Euclides da Cunha
|Born||January 20, 1866|
Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil
|Died||August 15, 1909 43) (aged|
Piedade, Rio de Janeiro
Euclides da Cunha Portuguese: [ewˈklidʒiʒ dɐ ˈkũɲɐ] , January 20, 1866 – August 15, 1909) was a Brazilian journalist, sociologist and engineer. His most important work is Os Sertões (Rebellion in the Backlands), a non-fictional account of the military expeditions promoted by the Brazilian government against the rebellious village of Canudos, known as the War of Canudos.(
This book was a favorite of Robert Lowell, who ranked it above Tolstoy. Jorge Luis Borges also commented on it in his short story "Three Versions of Judas". The book was translated into English by Samuel Putnam and published by the University of Chicago Press in 1944. It remains in print. He was heavily influenced by Naturalism and its Darwinian proponents. Os Sertões characterised the coast of Brazil as a chain of civilisations while the interior remained more primitive. He occupied the 7th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1903 until his death in 1909.
He served as inspiration for the character of The Journalist in Mario Vargas Llosa's The War of the End of the World .
Euclides da Cunha was born January 20, 1866 in Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he lived until he was three years old.His grandparents were of Portuguese origin. He attended Escola Militar da Praia Vermelha, a military school in Rio, beginning in 1886. He was expelled from the military school in 1888, due to his participation in an act of protest during a visit of the Brazilian War Minister, Tomás Coelho , who was a member of the last Conservative cabinet of the Brazilian Empire. He was readmitted to the Escola Militar in 1889. He was admitted to the Brazilian War School (Escola de Guerra) in 1891 . He was discharged from the Army in 1896 in order to dedicate himself to studying civil engineering.
In 1897 he accompanied the Army in the Campanha de Canudos, against a rebellious group of peasants under the leadership of Antonio Conselheiro. Between 7 August and 1 October, he was in the Sertão ("backland"), as war correspondent for the O Estado de S. Paulo newspaper.In 1903 he was elected to the Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Academy of Letters) and the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico, the Historical and Geographic Institute In 1909 he was admitted as chairman and professor of Logic at the Colégio Pedro II, a public secondary school in Rio.
Euclides da Cunha married Ana Emília Ribeiro, daughter of major Sólon Ribeiro, in 1890. The couple had five children. Ana Emília had an affair with Dilermando de Assis, a young Army lieutenant. On August 15, 1909, finding about his wife's affair, da Cunha went to Assis' house to kill him. He shot Assis and his brother Dinorah, failing to kill either. Assis shot da Cunha when Euclides had already left his house, and the writer was killed. According to historian Susanna Hecht's account, there was doubt whether Dilermando murdered a fleeing man who had run out of bullets, or whether Euclides still was a threat to Dilermando (which would make the murder self-defense.) The jury decided for the latter scenario and acquitted Dilermando.Da Cunha was 43 years old.
Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country's independence in 1822. Throughout its early years, literature from Brazil followed the literary trends of Portugal, whereas gradually shifting to a different and authentic writing style in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in the search for truly Brazilian themes and use of Brazilian forms.
A sertão is the "hinterland" or "backcountry". In Brazil, it refers to one of the four sub-regions of the Northeast Region of Brazil. Northeast Brazil is largely covered in a scrubby upland forest called a caatingas. Its borders are not precise. It is an economically poor region that is well-known in Brazilian culture, with a rich history and much folklore, something like the American South. The sertão is also detailed within the famous book of Brazilian literature Os sertões, which was written by the Brazilian author Euclides da Cunha.
Ludwig Gumplowicz, was a Polish sociologist,jurist and political scientist, who taught constitutional and administrative law at the University of Graz.
Antônio Conselheiro, in English "Anthony the Counselor", real name Antônio Vicente Mendes Maciel was a Brazilian religious leader, preacher, and founder of the village of Canudos, the scene of the War of Canudos (1896–1897), a civil rebellion against the central government which was brutally stamped out with the loss of more than 15,000 lives.
Canudos is a municipality in the northeast region of Bahia, Brazil. The original town, since flooded by the Cocorobó Dam, was the scene of violent clashes between peasants and republican police in the 1890s.
The War of Canudos was a conflict between the First Brazilian Republic and the residents of Canudos in the northeastern state of Bahia. After a number of unsuccessful attempts at military suppression, the conflict came to a brutal end in October 1897, when a large subsection of the Brazilian army overran the village, razed it and slaughtered nearly all its inhabitants. This conflict marks the deadliest civil war in Brazilian history.
José Pereira da Graça Aranha was a Brazilian writer and diplomat, considered to be a forerunner of the Modernism in Brazil. He was also one of the organizers of the Brazilian Modern Art Week of 1922.
Os Sertões, translated as Rebellion in the Backlands, is a book written by the Brazilian author Euclides da Cunha. Mixing science and literature, the author narrates the story of a war that happened in the end of the 19th century, in Canudos, a settlement of Bahia's Sertão ("backland"), an extremely arid region where, even now, struggles against poverty, drought and political corruption continue. During the war (1893–1897) against the republican army, the sertanejos were commanded by a messianic leader called Antonio Conselheiro.
The Instituto Militar de Engenharia is an engineering institute maintained by the Brazilian Army with federal support. IME is the oldest and one of the best ranked engineering schools in Brazil, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Education, having systematically achieved first place in several of its engineering degrees. Its current campus is located in Urca, Rio de Janeiro, right across the entrance to the very famous Sugar Loaf cable car.
The Proclamation of the Republic was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic on 15 November 1889. It overthrew the constitutional monarchy of the Empire of Brazil and ended the reign of Emperor Pedro II.
Events in the year 1896 in Brazil.
Events in the year 1897 in Brazil.
Events in the year 1902 in Brazil.
Events of the year 1909 in the Brazil.
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"The granite hump of Providencia gazes down like a stern guardian on the old port of Rio de Janeiro. It offers probably the finest viewpoint over any city I know."
Drought Cycle is the name given to the "drought novels cycle," a Brazilian literary era that had as main theme the life in the Brazilian backlands.
José Celso Martinez Corrêa, known as Zé Celso, is a Brazilian stage actor, director and playwright. He was one of the founders of Teatro Oficina, an innovative and politically active theater company associated with the 1960s Tropicalismo movement.
Vale of Tears: Revisiting the Canudos Massacre in Northeastern Brazil, 1893–1897 is a book by historian Robert M. Levine published by the University of California Press in 1992. The book goes into detail of the Massacre that occurred in the Northeastern state of Bahia. Focused on the events from 1893-1897, the book looks at the life of Antônio Conselheiro and the city that he created. Antônio Conselheiro was a Brazilian religious leader, preacher, and the creator of Canudos, the scene of the War of Canudos (1896-1897). This war was between the state of Brazil and the 30,000 settlers that followed Antônio Conselheiro. After multiple confrontations the central government brutally took control of the city killing more than 15,000 people and destroying what was left of the town.
Mary Lucy Murray Del Priore is a Brazilian historian and teacher. She wrote several books on the history of everyday Brazilian people during the colonial, imperial and Republican periods.
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Valentim Magalhães (founder)
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Occupant of the 7th chair
1903 — 1909