|Eugénie de Montijo|
|16th Countess of Teba and 15th Marchioness of Ardales|
The Empress Eugénie in 1862
|Empress consort of the French|
|Tenure||30 January 1853 – 4 September 1870|
|Born||5 May 1826|
Granada, Kingdom of Spain
|Died||11 July 1920 94) (aged|
Madrid, Kingdom of Spain
Napoléon III, Emperor of the French
(m. 1853;died 1873)
|Issue||Louis Napoléon, Prince Imperial|
|House||Bonaparte (by marriage)|
|Father||Cipriano de Palafox y Portocarrero, 8th count of Montijo|
|Mother||María Manuela Kirkpatrick de Grevignée|
Doña María Eugenia Ignacia Agustina de Palafox y Kirkpatrick, 16th Countess of Teba, 15th Marchioness of Ardales (5 May 1826 – 11 July 1920), known as Eugénie de Montijo (French: [øʒeni də montiχo] ), was the last empress of the French (1853–1870) as the wife of Emperor Napoleon III.
The last empress of the French was born in Granada, Spain to Don Cipriano de Palafox y Portocarrero (1785–1839), Grandee, whose titles included 15th duke of Peñaranda de Duero, 8th count of Ablitas, 9th count of Montijo, 15th count of Teba, 8th count of Fuentidueña, 14th marquess of Ardales, 17th marquess of Moya and 13th marquess of la Algaba [ citation needed ] (1764–1837), who became United States consul to Málaga, and later was a wholesale wine merchant, and his wife, Marie Françoise de Grevigné (born 1769), daughter of Liège-born Henri, Baron de Grevigné and wife Doña Francisca Antonia de Gallegos (1751–1853).and his half-Scottish, quarter-Belgian, quarter-Spanish wife (whom he married on 15 December 1817), María Manuela Enriqueta Kirkpatrick de Closbourn y de Grevigné (24 February 1794 – 22 November 1879), a daughter of the Scots-born William Kirkpatrick of Closeburn
Eugenia's older sister, María Francisca de Sales de Palafox Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick, nicknamed "Paca" (24 January 1825 – 16 September 1860), who inherited most of the family honours and was 12th duchess of Peñaranda Grandee of Spain and 9th countess of Montijo, title later ceded to her sister, married the 15th duke of Alba in 1849. Until her marriage in 1853, Eugénie variously used the titles of countess of Teba or countess of Montijo, but some family titles were inherited by her elder sister, through which they passed to the House of Alba. After the death of her father, Eugenia became the 9th countess of Teba, and is named as such in the Almanach de Gotha (1901 edition). After Eugenia's demise, all titles of the Montijo family came to the Fitz-Jameses (the dukes of Alba and Berwick).
On 18 July 1834, María Manuela and her daughters left Madrid for Paris, fleeing a cholera outbreak and the dangers of the First Carlist War. The previous day, Eugenia had witnessed a riot and murder in the square outside their residence, Casa Ariza.
Eugénie de Montijo, as she became known in France, was formally educated mostly in Paris, beginning at the fashionable, traditionalist Convent of the Sacré Cœur from 1835 to 1836. A more compatible school was the progressive Gymnase Normal, Civil et Orthosomatique, from 1836 to 1837, which appealed to her athletic side (a school report praised her strong liking for athletic exercise, and although an indifferent student, that her character was "good, generous, active and firm").In 1837, Eugénie and Paca briefly attended a boarding school for girls on Royal York Crescent in Clifton, Bristol, to learn English. Eugénie was teased as "Carrots", for her red hair, and tried to run away to India, making it as far as climbing on board a ship at Bristol docks. In August 1837 they returned to school in Paris. However, much of the girls' education took place at home, under the tutelage of English governesses Miss Cole and Miss Flowers, and family friends such as Prosper Mérimée and Henri Beyle.
In March 1839, on the death of their father in Madrid, the girls left Paris to rejoin their mother there.In Spain, Eugénie grew up into a headstrong and physically daring young woman, devoted to horseriding and a range of other sports. She was rescued from drowning, and twice attempted suicide after romantic disappointments. She was very interested in politics and became devoted to the Bonapartist cause, under the influence of Eleanore Gordon, a former mistress of Louis Napoléon. Because her mother's role as a lavish society hostess, Eugénie became acquainted with Isabel II and the prime minister Ramón Narváez. María Manuela was increasingly anxious to find a husband for her daughter, and took her on trips to Paris again in 1849 and England in 1851.
She first met Prince Louis Napoléon after he had become president of the Second Republic with her mother at a reception given by the "prince-president" at the Élysée Palace on 12 April 1849.Her beauty attracted Louis Napoleon, who, as was his custom, tried to seduce her, but Eugénie told him to wait for marriage. "What is the road to your heart?" Napoleon demanded to know. "Through the chapel, Sire", she answered.
In a speech on 22 January 1853, Napoleon III, after having become emperor, formally announced his engagement, saying "I have preferred a woman whom I love and respect to a woman unknown to me, with whom an alliance would have had advantages mixed with sacrifices".They were wed on 29 January 1853 in a civil ceremony at the Tuileries, and on the 30th, there was a grander religious ceremony at Notre Dame.
The marriage had come after considerable activity with regard to who would make a suitable match, often toward titled royals and with an eye to foreign policy. The final choice was opposed in many quarters and Eugénie considered of too little social standing by some. [ citation needed ]In the United Kingdom, The Times made light of the latter concern, emphasizing that the parvenu Bonapartes were marrying into Grandees and one of the most important established houses in the peerage of Spain: "We learn with some amusement that this romantic event in the annals of the French Empire has called forth the strongest opposition, and provoked the utmost irritation. The Imperial family, the Council of Ministers, and even the lower coteries of the palace or its purlieus, all affect to regard this marriage as an amazing humiliation..."
Eugénie found childbearing extraordinarily difficult. An initial miscarriage in 1853, after a three-month pregnancy, frightened and soured her.On 16 March 1856, after a two-day labor that endangered mother and child and from which Eugénie made a very slow recovery, the empress gave birth to an only son, Napoléon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph Bonaparte, styled Prince Impérial.
After marriage, it didn't take long for her husband to stray as Eugénie found sex with him "disgusting".It is doubtful that she allowed further approaches by her husband once she had given him an heir. He subsequently resumed his "petites distractions" with other women.
Eugénie faithfully performed the duties of an empress, entertaining guests and accompanying the emperor to balls, opera, and theater. After her marriage, her ladies-in-waiting consisted of six (later 12) dames du palais , most of whom were chosen from among the acquaintances to the empress before her marriage, headed by the Grand-Maitresse Anne Debelle, Princesse d'Essling, and the dame d'honneur, Pauline de Bassano.
She traveled to Egypt to open the Suez Canal and officially represented her husband whenever he traveled outside France. She strongly advocated equality for women; she pressured the Ministry of National Education to give the first baccalaureate diploma to a woman and tried unsuccessfully to induce the Académie française to elect the writer George Sand as its first female member.
Her husband often consulted her on important questions, and she acted as regent during his absences in 1859, 1865 and 1870. In 1860, she visited Algiers with Napoleon.A Catholic and a conservative, her influence countered any liberal tendencies in the emperor's policies.
She was a staunch defender of papal temporal powers in Italy and of ultramontanism. She was blamed for the fiasco of the French intervention in Mexico and the eventual death of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.However, the assertion of her clericalism and influence on the side of conservatism is often countered by other authors.
In 1868, Empress Eugénie visited the Dolmabahçe Palace in Constantinople, the home to Pertevniyal Sultan, mother of Abdülaziz, 32nd sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Pertevniyal became outraged by the forwardness of Eugénie taking the arm of one of her sons while he gave a tour of the palace garden, and she gave the empress a slap on the stomach as a reminder that they were not in France.According to another account, Pertevniyal perceived the presence of a foreign woman within her quarters of the seraglio as an insult. She reportedly slapped Eugénie across the face, almost resulting in an international incident.
In 1854, the Emperor Napoleon III and Eugénie bought several acres of dunes in Biarritz and gave the engineer Dagueret the task of establishing a summer home surrounded by gardens, woods, meadows, a pond and outbuildings.Napoleon III chose the location near Spain so his wife would not get homesick for her native country. The house was called the Villa Eugénie, today the Hôtel du Palais. The presence of the imperial couple attracted other European royalty like the British monarchs Queen Victoria and the Spanish king Alfonso XIII and made Biarritz well-known.
After the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Eugénie remained in Paris as Regent while Napoleon III and the Prince Imperial travelled to join the troops at the German front. When the news of several French defeats reached Paris on 7 August, it was greeted with disbelief and dismay. Prime Minister Émile Ollivier and the chief of staff of the army, Marshal Le Bœuf both resigned and Eugenie took it upon herself to name a new government. She chose General Cousin-Montauban, better known as the count of Palikao, 74 years old, as her new prime minister. The count of Palikao named Maréchal Francois Achille Bazaine, the commander of the French forces in Lorraine, as the new overall military commander. Napoleon III proposed returning to Paris, realizing that he was doing no good for the army. The empress responded by telegraph: "Don't think of coming back, unless you want to unleash a terrible revolution. They will say you quit the army to flee the danger." The emperor agreed to remain with the army.With the empress directing the country, and Bazaine commanding the army, the emperor no longer had any real role to play. At the front, the emperor told Marshal Le Bœuf "we've both been dismissed."
The army was ultimately defeated and Napoleon III gave himself up to the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan. The news of the capitulation reached Paris on 3 September, and when it was given to the empress that the emperor and the army were prisoners, she reacted by shouting at the Emperor's personal aide "No! An emperor does not capitulate! He is dead!...They are trying to hide it from me. Why didn't he kill himself! Doesn't he know he has dishonored himself?!".Later, when hostile crowds formed near the Tuileries palace, and the staff began to flee, the empress slipped out with one of her entourage and sought sanctuary with her American dentist, Thomas W. Evans, who took her to Deauville. From there, on 7 September, she took the yacht of a British official to England. In the meantime, on 4 September, a group of republican deputies proclaimed the return of the Republic, and the creation of a Government of National Defense.
From 5 September 1870 until 19 March 1871, Napoleon III and his entourage including Joseph Bonaparte's grandson Louis Joseph Benton, were held in comfortable captivity in a castle at Wilhelmshöhe, near Kassel. Eugénie traveled incognito to Germany to visit Napoleon.
When the Second Empire was overthrown after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the empress and her husband took permanent refuge in England, and settled at Camden Place in Chislehurst, Kent. Her husband, Napoleon III, died in 1873, and her son died in 1879 while fighting in the Zulu War in South Africa. In 1885, she moved to Farnborough, Hampshire, and to the Villa Cyrnos (named after the ancient Greek for Corsica), which was built for her at Cape Martin, between Menton and Nice, where she lived in retirement, abstaining from politics. Her house in Farnborough is now an independent Catholic girls' school, Farnborough Hill.
After the deaths of her husband and son, as her health started to deteriorate, she spent some time at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight; her physician recommended she visit Bournemouth which was, in Victorian times, famed as a health spa resort. During her afternoon visit in 1881, she called on the queen of Sweden, at her residence 'Crag Head'.
Her deposed family's friendly association with the United Kingdom was commemorated in 1887 when she became the godmother of Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg (1887–1969), daughter of Princess Beatrice, who later became queen consort of Alfonso XIII of Spain. She was also close to Empress Consort Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia, who last visited her, along with Emperor Nicholas II, in 1909.
On the outbreak of World War I, she donated her steam yacht Thistle to the British Navy. She funded a military hospital at Farnborough Hill as well as making large donations to French hospitals, for which she was conferred the Order of the British Empire (GBE) in 1919.
The former empress died in July 1920, aged 94, during a visit to her relative the 17th duke of Alba, at the Liria Palace in Madrid in her native Spain, and she is interred in the Imperial Crypt at St Michael's Abbey, Farnborough, with her husband and her son.
Eugenie lived long enough to see the collapse of other European monarchies after World War I, such as those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. She left her possessions to various relatives: her Spanish estates went to the grandsons of her sister Paca; the house in Farnborough with all collections to the heir of her son, Prince Victor Bonaparte; Villa Cyrnos to his sister Princess Laetitia of Aosta. Liquid assets were divided into three parts and given to the above relatives except the sum of 100,000 francs bequeathed to the Committee for Rebuilding the Cathedral of Reims.[ citation needed ]
The empress has been commemorated in space; the asteroid 45 Eugenia was named after her,and its moon Petit-Prince after the prince imperial.
She had an extensive and unique jewelry collection, [ citation needed ] De Heeren collected jewelry and was fond of the empress as both were considered to be the "Queens of Biarritz"; both spent summers on the Côte Basque. Impressed by the elegance, style and design of the jewelry of the neo-classical era, in 1858 she had a boutique in the Royal Palace under the name Royale Collections.[ citation needed ]most of which later was owned by the Brazilian socialite Aimée de Heeren.
She was honoured by John Gould who gave the white-headed fruit dove the scientific name Ptilinopus eugeniae.
Named for the empress, the Eugénie hat is a style of women's chapeau worn dramatically tilted and drooped over one eye; its brim is folded up sharply at both sides in the style of a riding topper, often with one long ostrich plume streaming behind it.The hat was popularized by film star Greta Garbo and enjoyed a vogue in the early 1930s, becoming "hysterically popular". More representative of the empress' actual apparel, however, was the late 19th-century fashion of the Eugénie paletot , a women's greatcoat with bell sleeves and a single button enclosure at the neck.
In the 1939 film Juarez , Eugenie was portrayed by Gale Sondergaard as a ruthless monarch, glad to help her husband in his scheme to control Mexico.
Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I and cousin of Napoleon II, was the first President of France, from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch, from 1852 to 1870. First elected President of the French Second Republic in 1848, he seized power in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected, and became the Emperor of the French. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only Emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the French overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the Second Italian War of Independence.
Napoléon, Prince Imperial, also known as Louis-Napoléon, was the only child of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, and Empress Eugénie. After his father was dethroned in 1870, he relocated with his family to England. On his father's death in January 1873, he was proclaimed by the Bonapartist faction as Emperor Napoleon IV.
Charlotte of Belgium was a Belgian princess who became Empress of Mexico when her husband accepted the Imperial Throne of Mexico and reigned as Maximilian I of Mexico.
The Crown of Empress Eugénie is the consort crown that was made for Eugénie de Montijo, the empress consort of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Although neither she nor her husband had a coronation ceremony, a crown was specially created for her on the occasion of the 1855 Exposition Universelle in Paris. The gold crown is set with diamonds and emeralds in eagle and palmette motifs, and it is topped by a globus cruciger.
There were three Imperial Orders of the Mexican Empire, created to reward Heads of state and prominent people during the two periods of the Mexican Empire – the Imperial Order of Guadalupe, the Imperial Order of the Mexican Eagle, and the Imperial Order of Saint Charles.
Saint Michael's Abbey is a Benedictine abbey in Farnborough, Hampshire, England. The small community is known for the quality of its liturgy, which is sung in Latin and Gregorian chant, its pipe organ, and its liturgical publishing and printing. St Michael's is the site of England's National Shrine to Saint Joseph.
The line of succession to the throne of the French Empire was vested in the descendants and relations of Napoleon Bonaparte until the abolition of the Second French Empire in 1870.
DoñaMaría Manuela Enriqueta Kirkpatrick de Grevignée, Countess of Montijo, was the mother of Eugénie, Empress of the French.
Princess Marie Amelie of Baden was the youngest daughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and Stéphanie de Beauharnais,. In 1843, she married the Scottish nobleman William Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale. They became the Duke and Duchess of Hamilton upon the death of William's father in 1852. Their only daughter Mary married the future Albert I, Prince of Monaco and was the mother of Louis II.
Pauline Marie Ghislaine de Bassano, née van der Linden d'Hooghvorst, was a French courtier. She served as dame d'honneur to Empress Eugénie de Montijo in 1853–1867.
Marie-Anne Walewska, Duchess Colonna-Walewski, née di Ricci, (1823–1912), was a French courtier and royal mistress. She served as Première dame d'honneur to Empress Eugénie de Montijo in 1868–1870, and was the last to perform this function in France. She is also known for her relationship to Emperor Napoleon III of France in 1857–1861.
Anne Debelle, Princesse d'Essling, was a French courtier. She served as Grand-Maitresse to Empress Eugénie de Montijo in 1853-1870.
The Crown of Napoleon III was a crown that was made for Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Although he did not have a coronation ceremony, a crown was made for him on the occasion of the 1855 Exposition Universelle in Paris. The gold crown had eagle-shaped arches and others in the form of palmettes, set with diamonds, and topped by a globus cruciger.
Jane Thorne, baronne de Pierres was a French courtier of American origin. She served as lady-in-waiting to the empress of France, Eugénie de Montijo.
Claire Emilie MacDonnel, vicomtesse Aguado, marquise de Las Marismas de Guadalquivir (1817-1905) was a French courtier. She served as lady-in-waiting to the empress of France, Eugénie de Montijo.
Anne Mortier de Trévise, marquise de Latour-Maubourg (1829-1900), was a French courtier. She served as lady-in-waiting to the empress of France, Eugénie de Montijo.
Louise Poitelon du Tarde, vicomtesse de Lezay-Marnésia (1826-1891), was a French courtier. She served as lady-in-waiting to the empress of France, Eugénie de Montijo.
Pepa Pollet, was a French courtier. She was the principal lady's maid and treasurer to the empress of France, Eugénie de Montijo. She was a controversial figure as the personal favorite and influential confidante of the empress, and sometimes accused of missusing her influence.
Madame Palmyre also called Mademoiselle Palmyre (19th-century), was a French fashion designer couturier.
Madame Vignon also known as Madame Vignon-Chauvin (19th-century), was a French fashion designer Couturier.
Eugénie de MontijoBorn: 5 May 1826 Died: 11 July 1920
Title last held byMarie Amalie of the Two Sicilies
as Queen of the French
| Empress of the French |
30 January 1853–11 January 1871
|Titles in pretence|
Title last held byMarie Louise of Austria
|— TITULAR —|
Empress of the French
11 January 1871 – 9 January 1873
Reason for succession failure:
Empire replaced by Republic
Title next held byClémentine of Belgium
Cipriano de Palafox y Portocarrero
| Countess of Teba |
Eugenia María Fitz-James Stuart
| Marchioness of Ardales |
Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart