814
  • AromadendronAndrews ex Steud. nom. illeg., 1840
  • SymphyomyrtusSchauer in J.G.C.Lehmann, 1844
  • EucalyptonSt.-Lag., 1880

Eucalyptus /ˌjuːkəˈlɪptəs/ [2] L'Héritier 1789 [3] (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia, and include Eucalyptus regnans , the tallest known flowering plant on Earth. [4] Australia is covered by 92,000,000 hectares (227,336,951 acres) of eucalypt forest, comprising three quarters of the area covered by native forest. [5]

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Flowering plant clade of flowering plants (in APG I-III)

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion and sperma ("seed").

Tree Perennial woody plant with elongated trunk

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.

Contents

There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus and most are native to Australia; a very small number are found in adjacent areas of New Guinea and Indonesia. One species, Eucalyptus deglupta, ranges as far north as the Philippines. Of the 15 species found outside Australia, just nine are exclusively non-Australian. Species of eucalyptus are cultivated widely in the tropical and temperate world, including the Americas, Europe, Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, China, and the Indian subcontinent. However, the range over which many eucalypts can be planted in the temperate zone is constrained by their limited cold tolerance. [6]

New Guinea Island in the Pacific Ocean

New Guinea is a large island off the continent of Australia. It is the world's second-largest, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.

Indonesia Republic in Southeast Asia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, contains more than half of the country's population.

<i>Eucalyptus deglupta</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus deglupta is a tall tree, commonly known as the rainbow eucalyptus, Mindanao gum, or rainbow gum. It is native to Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines, and is the only Eucalyptus species with a natural range that extends into the northern hemisphere. It is characterized by multi-colored bark featuring hues of blue, purple, orange and maroon. It thrives in rich, medium to wet soil in full sun and is intolerant of frost.

Eucalyptus is one of three similar genera that are commonly referred to as "eucalypts", the others being Corymbia and Angophora . Many species, though by no means all, are known as gum trees because they exude copious kino from any break in the bark (e.g., scribbly gum). The generic name is derived from the Greek words ευ (eu) "well" and καλύπτω (kalýpto) "to cover", referring to the operculum on the calyx that initially conceals the flower. [7]

<i>Corymbia</i> genus of plants

Corymbia is a genus of about 113 species of tree that were classified as Eucalyptus species until the mid-1990s. It includes the bloodwoods, ghost gums and spotted gums. The bloodwoods had been recognised as a distinct group within the large and diverse genus Eucalyptus since 1867. Molecular research in the 1990s, however, showed that they, along with the rest of the section Corymbia, are more closely related to Angophora than to Eucalyptus, and are probably best regarded as a separate genus. All three genera—Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus—are closely related, often difficult to tell apart, and are still commonly and correctly referred to as "eucalypts". Groups of naturalists and conservationists do not recognise the genus Corymbia and still categorise its species within Eucalyptus.

<i>Angophora</i> genus of plants

Angophora is a genus of flowering plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, described as a genus in 1797. It is endemic to Australia, where species are distributed in Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria. The centre of diversity is along the northern and central coast of New South Wales.

Bark (botany) external parenchymal tissue, located just below the epidermis in the primary structure of the stem

Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the periderm. The outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm. The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the rhytidome.

Some eucalyptus species have attracted attention from horticulturists, global development researchers, and environmentalists because of desirable traits such as being fast-growing sources of wood, producing oil that can be used for cleaning and as a natural insecticide, or an ability to be used to drain swamps and thereby reduce the risk of malaria. Eucalyptus oil finds many uses like in fuels, fragrances, insect repellance and antimicrobial activity. Eucalyptus trees show allelopathic effects; they release compounds which inhibit other plant species from growing nearby. Outside their natural ranges, eucalypts are both lauded for their beneficial economic impact on poor populations [8] [9] :22 and criticised for being "water-guzzling" aliens, [10] leading to controversy over their total impact. [11]

Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries. Its focus is not only on methods of promoting economic development, economic growth and structural change but also on improving the potential for the mass of the population, for example, through health, education and workplace conditions, whether through public or private channels.

Insecticide pesticide used against insects

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th-century's agricultural productivity. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans and/or animals; some become concentrated as they spread along the food chain.

Swamp A forested wetland

A swamp is a wetland that is forested. Many swamps occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations. Other swamps occur on the shores of large lakes. Some swamps have hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodic inundation or soil saturation. The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp forests and "transitional" or shrub swamps. In the boreal regions of Canada, the word swamp is colloquially used for what is more correctly termed a bog, fen, or muskeg. The water of a swamp may be fresh water, brackish water or seawater. Some of the world's largest swamps are found along major rivers such as the Amazon, the Mississippi, and the Congo.

On warm days, eucalyptus forests are sometimes shrouded in a smog-like mist of vaporised volatile organic compounds (terpenoids); the Australian Blue Mountains take their name from the haze. [12]

Smog Severe air pollution blending the words smoke and fog

Smog is a type of severe air pollution. The word "smog" was coined in the early 20th century as a blending of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog, its opacity, and odor. The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century to the mid-20th century. This kind of visible air pollution is composed of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, ozone, smoke and other particulates. Man-made smog is derived from coal combustion emissions, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires and photochemical reactions of these emissions.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint and releases from materials like resin, has a boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F).

Terpenoid Any lipid formally derived from isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene), the skeleton of which can generally be discerned in repeated occurrence in the molecule

The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes. Most are multicyclic structures with oxygen-containing functional groups. About 60% of known natural products are terpenoids. Although sometimes used interchangeably with "terpenes", terpenoids contain additional functional groups, usually O-containing. Terpenes are hydrocarbons.

Description

Seeds of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Eucalyptus camaldulensis seeds00.jpg
Seeds of Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Eucalyptus tetragona, showing glaucous leaves and stems Eucalyptus tetragona - glaucous leaves close.jpg
Eucalyptus tetragona , showing glaucous leaves and stems

Size and habit

A mature eucalyptus may take the form of a low shrub or a very large tree. The species can be divided into three main habits and four size categories.

In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. But these are not entirely satisfactory definitions. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If, as Carl Linnaeus thought, species were fixed and clearly distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. While these definitions are often adequate, when looked at more closely they are problematic. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

Habit (biology) botany

Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology; the term refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structure, as follows:

As a generalisation "forest trees" are single-stemmed and have a crown forming a minor proportion of the whole tree height. "Woodland trees" are single-stemmed, although they may branch at a short distance above ground level.

"Mallees" are multistemmed from ground level, usually less than 10 m (33 ft) in height, often with the crown predominantly at the ends of the branchlets and individual plants may combine to form either an open or closed formation. Many mallee trees may be so low-growing as to be considered a shrub.

Two other tree forms are notable in Western Australia and described using the native names "mallet" and "marlock". The "mallet" is a small to medium-sized tree that does not produce lignotubers and has a relatively long trunk, a steeply branching habit and often a conspicuously dense terminal crown. This is the normal habit of mature healthy specimens of Eucalyptus occidentalis , E. astringens , E. spathulata , E. gardneri , E. dielsii , E. forrestiana , E. salubris , E. clivicola , and E. ornata . The smooth bark of mallets often has a satiny sheen and may be white, cream, grey, green, or copper.

The term marlock has been variously used; in Forest Trees of Australia, it is defined as a small tree without lignotubers, but with a shorter, lower-branching trunk than a mallet. They usually grow in more or less pure stands. Clearly recognisable examples are stands of E. platypus , E. vesiculosa , and the unrelated E. stoatei .

Eucalyptus plantation along rural roads in Punjab Eucalyptus plantation along rural roads in Punjab.jpg
Eucalyptus plantation along rural roads in Punjab

The term "morrell" is somewhat obscure in origin and appears to apply to trees of the western Australian wheatbelt and goldfields which have a long, straight trunk, completely rough-barked. It is now used mainly for E. longicornis (red morrell) and E. melanoxylon (black morrell).

Tree sizes follow the convention of:

Leaves

Nearly all eucalyptus are evergreen, but some tropical species lose their leaves at the end of the dry season. As in other members of the myrtle family, eucalyptus leaves are covered with oil glands. The copious oils produced are an important feature of the genus. Although mature eucalyptus trees may be towering and fully leafed, their shade is characteristically patchy because the leaves usually hang downwards.

The leaves on a mature eucalyptus plant are commonly lanceolate, petiolate, apparently alternate and waxy or glossy green. In contrast, the leaves of seedlings are often opposite, sessile and glaucous, but many exceptions to this pattern exist. Many species such as E. melanophloia and E. setosa retain the juvenile leaf form even when the plant is reproductively mature. Some species, such as E. macrocarpa , E. rhodantha , and E. crucis , are sought-after ornamentals due to this lifelong juvenile leaf form. A few species, such as E. petraea , E. dundasii , and E. lansdowneana , have shiny green leaves throughout their life cycle. E. caesia exhibits the opposite pattern of leaf development to most eucalyptus, with shiny green leaves in the seedling stage and dull, glaucous leaves in mature crowns. The contrast between juvenile and adult leaf phases is valuable in field identification.

Four leaf phases are recognised in the development of a eucalyptus plant: the ‘seedling’, ‘juvenile’, ‘intermediate’, and ‘adult’ phases. However, no definite transitional point occurs between the phases. The intermediate phase, when the largest leaves are often formed, links the juvenile and adult phases. [13]

In all except a few species, the leaves form in pairs on opposite sides of a square stem, consecutive pairs being at right angles to each other (decussate). In some narrow-leaved species, for example E. oleosa , the seedling leaves after the second leaf pair are often clustered in a detectable spiral arrangement about a five-sided stem. After the spiral phase, which may last from several to many nodes, the arrangement reverts to decussate by the absorption of some of the leaf-bearing faces of the stem. In those species with opposite adult foliage the leaf pairs, which have been formed opposite at the stem apex, become separated at their bases by unequal elongation of the stem to produce the apparently alternate adult leaves.

Eucalyptus leucoxylon var. 'Rosea' showing flowers and buds with operculum present Eucalyptus leucoxylon1.jpg
Eucalyptus leucoxylon var. 'Rosea' showing flowers and buds with operculum present
Eucalyptus melliodora, showing flowers and opercula Yellow Box blossoms and gumnuts.jpg
Eucalyptus melliodora , showing flowers and opercula

Flowers

The most readily recognisable characteristics of eucalyptus species are the distinctive flowers and fruit (capsules or "gumnuts"). Flowers have numerous fluffy stamens which may be white, cream, yellow, pink, or red; in bud, the stamens are enclosed in a cap known as an operculum which is composed of the fused sepals or petals, or both. Thus, flowers have no petals, but instead decorate themselves with the many showy stamens. As the stamens expand, the operculum is forced off, splitting away from the cup-like base of the flower; this is one of the features that unites the genus. The name Eucalyptus, from the Greek words eu-, which means well, and kaluptos, cover, meaning "well-covered", describes the operculum. The woody fruits or capsules are roughly cone-shaped and have valves at the end which open to release the seeds, which are waxy, rod-shaped, about 1 mm in length, and yellow-brown in colour. Most species do not flower until adult foliage starts to appear; E. cinerea and E. perriniana are notable exceptions.

Bark

The appearance of eucalyptus bark varies with the age of the plant, the manner of bark shed, the length of the bark fibres, the degree of furrowing, the thickness, the hardness, and the colour. All mature eucalypts put on an annual layer of bark, which contributes to the increasing diameter of the stems. In some species, the outermost layer dies and is annually deciduous, either in long strips (as in E. sheathiana ) or in variably sized flakes ( E. diversicolor , E. cosmophylla , or E. cladocalyx ). These are the gums or smooth-barked species. The gum bark may be dull, shiny, or satiny (as in E. ornata ) or matte ( E. cosmophylla ). In many species, the dead bark is retained. Its outermost layer gradually fragments with weathering and sheds without altering the essentially rough-barked nature of the trunks or stems — for example E. marginata , E. jacksonii , E. obliqua , and E. porosa .

E. globulus bark cells are able to photosynthesize in the absence of foliage, conferring an "increased capacity to re-fix internal CO2 following partial defoliation". [14] This allows the tree to grow in less-than-ideal climates, in addition to providing a better chance of recovery from damage sustained to its leaves in an event such as a fire. [15]

Many species are ‘half-barks’ or ‘blackbutts’ in which the dead bark is retained in the lower half of the trunks or stems — for example, E. brachycalyx , E. ochrophloia , and E. occidentalis — or only in a thick, black accumulation at the base, as in E. clelandii . In some species in this category, for example E. youngiana and E. viminalis , the rough basal bark is very ribbony at the top, where it gives way to the smooth upper stems. The smooth upper bark of the half-barks and that of the completely smooth-barked trees and mallees can produce remarkable colour and interest, for example E. deglupta . [13]

Different commonly recognised types of bark include:

Fossil record

The oldest definitive Eucalyptus fossils are surprisingly from South America, where eucalypts are no longer endemic, though have been introduced from Australia. The fossils are from the early Eocene (51.9 Mya), and were found in the Laguna del Hunco deposit in Chubut province in Argentina. [16] This shows that the genus had a Gondwanan distribution. Fossil leaves also occur in the Miocene of New Zealand, where the genus is not native today, but again have been introduced from Australia. [17]

Despite the prominence of Eucalyptus in modern Australia, estimated to contribute some 75% of the modern vegetation, the fossil record is very scarce throughout much of the Cenozoic, and suggests that this rise to dominance is a geologically more recent phenomenon. The oldest reliably dated macrofossil of Eucalyptus is a 21-million-year-old tree-stump encased in basalt in the upper Lachlan Valley in New South Wales. Other fossils have been found, but many are either unreliably dated or else unreliably identified. [18]

It is useful to consider where Eucalyptus fossils have not been found. Extensive research has gone into the fossil floras of the Paleocene to Oligocene of South-Eastern Australia, and has failed to uncover a single Eucalyptus specimen. Although the evidence is sparse, the best hypothesis is that in the mid-Tertiary, the contintental margins of Australia only supported more mesic noneucalypt vegetation, and that eucalypts probably contributed to the drier vegetation of the arid continental interior. With the progressive drying out of the continent since the Miocene, eucalypts were displaced to the continental margins, and much of the mesic and rainforest vegetation that was once there was eliminated entirely. [18]

The current superdominance of Eucalyptus in Australia may be an artefact of human influence on its ecology. In more recent sediments, numerous findings of a dramatic increase in the abundance of Eucalyptus pollen are associated with increased charcoal levels. Though this occurs at different rates throughout Australia, it is compelling evidence for a relationship between the artificial increase of fire frequency with the arrival of Aboriginals and increased prevalence of this exceptionally fire-tolerant genus. [18]

Species and hybridism

Over 700 species of Eucalyptus are known; refer to the List of Eucalyptus species for a comprehensive list of species. Some have diverged from the mainstream of the genus to the extent that they are quite isolated genetically and are able to be recognised by only a few relatively invariant characteristics. Most, however, may be regarded as belonging to large or small groups of related species, which are often in geographical contact with each other and between which gene exchange still occurs. In these situations, many species appear to grade into one another, and intermediate forms are common. In other words, some species are relatively fixed genetically, as expressed in their morphology, while others have not diverged completely from their nearest relatives.

Hybrid individuals have not always been recognised as such on first collection and some have been named as new species, such as E. chrysantha (E. preissiana × E. sepulcralis) and E. "rivalis" (E. marginata × E. megacarpa). Hybrid combinations are not particularly common in the field, but some other published species frequently seen in Australia have been suggested to be hybrid combinations. For example, E. erythrandra is believed to be E. angulosa × E. teraptera and due to its wide distribution is often referred to in texts. [13]

Renantherin, a phenolic compound present in the leaves of some eucalyptus species, allows chemotaxonomic discrimination in the sections renantheroideae and renantherae [19] and the ratio of the amount of leucoanthocyanins varies considerably in certain species. [20]

A small genus of similar trees, Angophora , has also been known since the 18th century. In 1995 new evidence, largely genetic, indicated that some prominent eucalyptus species were actually more closely related to Angophora than to the other eucalypts; they were split off into the new genus Corymbia . Although separate, the three groups are allied and it remains acceptable to refer to the members of all three genera, Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus, as "eucalypts".

Eucalyptus regnans exceeding 80 metres, in an area of extensive logging, Tasmania Tasmania logging 16 Styx a tree in danger.jpg
Eucalyptus regnans exceeding 80 metres, in an area of extensive logging, Tasmania

Tall timber

Several eucalypt species are among the tallest trees in the world. Eucalyptus regnans , the Australian 'mountain ash', is the tallest of all flowering plants (angiosperms); today, the tallest measured specimen named Centurion is 100.5 m (330 ft) tall. [21] Coast Douglas-fir is about the same height; only coast redwood is taller, and they are conifers (gymnosperms). Six other eucalypt species exceed 80 metres in height: Eucalyptus obliqua , Eucalyptus delegatensis , Eucalyptus diversicolor , Eucalyptus nitens , Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus viminalis .

Frost intolerance

Most eucalypts are not tolerant of severe cold. [6] [22] [23] Eucalypts do well in a range of climates but are usually damaged by anything beyond a light frost of −5 °C (23 °F); [6] [22] [23] the hardiest are the snow gums, such as Eucalyptus pauciflora , which is capable of withstanding cold and frost down to about −20 °C (−4 °F). [24] Two subspecies, E. pauciflora subsp. niphophila and E. pauciflora subsp. debeuzevillei in particular are even hardier and can tolerate even quite severe winters. Several other species, especially from the high plateau and mountains of central Tasmania such as Eucalyptus coccifera , Eucalyptus subcrenulata and Eucalyptus gunnii , [25] have also produced extreme cold-hardy forms and it is seed procured from these genetically hardy strains that are planted for ornament in colder parts of the world.

Animal relationships

Phascolarctos cinereus (koala) eating Eucalyptus leaves Koala-ag1.jpg
Phascolarctos cinereus (koala) eating Eucalyptus leaves
Sawfly larvae feeding on eucalyptus leaves Sawfly larvae - Pergidae sp.jpg
Sawfly larvae feeding on eucalyptus leaves

An essential oil extracted from eucalyptus leaves contains compounds that are powerful natural disinfectants and can be toxic in large quantities. Several marsupial herbivores, notably koalas and some possums, are relatively tolerant of it. The close correlation of these oils with other more potent toxins called formylated phloroglucinol compounds (euglobals, macrocarpals and sideroxylonals) [26] allows koalas and other marsupial species to make food choices based on the smell of the leaves. For koalas, these compounds are the most important factor in leaf choice.

Eucalyptus flowers produce a great abundance of nectar, providing food for many pollinators including insects, birds, bats and possums.[ citation needed ] Although eucalyptus trees are seemingly well-defended from herbivores by the oils and phenolic compounds, they have insect pests. These include the eucalyptus longhorn borer Phoracantha semipunctata and the aphid-like psyllids known as "bell lerps", both of which have become established as pests throughout the world wherever eucalypts are cultivated.

The eusocial beetle Austroplatypus incompertus makes and defends its galleries exclusively inside Eucalyptus plants.

The trunks and branches of the eucalyptus tree allow the largest known moth, Zelotypia stacyi (the bentwing ghost moth, having a wingspan up to 250 mm) to feed and protect their larva and pupa, respectively.

Adaptation to fire

Epicormic shoots sprouting vigorously from epicormic buds beneath the bushfire damaged bark on the trunk of a Eucalyptus tree Epicormic Shoots from an Epicormic Bud on Eucalyptus following Bushfire 2, near Anglers Rest, Vic, Aust, jjron 27.3.2005.jpg
Epicormic shoots sprouting vigorously from epicormic buds beneath the bushfire damaged bark on the trunk of a Eucalyptus tree
Eucalyptus forest in a state of regeneration Eucalyptus forest2.jpg
Eucalyptus forest in a state of regeneration

Eucalypts originated between 35 and 50 million years ago, not long after Australia-New Guinea separated from Gondwana, their rise coinciding with an increase in fossil charcoal deposits (suggesting that fire was a factor even then), but they remained a minor component of the Tertiary rainforest until about 20 million years ago, when the gradual drying of the continent and depletion of soil nutrients led to the development of a more open forest type, predominantly Casuarina and Acacia species.

The two valuable timber trees, alpine ash E. delegatensis and Australian mountain ash E. regnans , are killed by fire and only regenerate from seed. The same 2003 bushfire that had little impact on forests around Canberra resulted in thousands of hectares of dead ash forests. However, a small amount of ash survived and put out new ash trees as well. There has been some debate as to whether to leave the stands or attempt to harvest the mostly undamaged timber, which is increasingly recognised as a damaging practice.

Hazards for humans

The two most common hazards of eucalyptus species to people are fire and falling branches.

Fire hazard

Eucalyptus trees bent over due to the high winds and heat of the October 2007 California wildfires. They are located in the San Dieguito River Park of San Diego County and leaning west San Diego Firestorm 2007.jpg
Eucalyptus trees bent over due to the high winds and heat of the October 2007 California wildfires. They are located in the San Dieguito River Park of San Diego County and leaning west

Eucalyptus oil is highly flammable; ignited trees have been known to explode. [11] [27] Bushfires can travel easily through the oil-rich air of the tree crowns. [28] [29] Eucalypts obtain long-term fire survivability from their ability to regenerate from epicormic buds situated deep within their thick bark, or from lignotubers, [30] or by producing serotinous fruits.

In seasonally dry climates oaks are often fire-resistant, particularly in open grasslands, as a grass fire is insufficient to ignite the scattered trees. In contrast, a eucalyptus forest tends to promote fire because of the volatile and highly combustible oils produced by the leaves, as well as the production of large amounts of litter high in phenolics, preventing its breakdown by fungi and thus accumulating as large amounts of dry, combustible fuel. [30] Consequently, dense eucalypt plantings may be subject to catastrophic firestorms. In fact, almost thirty years before the Oakland firestorm of 1991, a study of eucalyptus in the area warned that the litter beneath the trees builds up very rapidly and should be regularly monitored and removed. [31] It has been estimated that 70% of the energy released through the combustion of vegetation in the Oakland fire was due to eucalyptus. [32] In a National Park Service study, it was found that the fuel load (in tons per acre) of non-native eucalyptus woods is almost three times as great as native oak woodland. [32]

Falling branches

Fallen E. camaldulensis limbs on a walking track Fallen Eucalyptus camaldulensis limbs (1).jpg
Fallen E. camaldulensis limbs on a walking track

Some species of gum trees drop branches unexpectedly. In Australia, Parks Victoria warns campers not to camp under river red gums. [33] Some councils in Australia such as Gosnells, Western Australia, have removed eucalypts after reports of damage from dropped branches, even in the face of lengthy, well publicised protests to protect particular trees. [34] A former Australian National Botanic Gardens director and consulting arborist, Robert Boden, has been quoted referring to "summer branch drop". [35] Dropping of branches is recognised in Australia literature through the fictional death of Judy in Seven Little Australians. Although all large trees can drop branches, the density of eucalyptus wood is high [36] due to its high resin content, [37] increasing the hazard.

Cultivation and uses

Snow Gum in Namadgi National Park Eucalyptus niphophila - Mount Ginini - Namadgi National Park.jpg
Snow Gum in Namadgi National Park

Eucalypts were introduced from Australia to the rest of the world following the Cook expedition in 1770. Collected by Sir Joseph Banks, botanist on the expedition, they were subsequently introduced to many parts of the world, notably California, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Ethiopia, Morocco, Portugal, South Africa, Uganda, Israel-Palestine, Galicia and Chile. On the order of 250 species are under cultivation in California. [38] In Portugal and also Spain, eucalypts have been planted in plantations for the production of pulpwood. Eucalyptus are the basis for several industries, such as sawmilling, pulp, charcoal and others. Several species have become invasive and are causing major problems for local ecosystems, mainly due to the absence of wildlife corridors and rotations management. Eucalypts have many uses which have made them economically important trees, and have become a cash crop in poor areas such as Timbuktu, Mali [9] :22and the Peruvian Andes, [8] despite concerns that the trees are invasive in some countries like South Africa. [10] Best-known are perhaps the varieties karri and yellow box. Due to their fast growth, the foremost benefit of these trees is their wood. They can be chopped off at the root and grow back again. They provide many desirable characteristics for use as ornament, timber, firewood and pulpwood. It is also used in a number of industries, from fence posts and charcoal to cellulose extraction for biofuels. Fast growth also makes eucalypts suitable as windbreaks and to reduce erosion.

Eucalypts draw a tremendous amount of water from the soil through the process of transpiration. They have been planted (or re-planted) in some places to lower the water table and reduce soil salination. Eucalypts have also been used as a way of reducing malaria by draining the soil in Algeria, Lebanon, Sicily, [39] elsewhere in Europe, in Caucasus (Western Georgia), and California. [40] Drainage removes swamps which provide a habitat for mosquito larvae, but can also destroy ecologically productive areas. This drainage is not limited to the soil surface, because the eucalyptus roots are up to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in length and can, depending on the location, even reach the phreatic zone.[ citation needed ]

Pulpwood

Eucalyptus is the most common short fibre source for pulpwood to make pulp. [41] The types most often used in papermaking are Eucalyptus globulus (in temperate areas) and the Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis hybrid (in the tropics). [42] The fibre length of Eucalyptus is relatively short and uniform with low coarseness compared with other hardwoods commonly used as pulpwood. The fibres are slender, yet relatively thick walled. This gives uniform paper formation and high opacity that are important for all types of fine papers. The low coarseness is important for high quality coated papers. [41] Eucalyptus is suitable for many tissue papers as the short and slender fibres gives a high number of fibres per gram and low coarseness contributes to softness. [41]

Eucalyptus oil

Eucalyptus oil is readily steam distilled from the leaves and can be used for cleaning and as an industrial solvent, as an antiseptic, for deodorising, and in very small quantities in food supplements, especially sweets, cough drops, toothpaste and decongestants. It has insect repellent properties [43] , and is an active ingredient in some commercial mosquito repellents [44] . Eucalyptus globulus is the principal source of eucalyptus oil worldwide.

Honey

The nectar of some eucalypts produces high-quality monofloral honey.[ citation needed ]

Musical instruments

Eucalypt wood is also commonly used to make didgeridoos, a traditional Australian Aboriginal wind instrument. [45] The trunk of the tree is hollowed out by termites, and then cut down if the bore is of the correct size and shape. [46]

Dyes

All parts of Eucalyptus may be used to make dyes that are substantive on protein fibres (such as silk and wool), simply by processing the plant part with water. Colours to be achieved range from yellow and orange through green, tan, chocolate and deep rust red. [47] The material remaining after processing can be safely used as mulch or fertiliser.[ citation needed ]

Prospecting

Eucalyptus trees in the Australian outback draw up gold from tens of metres underground through their root system and deposit it as particles in their leaves and branches. A Maia detector for x-ray elemental imaging at the Australian Synchrotron clearly showed deposits of gold and other metals in the structure of eucalyptus leaves from the Kalgoorlie region of Western Australia that would have been untraceable using other methods. The microscopic leaf-bound "nuggets" are not worth collecting themselves, but may provide an environmentally benign way of locating subsurface mineral deposits. [48]

Eucalyptus as plantation species

In the 20th century, scientists around the world experimented with eucalyptus species. They hoped to grow them in the tropics, but most experimental results failed until breakthroughs in the 1960s-1980s in species selection, silviculture, and breeding programs "unlocked" the potential of eucalypts in the tropics. Prior to then, as Brett Bennett noted in a 2010 article, eucalypts were something of the "El Dorado" of forestry. Today, eucalyptus is the most widely planted type of tree in plantations around the world, [49] in South America (mainly in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), South Africa, Australia, India, Galicia, Portugal and many more. [50]

North America

California

In the 1850s, Eucalyptus trees were introduced to California by Australians during the California Gold Rush. Much of California has a similar climate to parts of Australia. By the early 1900s, thousands of acres of eucalypts were planted with the encouragement of the state government. It was hoped that they would provide a renewable source of timber for construction, furniture making and railroad ties. It was soon found that for the latter purpose eucalyptus was particularly unsuitable, as the ties made from eucalyptus had a tendency to twist while drying, and the dried ties were so tough that it was nearly impossible to hammer rail spikes into them.

They went on to note that the promise of eucalyptus in California was based on the old virgin forests of Australia. This was a mistake, as the young trees being harvested in California could not compare in quality to the centuries-old eucalyptus timber of Australia. It reacted differently to harvest. The older trees didn't split or warp as the infant California crop did. There was a vast difference between the two, and this would doom the California eucalyptus industry. [51]

One way in which the eucalyptus, mainly the blue gum E. globulus , proved valuable in California was in providing windbreaks for highways, orange groves, and farms in the mostly treeless central part of the state. They are also admired as shade and ornamental trees in many cities and gardens.

Eucalyptus plantations in California have been criticised, because they compete with native plants and do not support native animals. Fire is also a problem. The 1991 Oakland Hills firestorm, which destroyed almost 3,000 homes and killed 25 people, was partly fuelled by large numbers of eucalypts close to the houses. [52]

In some parts of California, eucalypt plantations are being removed and native trees and plants restored. Individuals have also illegally destroyed some trees and are suspected of introducing insect pests from Australia which attack the trees. [53]

Certain eucalyptus species may also be grown for ornament in warmer parts of the Pacific Northwest — western Washington, western Oregon and southwestern British Columbia.

South America

Uruguay

Antonio Lussich introduced Eucalyptus into Uruguay in approximately 1896, throughout what is now Maldonado Department, and it has spread all over the south-eastern and eastern coast. There had been no trees in the area because it consisted of dry sand dunes and stones. Lussich also introduced many other trees, particularly Acacia and pines, but they have not expanded so extensively.

Uruguayan forestry crops using eucalyptus species have been promoted since 1989, when the new National Forestry Law established that 20% of the national territory would be dedicated to forestry. As the main landscape of Uruguay is grassland (140,000 km2, 87% of the national territory), most of the forestry plantations would be established in prairie regions. [54] [55] [56] The planting of Eucalyptus sp. has been criticised because of concerns that soil would be degraded by nutrient depletion and other biological changes. [55] [56] [57] During the last ten years, in the northwestern regions of Uruguay the Eucalyptus sp. plantations have reached annual forestation rates of 300%. That zone has a potential forested area of 1 million hectares, approximately 29% of the national territory dedicated to forestry, of which approximately 800,000 hectares are currently forested by monoculture of Eucalyptus spp. [58] It is expected that the radical and durable substitution of vegetation cover leads to changes in the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. Such changes may also influence soil fertility and soil physical and chemical properties. The soil quality effects associated with Eucalyptus sp. plantations could have adverse effects on soil chemistry; [57] [59] [60] for example: soil acidification, [61] [62] [63] iron leaching, allelopathic activities [62] and a high C:N ratio of litter. [59] [64] [65] [66] Additionally, as most scientific understanding of land cover change effects is related to ecosystems where forests were replaced by grasslands or crops, or grassland was replaced by crops, the environmental effects of the current Uruguayan land cover changes are not well understood. [67] The first scientific publication on soil studies in western zone tree plantations (focused on pulp production) appeared in 2004 and described soil acidification and soil carbon changes, [68] similar to a podzolisation process, and destruction of clay (illite-like minerals), which is the main reservoir of potassium in the soil. [69] Although these studies were carried out in an important zone for forest cultivation, they cannot define the current situation in the rest of the land area under eucalyptus cultivation. Moreover, recently Jackson and Jobbagy have proposed another adverse environmental impact that may result from Eucalyptus culture on prairie soils — stream acidification. [70]

The eucalyptus species most planted are E. grandis, E. globulus and E. dunnii; they are used mainly for pulp mills. Approximately 80,000 ha of E. grandis situated in the departments of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Paysandú is primarily earmarked for the solid wood market, although a portion of it is used for sawlogs and plywood. The current area under commercial forest plantation is 6% of the total. The main uses of the wood produced are elemental chlorine free pulp mill production (for cellulose and paper), sawlogs, plywood and bioenergy (thermoelectric generation). Most of the products obtained from sawmills and pulp mills, as well as plywood and logs, are exported. This has raised the income of this sector with respect to traditional products from other sectors. Uruguayan forestry plantations have rates of growth of 30 cubic metres per hectare per year and commercial harvesting occurs after nine years.

Brazil
A c. 13-year-old plantation, in Taubaté, São Paulo Plantação de Eucalipto, Parque do Itaim - Taubaté.jpg
A c. 13-year-old plantation, in Taubaté, São Paulo

Eucalypts were introduced to Brazil in 1910, for timber substitution and the charcoal industry. It has thrived in the local environment, and today there are around 7 million hectares planted. The wood is highly valued by the charcoal and pulp and paper industries. The short rotation allows a larger wood production and supplies wood for several other activities, helping to preserve the native forests from logging. When well managed, the plantation soils can sustain endless replanting. Eucalyptus plantings are also used as wind breaks. Brazil's plantations have world-record rates of growth, typically over 40 cubic metres per hectare per year, [71] and commercial harvesting occurs after years 5. Due to continual development and governmental funding, year-on-year growth is consistently being improved. Eucalyptus can produce up to 100 cubic metres per hectare per year. Brazil has become the top exporter and producer of Eucalyptus round wood and pulp, and has played an important role in developing the Australian market through the country's[ clarification needed ] committed research in this area. The local iron producers in Brazil rely heavily on sustainably grown Eucalyptus for charcoal; this has greatly pushed up the price of charcoal in recent years. The plantations are generally owned and operated for national and international industry by timber asset companies such as Thomson Forestry, Greenwood Management or cellulose producers such as Aracruz Cellulose and Stora Enso.[ citation needed ]

Overall, South America was expected to produce 55% of the world's Eucalyptus round-wood by 2010. Many environmental NGOs have criticised the use of exotic tree species for forestry in Latin America. [72]

Africa

Ethiopia. Eucalypts were introduced to Ethiopia in either 1894 or 1895, either by Emperor Menelik II's French advisor Mondon-Vidailhet or by the Englishman Captain O'Brian. Menelik II endorsed its planting around his new capital city of Addis Ababa because of the massive deforestation around the city for firewood. According to Richard R.K. Pankhurst, "The great advantage of the eucalypts was that they were fast growing, required little attention and when cut down grew up again from the roots; it could be harvested every ten years. The tree proved successful from the onset". [73] Plantations of eucalypts spread from the capital to other growing urban centres such as Debre Marqos. Pankhurst reports that the most common species found in Addis Ababa in the mid-1960s was E. globulus , although he also found E. melliodora and E. rostrata in significant numbers. David Buxton, writing of central Ethiopia in the mid-1940s, observed that eucalyptus trees "have become an integral -- and a pleasing -- element in the Shoan landscape and has largely displaced the slow-growing native 'cedar' Juniperus procera )." [74]

It was commonly believed that the thirst of the Eucalyptus "tended to dry up rivers and wells", creating such opposition to the species that in 1913 a proclamation was issued ordering a partial destruction of all standing trees, and their replacement with mulberry trees. Pankhurst reports, "The proclamation however remained a dead letter; there is no evidence of eucalypts being uprooted, still less of mulberry trees being planted." [75] Eucalypts remain a defining feature of Addis Ababa.

Madagascar. Much of Madagascar's original native forest has been replaced with Eucalyptus, threatening biodiversity by isolating remaining natural areas such as Andasibe-Mantadia National Park.

South Africa. Numerous Eucalyptus species have been introduced into South Africa, mainly for timber and firewood but also for ornamental purposes. They are popular with beekeepers for the honey they provide. [76] However, in South Africa they are considered invasive, with their water-sucking capabilities threatening water supplies. They also release a chemical into the surrounding soil which kills native competitors. [10]

Eucalyptus seedlings are usually unable to compete with the indigenous grasses, but after a fire when the grass cover has been removed, a seed-bed may be created. The following Eucalyptus species have been able to become naturalised in South Africa: E. camaldulensis , E. cladocalyx , E. diversicolor , E. grandis and E. lehmannii . [76]

Zimbabwe. As in South Africa, many Eucalyptus species have been introduced into Zimbabwe, mainly for timber and firewood, and E. robusta and E. tereticornis have been recorded as having become naturalised there. [76]

Europe

In continental Portugal, the Azores and continental Spain (especially in Cantabria, Biscay, Asturias and Galicia in the north, and Huelva in Andalusia) farmland has been replaced with eucalypt plantations since their introduction by Rosendo Salvado in the 19th century.[ citation needed ]

In Italy, the eucalyptus only arrived at the turn of the 19th century and large scale plantations were started at the beginning of the 20th century with the aim of drying up swampy ground to defeat malaria.[ citation needed ] During the 1930s, Benito Mussolini had thousands of eucalyptus plants planted in the marshes around Rome. [77] This, their rapid growth in the Italian climate and excellent function as windbreaks, has made them a common sight in the south of the country, including the islands of Sardinia and Sicily.[ citation needed ] They are also valued for the characteristic smelling and tasting honey that is produced from them.[ citation needed ] The variety of eucalyptus most commonly found in Italy is E. camaldulensis . [78]

In Greece, eucalypts are widely found, especially in southern Greece and Crete. They are cultivated and used for various purposes, including as an ingredient in pharmaceutical products (e.g., creams, elixirs and sprays) and for leather production. They were imported in 1862 by botanist Theodoros Georgios Orphanides. The principal species is Eucalyptus globulus.

Eucalyptus has been grown in Ireland since trials in the 1930s and now grows wild in South Western Ireland in the mild climate.

Asia

A 2-year old clonal block plantation near Kattumunnur in Karur. Kattumunnur Euca.jpg
A 2-year old clonal block plantation near Kattumunnur in Karur.

Eucalyptus seeds of the species E. globulus were imported into Palestine in the 1860s, but did not acclimatise well. [79] Later, E. camaldulensis was introduced more successfully and it is still a very common tree in Israel. [79] The use of eucalyptus trees to drain swampy land was a common practice in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. [79] [80] The German Templer colony of Sarona had begun planting eucalyptus for this purpose by 1874, though it is not known where the seeds came from. [81] Many Zionist colonies also adopted the practice in the following years under the guidance of the Mikveh Israel Agricultural School. [79] [80]

In India, the Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore started a eucalyptus breeding program in the 1990s. The organisation released four varieties of conventionally bred, high yielding and genetically improved clones for commercial and research interests in 2010. [82] [83] [84]

Eucalyptus trees were introduced to Sri Lanka in the late 19th century by tea and coffee planters, for wind protection, shade and fuel. Forestry replanting of eucalyptus began in the 1930s in deforested mountain areas, and currently there are about 10 species present in the island. They account for 20% of major reforestation plantings. They provide railway sleepers, utility poles, sawn timber and fuelwood, but are controversial because of their adverse effect on biodiversity, hydrology and soil fertility. They are associated with another invasive species, the eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa. [85] [86]

Pacific Islands

Hawaii Some 90 species of eucalyptus have been introduced to the islands, where they have displaced some native species due to their higher maximum height, fast growth and lower water needs. Particularly noticeable is the rainbow eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus deglupta ), native to Indonesia and the Philippines, whose bark falls off to reveal a trunk that can be green, red, orange, yellow, pink and purple. [87]

Nonnative eucalyptus and biodiversity

Due to similar favourable climatic conditions, Eucalyptus plantations have often replaced oak woodlands, for example in California, Spain and Portugal. The resulting monocultures have raised concerns about loss of biological diversity, through loss of acorns that mammals and birds feed on, absence of hollows that in oak trees provide shelter and nesting sites for birds and small mammals and for bee colonies, as well as lack of downed trees in managed plantations. A study of the relationship between birds and eucalyptus in the San Francisco Bay Area found that bird diversity was similar in native forest vs. eucalyptus forest but the species were different. [88] One way in which the avifauna changes is that cavity nesting birds including woodpeckers, owls, chickadees, wood ducks, etc. are depauperate in eucalyptus groves because the decay-resistant wood of these trees prevents cavity formation by decay or excavation. Also those bird species that glean insects from foliage, such as warblers and vireos, have population declines when eucalyptus replace oak forest. Birds that do well in eucalyptus groves in California like tall vertical habitat like herons and egrets (possibly because redwood trees are less available), or have longer bills, which may play a role in preventing their nostrils from being clogged by eucalyptus resin/pitch. [89] The Point Reyes Bird Observatory observes that sometimes short-billed birds like the ruby-crowned kinglet are found dead beneath eucalyptus trees with their nostrils clogged with pitch. [32]

Monarch butterflies use eucalyptus in California for over-wintering, but in some locations have a preference for Monterey pines. [32]

History

Although eucalypts must have been seen by the very early European explorers and collectors, no botanical collections of them are known to have been made until 1770 when Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander arrived at Botany Bay with Captain James Cook. There they collected specimens of E. gummifera and later, near the Endeavour River in northern Queensland, E. platyphylla; neither of these species was named as such at the time.

In 1777, on Cook's third expedition, David Nelson collected a eucalypt on Bruny Island in southern Tasmania. This specimen was taken to the British Museum in London, and was named Eucalyptus obliqua by the French botanist L'Héritier, who was working in London at the time. [90] He coined the generic name from the Greek roots eu and calyptos, meaning "well" and "covered" in reference to the operculum of the flower bud which protects the developing flower parts as the flower develops and is shed by the pressure of the emerging stamens at flowering. It was most likely an accident that L'Héritier chose a feature common to all eucalypts.

The name obliqua was derived from the Latin obliquus, meaning "oblique", which is the botanical term describing a leaf base where the two sides of the leaf blade are of unequal length and do not meet the petiole at the same place.

E. obliqua was published in 1788-89, which coincided with the first official European settlement of Australia. Between then and the turn of the 19th century, several more species of Eucalyptus were named and published. Most of these were by the English botanist James Edward Smith and most were, as might be expected, trees of the Sydney region. These include the economically valuable E. pilularis, E. saligna and E. tereticornis.

The first endemic Western Australian Eucalyptus to be collected and subsequently named was the Yate ( E. cornuta ) by the French botanist Jacques Labillardière, who collected in what is now the Esperance area in 1792. [13]

Several Australian botanists were active during the 19th century, particularly Ferdinand von Mueller, whose work on eucalypts contributed greatly to the first comprehensive account of the genus in George Bentham's Flora Australiensis in 1867. The account is the most important early systematic treatment of the genus. Bentham divided it into five series whose distinctions were based on characteristics of the stamens, particularly the anthers (Mueller, 1879–84), work elaborated by Joseph Henry Maiden (1903–33) and still further by William Faris Blakely (1934). The anther system became too complex to be workable and more recent systematic work has concentrated on the characteristics of buds, fruits, leaves and bark.

See also

Notes

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<i>Eucalyptus regnans</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus regnans, known variously as mountain ash, swamp gum, or stringy gum, is a species of Eucalyptus native to Tasmania and the state of Victoria in southeastern Australia. It is the tallest flowering plant and one of the tallest trees in the world, second only to the coast redwood of North America. A straight-trunked tree with smooth grey bark, but with a stocking of rough brown bark from 5 to 20 metres above the ground, it regularly grows to 85 metres (280 ft), with the tallest living specimen, the Centurion in Tasmania, standing 100.5 metres tall. White flowers appear in autumn. Victorian botanist Ferdinand von Mueller described the species in 1871.

<i>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the river red gum, is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus. It is one of around 800 species within the genus. It is a plantation species in many parts of the world, but is native to Australia, where it has the most widespread natural distribution of Eucalyptus in Australia, especially beside inland water courses. It is named for a private estate garden near the Camaldoli monastery near Naples, from where the first specimen came to be described. Material from this tree was used by Frederick Dehnhardt, Chief Gardener at the Botanic Gardens in Naples, to describe this species in 1832.

<i>Eucalyptus globulus</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus globulus, the Tasmanian bluegum, southern blue-gum or blue gum, is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from 30–55 m (98–180 ft) tall. The tallest currently known specimen in Tasmania is 90.7 m (298 ft) tall. There are historical claims of even taller trees, the tallest being 101 m (331 ft). The natural distribution of the species includes Tasmania and southern Victoria. There are also isolated occurrences on King Island and Flinders Island in Bass Strait and on the summit of the You Yangs near Geelong.

<i>Eucalyptus gunnii</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus gunnii, the cider gum or gunnii, is a species of flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae, endemic to Tasmania, occurring on the plains and slopes of the central plateaux to around 1100 metres, with isolated occurrences south of Hobart.

Eucalyptus obliqua species of plant

Eucalyptus obliqua, commonly known as the brown top, brown top stringbark, messmate, messmate stringybark, stringybark or Tasmanian oak, is a hardwood tree native to south-eastern Australia.

<i>Eucalyptus grandis</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus grandis, commonly known as the flooded gum or rose gum, is a tall tree with smooth bark, rough at the base fibrous or flaky, grey to grey-brown. At maturity, it reaches 50 metres tall, though the largest specimens can exceed 80 metres tall. It is found on coastal areas and sub-coastal ranges from Newcastle in New South Wales northwards to west of Daintree in Queensland, mainly on flat land and lower slopes, where it is the dominant tree of wet forests and on the margins of rain forests.

<i>Eucalyptus botryoides</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus botryoides, commonly known as the Bangalay, bastard jarrah, woollybutt or Southern Mahogany, is a small to tall tree native to southeastern Australia. Reaching up to 40 metres high, it has rough bark on its trunk and branches. It is found on sandstone- or shale-based soils in open woodland, or on more sandy soils behind sand dunes. The white flowers appear in summer and autumn. It reproduces by resprouting from its woody lignotuber or epicormic buds after bushfire. E. botryoides hybridises with the Sydney blue gum in the Sydney region. The hard, durable wood has been used for panelling and flooring.

<i>Eucalyptus rubida</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus rubida, commonly known as Candlebark Gum or simply Candlebark, is a medium-sized eucalypt. It occurs in south-eastern Australia and Tasmania, typically in open woodland around the lower slopes of the Great Dividing Range, but also in taller forests. The subspecies barbigerorum, found in localities in New South Wales, is listed as vulnerable. The common name of E. rubida subsp. barbigerorum is blackbutt candlebark. Companion species include Eucalyptus pauciflora, Eucalyptus melliodora and Eucalyptus bridgesiana.

<i>Eucalyptus robusta</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia. Growing in swampy or waterlogged soils, it is up to 30 m (98 ft) high with thick spongy reddish brown bark and dark green broad leaves, which help form a dense canopy. The white to cream flowers appear in autumn and winter. The leaves are commonly eaten by insects, and are a food item for the koala. It is an important winter-flowering species in eastern Australia, and has been planted extensively in many countries around the world. Its timber is used for firewood and in general construction.

<i>Eucalyptus bicostata</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus bicostata, commonly known as Victorian blue gum, Southern blue gum or Eurabbie, is a eucalypt species native to Victoria and eastern New South Wales, Australia. It grows in wet forests on fertile soils in sheltered areas in ranges away from the coast. Many botanists consider Eucalyptus bicostata to be a subspecies of Eucalyptus globulus. This is supported by the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, but not by Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney where it is considered a distinct species.

<i>Eucalyptus maidenii</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus maidenii, commonly known as Maiden's Gum, is a Eucalypt species native to eastern Victoria and southeastern New South Wales, Australia. It grows in wet forest on fertile soils in valleys in subcoastal ranges.

<i>Eucalyptus nitens</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus nitens, commonly known as shining gum, is a Eucalypt species native to Victoria and eastern New South Wales, Australia. It grows in wet forests and rainforest margins on fertile soils in cool high-rainfall areas.

<i>Angophora floribunda</i> species of plant

Angophora floribunda, commonly known as the rough-barked apple, is a common woodland and forest tree of the family Myrtaceae native to Eastern Australia. Reaching 30 m (100 ft) high, it is a large tree with fibrous bark and cream-white flowers that appear over the Austral summer. It grows on alluvial soils on floodplains and along watercourses. Much of the land it grew on has been cleared for agriculture.

<i>Eucalyptus rossii</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus rossii, commonly known as Inland Scribbly Gum, Western Scribbly Gum, Snappy Gum or White Gum, is a smooth-barked eucalypt of eastern Australia.

<i>Eucalyptus salmonophloia</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus salmonophloia, known as wurak or Salmon Gum is an evergreen tree native to arid regions of Western Australia.

<i>Eucalyptus urophylla</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus urophylla, commonly known as Timor white gum, Timor mountain gum, popo or ampupu, is a species of Eucalypt native to islands of the Indonesian Archipelago and Timor.

<i>Eucalyptus racemosa</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus racemosa, known as the scribbly gum or snappy gum, is a tree native to eastern Australia. An alternative name is narrow leaved scribbly gum, as the leaves are different from the related Eucalyptus haemastoma, a similar and better known tree.

<i>Eucalyptus sclerophylla</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus sclerophylla, known as the scribbly gum, is a tree native to eastern Australia. Very similar to the related Scribbly Gum , a better known tree. The best way of distinguishing the species is the smaller hemispherical to pear shaped gumnuts of Eucalyptus sclerophylla, being 0.6 cm by 0.6 cm in size. Flower buds are also smaller. sclerophylla literally means hard leaf. Both species have hard leaves, but Eucalyptus sclerophylla's leaves are particularly hard edged.

<i>Eucalyptus pulchella</i> species of plant

Eucalyptus pulchella, commonly known as the white peppermint-gum or white peppermint, is a flowering tree in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. An erect, smooth-barked tree, it grows to 20m in height and is recognisable by its very narrow leaves. E. pulchella is a lowland species where it occurs on the upper slopes of well drained sites with a Jurassic dolerite substrate in grassy or heathy open forests. Such sites typically have a north-west facing aspect with exposure to high solar insolation loads resulting in periodic drought stress. This species is locally widespread and endemic to the undulating, hilly terrain of south-east Tasmania.

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