This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification . (October 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Fama in Stockholm, December 2013
|Institution||University of Chicago|
|Field||Financial economics, Organizational economics, Macroeconomics|
|Chicago School of Economics|
|Alma mater|| Tufts University |
University of Chicago
| Merton Miller |
Harry V. Roberts
|Cliff Asness, Myron Scholes, Mark Carhart|
|Contributions|| Fama–French three-factor model |
|Awards||2005 Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics |
2008 Morgan Stanley-American Finance Association Award
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics (2013)
|Information at IDEAS / RePEc|
Eugene Francis "Gene" Fama ( // ; born February 14, 1939) is an American economist, best known for his empirical work on portfolio theory, asset pricing, and the efficient-market hypothesis.
He is currently Robert R. McCormick Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. In 2013, he shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences jointly with Robert Shiller and Lars Peter Hansen. as of April 2019 [update] .The Research Papers in Economics project ranked him as the 9th-most influential economist of all-time based on his academic contributions,
Fama was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Angelina (née Sarraceno) and Francis Fama. All of his grandparents were immigrants from Italy.Fama is a Malden Catholic High School Athletic Hall of Fame honoree. He earned his undergraduate degree in Romance Languages magna cum laude in 1960 from Tufts University where he was also selected as the school’s outstanding student-athlete.
His M.B.A. and Ph.D. came from the Booth School of Business at the University of Chicago in economics and finance. His doctoral supervisors were Nobel prize winner Merton Miller and Harry Roberts, but Benoit Mandelbrot was also an important influence.He has spent all of his teaching career at the University of Chicago.
His Ph.D. thesis, which concluded that short-term stock price movements are unpredictable and approximate a random walk, was published in the January 1965 issue of the Journal of Business , entitled "The Behavior of Stock Market Prices". That work was subsequently rewritten into a less technical article, "Random Walks In Stock Market Prices",which was published in the Financial Analysts Journal in 1965 and Institutional Investor in 1968. His later work with Kenneth French showed that predictability in expected stock returns can be explained by time-varying discount rates, for example higher average returns during recessions can be explained by a systematic increase in risk aversion which lowers prices and increases average returns.
His article "The Adjustment of Stock Prices to New Information" in the International Economic Review , 1969 (with several co-authors) was the first event study that sought to analyze how stock prices respond to an event, using price data from the newly available CRSP database. This was the first of literally hundreds of such published studies.[ citation needed ]
In 2013, he won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Fama is most often thought of as the father of the efficient-market hypothesis, beginning with his Ph.D. thesis. In 1965 he published an analysis of the behaviour of stock market prices that showed that they exhibited so-called fat tail distribution properties, implying extreme movements were more common than predicted on the assumption of normality.
In an article in the May 1970 issue of the Journal of Finance , entitled "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work", [ citation needed ] Market efficiency denotes how information is factored in price, Fama (1970) emphasizes that the hypothesis of market efficiency must be tested in the context of expected returns. The joint hypothesis problem states that when a model yields a predicted return significantly different from the actual return, one can never be certain if there exists an imperfection in the model or if the market is inefficient. Researchers can only modify their models by adding different factors to eliminate any anomalies, in hopes of fully explaining the return within the model. The anomaly, also known as alpha in the modeling test, thus functions as a signal to the model maker whether it can perfectly predict returns by the factors in the model. However, as long as there exists an alpha, neither the conclusion of a flawed model nor market inefficiency can be drawn according to the Joint Hypothesis. Fama (1991) also stresses that market efficiency per se is not testable and can only be tested jointly with some model of equilibrium, i.e. an asset-pricing model.Fama proposed two concepts that have been used on efficient markets ever since. First, Fama proposed three types of efficiency: (i) strong-form; (ii) semi-strong form; and (iii) weak efficiency. They are explained in the context of what information sets are factored in price trend. In weak form efficiency the information set is just historical prices, which can be predicted from historical price trend; thus, it is impossible to profit from it. Semi-strong form requires that all public information is reflected in prices already, such as companies' announcements or annual earnings figures. Finally, the strong-form concerns all information sets, including private information, are incorporated in price trend; it states no monopolistic information can entail profits, in other words, insider trading cannot make a profit in the strong-form market efficiency world. Second, Fama demonstrated that the notion of market efficiency could not be rejected without an accompanying rejection of the model of market equilibrium (e.g. the price setting mechanism). This concept, known as the "joint hypothesis problem", has ever since vexed researchers.
In recent years, Fama has become controversial again, for a series of papers, co-written with Kenneth French, that cast doubt on the validity of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which posits that a stock's beta alone should explain its average return. These papers describe two factors above and beyond a stock's market beta which can explain differences in stock returns: market capitalization and "value". They also offer evidence that a variety of patterns in average returns, often labeled as "anomalies" in past work, can be explained with their Fama–French three-factor model.
Financial economics is the branch of economics characterized by a "concentration on monetary activities", in which "money of one type or another is likely to appear on both sides of a trade". Its concern is thus the interrelation of financial variables, such as prices, interest rates and shares, as opposed to those concerning the real economy. It has two main areas of focus: asset pricing and corporate finance; the first being the perspective of providers of capital, i.e. investors, and the second of users of capital.
In finance, the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset, to make decisions about adding assets to a well-diversified portfolio.
The efficient-market hypothesis (EMH) is a hypothesis in financial economics that states that asset prices reflect all available information. A direct implication is that it is impossible to "beat the market" consistently on a risk-adjusted basis since market prices should only react to new information. Since risk adjustment is central to the EMH, and yet the EMH does not specify a model of risk, the EMH is untestable. As a result, research in financial economics since at least the 1990s has focused on market anomalies, that is, deviations from specific models of risk.
The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.
A market anomaly in a financial market is predictability that seems to be inconsistent with theories of asset prices. Standard theories include the capital asset pricing model and the Fama-French Three Factor Model, but a lack of agreement among academics about the proper theory leads many to refer to anomalies without a reference to a benchmark theory. Indeed, many academics simply refer to anomalies as "return predictors", avoiding the problem of defining a benchmark theory.
The random walk hypothesis is a financial theory stating that stock market prices evolve according to a random walk and thus cannot be predicted. It is consistent with the efficient-market hypothesis.
Kenneth Ronald "Ken" French is the Roth Family Distinguished Professor of Finance at the Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College. He has previously been a faculty member at MIT, the Yale School of Management, and the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He is most famous for his work on asset pricing with Eugene Fama. They wrote a series of papers that cast doubt on the validity of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which posits that a stock's beta alone should explain its average return. These papers describe two factors above and beyond a stock's market beta which can explain differences in stock returns: market capitalization and "value". They also offer evidence that a variety of patterns in average returns, often labeled as "anomalies" in past work, can be explained with their Fama–French three-factor model.
Fundamentally based indexes are indices in which stocks are weighted by one of many economic fundamental factors, especially accounting figures which are commonly used when performing corporate valuation, or by a composite of several fundamental factors. A potential benefit with composite fundamental indices is that they might average out specific sector biases which may be the case when only using one fundamental factor. A key belief behind the fundamental index methodology is that underlying corporate accounting/valuation figures are more accurate estimators of a company's intrinsic value, rather than the listed market value of the company, i.e. that one should buy and sell companies in line with their accounting figures rather than according to their current market prices. In this sense fundamental indexing is linked to so-called fundamental analysis.
There are several concepts of efficiency for a financial market. The most widely discussed is informational or price efficiency, which is a measure of how quickly and completely the price of a single asset reflects available information about the asset's value. Other concepts include functional/operational efficiency, which is inversely related to the costs that investors bear for making transactions, and allocative efficiency, which is a measure of how far a market channels funds from ultimate lenders to ultimate borrowers in such a way that the funds are used in the most productive manner.
Robert James Shiller is an American economist, academic, and best-selling author. As of 2019, he serves as a Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University and is a fellow at the Yale School of Management's International Center for Finance. Shiller has been a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) since 1980, was vice president of the American Economic Association in 2005, its president-elect for 2016, and president of the Eastern Economic Association for 2006–2007. He is also the co‑founder and chief economist of the investment management firm MacroMarkets LLC.
The Fama-DFA Prize is an annual prize given to authors with the best capital markets and asset pricing research papers published in the Journal of Financial Economics. The award is named after Eugene Fama who is a co-founding advisory editor of the journal, a financial economist, a 2013 Nobel laureate in Economics, a finance professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, and a research director for both the Dimensional Fund Advisors and the Center for Research in Securities Prices. Fama studied efficient markets in the efficient market hypothesis, which arose from his 1960 Ph.D. dissertation, The Behavior of Stock Market Prices. This dissertation led to publications on random walk hypothesis theory. He is said by some as the best known financial economist in the world. In the areas of portfolio theory and asset pricing the Three-factor model he developed with Kenneth French in "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns." in the June 1992 Journal of Finance is sometimes used. The prize is also co-named for the investment advisory firm, Dimensional Fund Advisors.
Richard Roll is an American economist, best known for his work on portfolio theory and asset pricing, both theoretical and empirical.
The Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics honors renowned researchers who have made influential contributions to the fields of finance and money and macroeconomics, and whose work has led to practical and policy-relevant results. It is awarded biannually, since 2005, by the Center for Financial Studies (CFS), in partnership with Goethe University Frankfurt, and is sponsored by Deutsche Bank Donation Fund. The award carries an endowment of €50,000, which is donated by the Stiftungsfonds Deutsche Bank im Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft.
In finance, momentum is the empirically observed tendency for rising asset prices to rise further, and falling prices to keep falling. For instance, it was shown that stocks with strong past performance continue to outperform stocks with poor past performance in the next period with an average excess return of about 1% per month. Momentum signals have been shown to be used by financial analysts in their buy and sell recommendations.
In asset pricing and portfolio management the Fama–French three-factor model is a model designed by Eugene Fama and Kenneth French to describe stock returns. Fama and French were professors at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, where Fama still resides. In 2013, Fama shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The three factors are (1) market risk, (2) the outperformance of small versus big companies, and (3) the outperformance of high book/market versus small book/market companies. However, the size and book/market ratio themselves are not in the model. For this reason, there is academic debate about the meaning of the last two factors.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics:
Tony Naughton was a British/Australian financial economist who was the head of the School of Economics, Finance and Marketing at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) for over ten years immediately prior to his untimely death in July 2013. He was known for his research into finance and corporate governance and for his contribution to raising the research profile of the School of Economics, Finance and Marketing at RMIT. He was also known for the successful mentoring of a large number of students and colleagues who, as a result, climbed to the top of the academic ladder.
Market efficiency implies that stock prices fully reflect all publicly available information instantaneously; thus no investment strategies can systematically earn abnormal returns. Fama (1991) argued that stock prices respond instantaneously and without bias to their new values based on new, relevant information and that security returns over time are determined only by changes in the market level and individual stock risk. Therefore, there are no profitable investment opportunities from superior analysis, which implies no one can consistently outperform the market. The precondition for this 'strong' definition is that information and trading costs are always equal to zero. This is arguably not true in practice.
Factor investing is an investment approach that involves targeting quantifiable firm characteristics or “factors” that can explain differences in stock returns. Over the last 50 years, academic research has identified hundreds of factors that impact stock returns. Security characteristics that may be included in a factor-based approach includes size, value, momentum, asset growth, profitability, leverage, term and carry.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Eugene Fama|
Alvin E. Roth
Lloyd S. Shapley
| Laureate of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics |
Served alongside: Lars Peter Hansen, Robert J. Shiller