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Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function. Euler's formula states that for any real number x:
where e is the base of the natural logarithm, i is the imaginary unit, and cos and sin are the trigonometric functions cosine and sine respectively. This complex exponential function is sometimes denoted cis x ("cosine plus isine"). The formula is still valid if x is a complex number, and so some authors refer to the more general complex version as Euler's formula.
Euler's formula is ubiquitous in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The physicist Richard Feynman called the equation "our jewel" and "the most remarkable formula in mathematics".
When x = π, Euler's formula evaluates to eiπ + 1 = 0, which is known as Euler's identity.
The English mathematician Roger Cotes (who died in 1716, when Euler was only 9 years old) was the first to know of the formula.
In 1714 he presented a geometrical argument that can be interpreted (after correcting a misplaced factor of ) as:
Exponentiating this equation yields Euler's formula. Note that the logarithmic statement is not universally correct for complex numbers, since a complex logarithm can have infinitely many values, differing by multiples of 2πi.
Around 1740 Euler turned his attention to the exponential function instead of logarithms and obtained the formula that is named after him. He obtained the formula by comparing the series expansions of the exponential and trigonometric expressions.It was published in 1748 in the Introductio in analysin infinitorum and Euler may have acquired his knowledge through Swiss compatriot Johann Bernoulli.
Bernoulli noted that
the above equation tells us something about complex logarithms by relating natural logarithms to imaginary (complex) numbers. Bernoulli, however, did not evaluate the integral.
Bernoulli's correspondence with Euler (who also knew the above equation) shows that Bernoulli did not fully understand complex logarithms. Euler also suggested that the complex logarithms can have infinitely many values.
The view of complex numbers as points in the complex plane was described about 50 years later by Caspar Wessel.
The exponential function ex for real values of x may be defined in a few different equivalent ways (see Characterizations of the exponential function). Several of these methods may be directly extended to give definitions of ez for complex values of z simply by substituting z in place of x and using the complex algebraic operations. In particular we may use any of the three following definitions, which are equivalent. From a more advanced perspective, each of these definitions may be interpreted as giving the unique analytic continuation of ex to the complex plane.
The exponential function is the unique differentiable function of a complex variable such that
For complex z
Using the ratio test, it is possible to show that this power series has an infinite radius of convergence and so defines ez for all complex z.
For complex z
Here, n is restricted to positive integers, so there is no question about what the power with exponent n means.
Various proofs of the formula are possible.
This proof shows that the quotient of the trigonometric and exponential expressions is the constant function one, so they must be equal (the exponential function is never zero,so this is permitted).
Let f(θ) be the function
for real θ. Differentiating, we have, by the product rule
Thus, f(θ) is a constant. Since f(0) = 1, then f(θ) = 1 for all real θ, and thus
Here is a proof of Euler's formula using power-series expansions, as well as basic facts about the powers of i:
Using now the power-series definition from above, we see that for real values of x
where in the last step we recognize the two terms are the Maclaurin series for cos x and sin x. The rearrangement of terms is justified because each series is absolutely convergent.
Another proof r and θ depending on x,is based on the fact that all complex numbers can be expressed in polar coordinates. Therefore, for some
No assumptions are being made about r and θ; they will be determined in the course of the proof. From any of the definitions of the exponential function it can be shown that the derivative of eix is ieix. Therefore, differentiating both sides gives
Substituting r(cos θ + i sin θ) for eix and equating real and imaginary parts in this formula gives dr/dx = 0 and dθ/dx = 1. Thus, r is a constant, and θ is x + C for some constant C. The initial values r(0) = 1 and θ(0) = 0 come from e0i = 1, giving r = 1 and θ = x. This proves the formula
This formula can be interpreted as saying that the function eiφ is a unit complex number, i.e., it traces out the unit circle in the complex plane as φ ranges through the real numbers. Here φ is the angle that a line connecting the origin with a point on the unit circle makes with the positive real axis, measured counterclockwise and in radians.
The original proof is based on the Taylor series expansions of the exponential function ez (where z is a complex number) and of sin x and cos x for real numbers x (see below). In fact, the same proof shows that Euler's formula is even valid for all complex numbers x.
A point in the complex plane can be represented by a complex number written in cartesian coordinates. Euler's formula provides a means of conversion between cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates. The polar form simplifies the mathematics when used in multiplication or powers of complex numbers. Any complex number z = x + iy, and its complex conjugate, z = x − iy, can be written as
φ is the argument of z, i.e., the angle between the x axis and the vector z measured counterclockwise in radians, which is defined up to addition of 2π. Many texts write φ = tan−1y/x instead of φ = atan2(y,x), but the first equation needs adjustment when x ≤ 0. This is because for any real x and y, not both zero, the angles of the vectors (x, y) and (−x, −y) differ by π radians, but have the identical value of tan φ = y/x.
Now, taking this derived formula, we can use Euler's formula to define the logarithm of a complex number. To do this, we also use the definition of the logarithm (as the inverse operator of exponentiation):
both valid for any complex numbers a and b. Therefore, one can write:
for any z ≠ 0. Taking the logarithm of both sides shows that
and in fact this can be used as the definition for the complex logarithm. The logarithm of a complex number is thus a multi-valued function, because φ is multi-valued.
Finally, the other exponential law
which can be seen to hold for all integers k, together with Euler's formula, implies several trigonometric identities, as well as de Moivre's formula.
Euler's formula provides a powerful connection between analysis and trigonometry, and provides an interpretation of the sine and cosine functions as weighted sums of the exponential function:
The two equations above can be derived by adding or subtracting Euler's formulas:
and solving for either cosine or sine.
These formulas can even serve as the definition of the trigonometric functions for complex arguments x. For example, letting x = iy, we have:
Complex exponentials can simplify trigonometry, because they are easier to manipulate than their sinusoidal components. One technique is simply to convert sinusoids into equivalent expressions in terms of exponentials. After the manipulations, the simplified result is still real-valued. For example:
Another technique is to represent the sinusoids in terms of the real part of a complex expression and perform the manipulations on the complex expression. For example:
This formula is used for recursive generation of cos nx for integer values of n and arbitrary x (in radians).
See also Phasor arithmetic.
In the language of topology, Euler's formula states that the imaginary exponential function is a (surjective) morphism of topological groups from the real line to the unit circle . In fact, this exhibits as a covering space of . Similarly, Euler's identity says that the kernel of this map is , where . These observations may be combined and summarized in the commutative diagram below:
In differential equations, the function eix is often used to simplify solutions, even if the final answer is a real function involving sine and cosine. The reason for this is that the exponential function is the eigenfunction of the operation of differentiation.
In electrical engineering, signal processing, and similar fields, signals that vary periodically over time are often described as a combination of sinusoidal functions (see Fourier analysis), and these are more conveniently expressed as the sum of exponential functions with imaginary exponents, using Euler's formula. Also, phasor analysis of circuits can include Euler's formula to represent the impedance of a capacitor or an inductor.
In the four-dimensional space of quaternions, there is a sphere of imaginary units. For any point r on this sphere, and x a real number, Euler's formula applies:
and the element is called a versor in quaternions. The set of all versors forms a 3-sphere in the 4-space.
In mathematics, a complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers, and i is a symbol called the imaginary unit, and satisfying the equation i2 = −1. Because no "real" number satisfies this equation, i was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a + bi, a is called the real part and b is called the imaginary part. The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols or C. Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation. That means the logarithm of a given number x is the exponent to which another fixed number, the base b, must be raised, to produce that number x. In the simplest case, the logarithm counts the number of occurrences of the same factor in repeated multiplication; e.g., since 1000 = 10 × 10 × 10 = 103, the "logarithm base 10" of 1000 is 3, or log10(1000) = 3. The logarithm of x to baseb is denoted as logb(x), or without parentheses, logb x, or even without the explicit base, log x, when no confusion is possible, or when the base does not matter such as in big O notation.
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point is called the pole, and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the polar axis. The distance from the pole is called the radial coordinate, radial distance or simply radius, and the angle is called the angular coordinate, polar angle, or azimuth. The radial coordinate is often denoted by r or ρ, and the angular coordinate by φ, θ, or t. Angles in polar notation are generally expressed in either degrees or radians.
In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuthal angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane. It can be seen as the three-dimensional version of the polar coordinate system.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are real functions which relate an angle of a right-angled triangle to ratios of two side lengths. They are widely used in all sciences that are related to geometry, such as navigation, solid mechanics, celestial mechanics, geodesy, and many others. They are among the simplest periodic functions, and as such are also widely used for studying periodic phenomena through Fourier analysis.
In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogues of the ordinary trigonometric functions, but defined using the hyperbola rather than the circle. Just as the points (cos t, sin t) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh t, sinh t) form the right half of the unit hyperbola. Also, just as the derivatives of sin(t) and cos(t) are cos(t) and –sin(t), the derivatives of sinh(t) and cosh(t) are cosh(t) and +sinh(t).
In mathematics, de Moivre's formula states that for any real number x and integer n it holds that
In mathematics and physical science, spherical harmonics are special functions defined on the surface of a sphere. They are often employed in solving partial differential equations in many scientific fields.
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions. Specifically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry.
In probability theory, the Borel–Kolmogorov paradox is a paradox relating to conditional probability with respect to an event of probability zero. It is named after Émile Borel and Andrey Kolmogorov.
In mathematics, theta functions are special functions of several complex variables. They are important in many areas, including the theories of Abelian varieties and moduli spaces, and of quadratic forms. They have also been applied to soliton theory. When generalized to a Grassmann algebra, they also appear in quantum field theory.
In trigonometry, tangent half-angle formulas relate the tangent of half of an angle to trigonometric functions of the entire angle. The tangent of half an angle is the stereographic projection of the circle onto a line. Among these formulas are the following:
This is a table of orthonormalized spherical harmonics that employ the Condon-Shortley phase up to degree . Some of these formulas give the "Cartesian" version. This assumes x, y, z, and r are related to and through the usual spherical-to-Cartesian coordinate transformation:
In mathematics, a multiple integral is a definite integral of a function of several real variables, for instance, f(x, y) or f(x, y, z). Integrals of a function of two variables over a region in are called double integrals, and integrals of a function of three variables over a region in are called triple integrals. For multiple integrals of a single-variable function, see the Cauchy formula for repeated integration.
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an acute angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle, to the length of the longest side of the triangle. For an angle , the sine function is denoted simply as .
The main trigonometric identities between trigonometric functions are proved, using mainly the geometry of the right triangle. For greater and negative angles, see Trigonometric functions.
In mathematics, vector spherical harmonics (VSH) are an extension of the scalar spherical harmonics for use with vector fields. The components of the VSH are complex-valued functions expressed in the spherical coordinate basis vectors.
The trigonometric functions for real or complex square matrices occur in solutions of second-order systems of differential equations. They are defined by the same Taylor series that hold for the trigonometric functions of real and complex numbers: