Eupleridae

Last updated

Euplerids [1]
Temporal range: 24–0  Ma
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Late Oligocene – Recent
Eupleridae.png
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Eupleridae
Chenu, 1850
Genera
Eupleridae range.png
Eupleridae subfamily ranges
Synonyms
  • Euplerini Simpson, 1945
  • Cryptoproctina Gray, 1864
  • Galidiina Gray, 1864
  • Cryptoproctidae Flower, 1869
  • Galidiinae Gill, 1872
  • Galidictinae Mivart, 1882
  • Cryptoproctinae Trouessart, 1885
  • Fossinae Pocock, 1915

Eupleridae is a family of carnivorans endemic to Madagascar and comprising 10 known living species in seven genera, commonly known as euplerids, Malagasy mongooses or Malagasy carnivorans. The best known species is the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), in the subfamily Euplerinae. All species of Euplerinae were formerly classified as viverrids, while all species in the subfamily Galidiinae were classified as herpestids.

Contents

Recent molecular studies indicate that the 10 living species of Madagascar carnivorans evolved from one ancestor that is thought to have rafted over from mainland Africa 18–24 million years ago. This makes Malagasy carnivorans a clade. They are closely allied with the true herpestid mongooses, their closest living relatives. [2] The fossa and the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana) are each evolutionarily quite distinct from each other and from the rest of the clade.

All Eupleridae are considered threatened species due to habitat destruction, as well as predation and competition from non-native species. [3]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

Historically, the relationships of the Madagascar carnivorans have been contentious, but molecular evidence suggests that they form a single clade, now recognized as the family Eupleridae. [4] [5] [6] The hyena family, Hyaenidae, is a sister taxon of the euplerid and herpestid clade, and when grouped together with the viverrids and felids, as well as some smaller groups, forms the feliform (cat-like carnivores) clade. [7] [8]

The evolutionary divergence between the herpestids and the euplerids dates back to the Oligocene. [8] At that time, feliforms shared many similarities, particularly between the cats and the viverrids. Palaeoprionodon (within the superfamily Aeluroidea), found in Europe and Asia from the late Eocene or early Oligocene, looked similar to the modern fossa, while Proailurus , an extinct form of cat, exhibited many viverrid-like characteristics. [9] Despite these similarities in the fossil record, the modern Malagasy carnivores are distinctly different, with the Euplerinae and Galidiinae subfamilies bearing similarities with civets and mongooses, respectively. [7] Species in Euplerinae (including the fossa, falanouc, and Malagasy civet) have auditory regions similar to those of viverrids, while those in Galidiinae have auditory regions similar to those of herpestids. Based on this trait, Robert M. Hunt Jr. proposed in 1996 that Madagascar was colonized twice, once by viverrids and once by herpestids. However, the genetic studies by Yoder and colleagues in 2003 suggested that a single colonization event occurred by a primitive herpestid ancestor, which was quickly followed by adaptive radiation. The common ancestor arrived from Africa, probably by rafting, during the late Oligocene or early Miocene (24–18  Mya), [7] [8] though Philippe Gaubert and Veron estimated a divergence date of 19.4 Mya (16.5–22.7 Mya). [8] [10]

Classification

Family Eupleridae
SubfamilyImageGenusSpecies
Euplerinae Cryptoprocta Ferox.JPG Cryptoprocta(Bennett, 1833)
Falanouc.jpg Eupleres (Doyère, 1835)
Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana).jpg Fossa(Gray, 1864)
Galidiinae Ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans).jpg Galidia(I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837)
Mungo1.jpg Galidictis (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1839)
Smalstreepmangoest.JPG Mungotictis(Pocock, 1915)
Alaotra carnivore credit Fidimalala Bruno Ralainasolo.jpg Salanoia (Gray, 1864)

Phylogenetic tree

The phylogenetic relationships of Malagasy carnivorans (Eupleridae) are shown in the following cladogram: [4]

 Eupleridae 
  Euplerinae  
 Cryptoprocta 

Cryptoprocta ferox (Fossa)

Cryptoprocta spelea (Giant fossa)

 Fossa 

Fossa fossana (Malagasy civet)

  Eupleres  

Eupleres major (Western Falanouc)

Eupleres goudotii (Eastern falanouc)

  Galidiinae  
 Galidia 

Galidia elegans (Ring-tailed mongoose)

  Galidictis  

Galidictis fasciata (Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose)

Galidictis grandidieri (Grandidier's mongoose)

  Salanoia  

Salanoia durrelli (Alaotra mongoose)

Salanoia concolor (Brown-tailed mongoose)

 Mungotictis 

Mungotictis decemlineata (Narrow-striped mongoose)

See also

Related Research Articles

Carnivora Order of mammals

The Carnivora is the mammal order specialized in primarily eating flesh. though some species are omnivorous, like raccoons and bears, and quite a few species like pandas are specialized herbivores. The word 'carnivore' is derived from Latin carō "flesh" and vorāre "to devour", it refers to any meat-eating organism. The order Carnivora is the fifth largest order of mammals and one of the more successful members of the group; it comprises at least 279 species living on every major landmass and in a variety of habitats, ranging the cold polar regions to the hyper-arid region of the Sahara Desert to the open seas. They come in a huge array of different body plans in contrasting shapes and sizes. The smallest carnivoran is the least weasel with a body length of about 11 cm (4.3 in) and a weight of about 25 g (0.88 oz). The largest is the southern elephant seal, with adult males weighing up to 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and measuring up to 6.7 m (22 ft). All species of carnivorans are descended from a group of mammals which were related to today's pangolins, having appeared in North America 6 million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. These early ancestors of carnivorans would have resembled small weasel or genet-like mammals, occupying a nocturnal shift on the forest floor or in the trees, as other groups of mammals like the mesonychians and creodonts were occupying the top faunivorous niche. However, by the time Miocene epoch appeared, most if not all of the major lineages and families of carnivorans had diversified and took over this niche.

<i>Proailurus</i> genus of mammals

Proailurus is an extinct felid genus that lived in Europe and Asia approximately 25 million years ago in the Late Oligocene and Miocene. Fossils have been found in Mongolia, Germany, and Spain.

Mongoose A family of mammals in Africa and Asia

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. This family is currently split into two subfamilies, the Herpestinae and the Mungotinae. The Herpestinae comprises 23 living species that are native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, whereas the Mungotinae comprises 11 species native to Africa. The Herpestidae originated about 21.8 ± 3.6 million years ago in the Early Miocene and genetically diverged into two main genetic lineages between 19.1 and 18.5 ± 3.5 million years ago.

Viverridae family of mammals, the viverrids

Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species. This family was named and first described by John Edward Gray in 1821. Viverrids occur all over Africa, into southern Europe, in South and Southeast Asia across the Wallace Line. Their occurrence in Sulawesi and in some of the adjoining islands shows them to be ancient inhabitants of the Old World tropics.

Caniformia suborder of mammals

Caniformia is a suborder within the order Carnivora. They typically possess a long snout and nonretractile claws and include carnivorans such as dogs, bears, wolves, foxes, raccoons, badgers, seals and mustelids. The Pinnipedia are also assigned to this group. The center of diversification for Caniformia is North America and northern Eurasia. This contrasts with the feliforms, the center of diversification of which was in Africa and southern Asia.

Fossa (animal) Cat-like, carnivorous mammal endemic to Madagascar

The fossa is a cat-like, carnivorous mammal endemic to Madagascar. It is a member of the Eupleridae, a family of carnivorans closely related to the mongoose family Herpestidae. Its classification has been controversial because its physical traits resemble those of cats, yet other traits suggest a close relationship with viverrids. Its classification, along with that of the other Malagasy carnivores, influenced hypotheses about how many times mammalian carnivores have colonized Madagascar. With genetic studies demonstrating that the fossa and all other Malagasy carnivores are most closely related to each other forming a clade, recognized as the family Eupleridae, carnivorans are now thought to have colonized the island once, around 18 to 20 million years ago.

Grandidiers mongoose species of mammal

Grandidier's mongoose, also known as the giant-striped mongoose or Grandidier's vontsira, is a small carnivoran that lives only in a very small area of southwestern Madagascar, in areas of spiny forest vegetation. It is pale brown or grayish coloured, with eight wide, dark stripes on its back and sides. Grandidier's mongoose is larger than the related broad-striped Malagasy mongoose, G. fasciata, and its stripes are not as wide. The species is named after Alfred Grandidier.

Malagasy civet euplerid endemic to Madagascar

The Malagasy or striped civet, also known as the fanaloka or jabady, is an euplerid endemic to Madagascar.

Eastern falanouc species of mammal

The Eastern falanouc is a rare mongoose-like mammal in the carnivoran family Eupleridae endemic to Madagascar.

Aquatic genet species of mammal

The aquatic genet is a genet that has only been recorded in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since it is only known from about 30 specimens in zoological collections, it had been listed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List since 1996, as it is considered one of Africa's rarest carnivores. In 2015, it has been reassessed as Near Threatened.

Ring-tailed vontsira species of mammal

The ring-tailed vontsira, locally still known as the ring-tailed mongoose is a euplerid in the subfamily Galidiinae, a carnivoran native to Madagascar.

Galidiinae subfamily of carnivorans

Galidiinae is a subfamily of carnivorans that is restricted to Madagascar and includes six species classified into four genera. Together with the three other species of indigenous Malagasy carnivorans, including the fossa, they are currently classified in the family Eupleridae within the suborder Feliformia. Galidiinae are the smallest of the Malagasy carnivorans, generally weighing about 600 to 900 g. They are agile, short-legged animals with long, bushy tails.

Narrow-striped mongoose species of mammal

The narrow-striped mongoose is a member of the family Eupleridae endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits the Madagascar dry deciduous forests in western and southwestern Madagascar, where it lives from sea level to about 125 m (410 ft) between the Tsiribihina and Mangoky rivers. In Malagasy it is called bokiboky.

Feliformia suborder of mammals in the order Carnivora

Feliformia is a suborder within the order Carnivora consisting of "cat-like" carnivorans, including cats, hyenas, mongooses, viverrids, and related taxa. Feliformia stands in contrast to the other suborder of Carnivora, Caniformia.

Viverroidea infraorder of mammals in the order Carnivora

Viverroidea is an infraorder of feliformia, containing both the family Viverridae, and the superfamily Herpestoidea.

<i>Cryptoprocta spelea</i> Extinct species of carnivoran from Madagascar

Cryptoprocta spelea, also known as the giant fossa, is an extinct species of carnivore from Madagascar in the family Eupleridae, which is most closely related to the mongooses and includes all Malagasy carnivorans. It was first described in 1902, and in 1935 was recognized as a separate species from its closest relative, the living fossa. C. spelea is larger than the fossa, about the size of a gray wolf, but otherwise similar. The two have not always been accepted as distinct species. When and how the larger form became extinct is unknown; there is some anecdotal evidence, including reports of very large fossas, that there is more than one surviving species.

<i>Salanoia</i> monotypic taxon

Salanoia is a genus of euplerid carnivoran with two currently described species found in Madagascar. They are mongoose-like, which is reflected in the older versions of their English names, for example brown-tailed mongoose which is now called brown-tailed vontsira. The name Salanoia is derived from one of the vernacular names for Salanoia concolor: Salano.

Viverrinae subfamily of mammals, the viverrids

The Viverrinae represent the largest subfamily within the Viverridae comprising five genera, which are subdivided into 22 species native to Africa and Southeast Asia. This subfamily was denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864.

Euplerinae subfamily of carnivorans

Euplerinae, more commonly known as malagasy civets, is a subfamily of carnivorans that includes four species restricted to Madagascar. Together with the subfamily Galidiinae, which also only occurs on Madagascar, it forms the family Eupleridae. Members of this subfamily, which include the fossa, falanoucs and Malagasy civet, were placed in families like Felidae and Viverridae before genetic data indicated their consanguinity with other Madagascar carnivorans. Within the subfamily, the falanouc and Malagasy civet are more closely related to each other than to the fossa.

Herpestoidea Superfamily of mammals

Herpestoidea is a superfamily of mammalia carnivores which includes mongooses, Malagasy carnivorans and the hyenas.

References

  1. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  2. Flynn, J; Finarelli, J. A.; Zehr, S; Hsu, J; Nedbal, M. A. (April 2005). "Molecular phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships". Syst. Biol. 54 (2): 317–337. doi: 10.1080/10635150590923326 . PMID   16012099.
  3. "Eupleridae". Animal Diversity. University of Michigan.
  4. 1 2 Yoder, A.D.; Burns, M.M.; Zehr, S.; Delefosse, T.; Veron, G.; Goodman, S.M.; Flynn, J.J. (2003). "Single origin of Malagasy Carnivora from an African ancestor" (PDF). Nature. 421 (6924): 734–737. doi:10.1038/nature01303. PMID   12610623 . Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  5. Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 559–561. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0.
  6. Gaubert, Philippe; Wozencraft, W Chris; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Veron, Geraldine (December 2005). "Mosaics of Convergences and Noise in Morphological Phylogenies: What's in a Viverrid-Like Carnivoran?". Systematic Biology. Volume 54 (Issue 6): 865–894. doi: 10.1080/10635150500232769 . Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  7. 1 2 3 Yoder, A.D.; Flynn, J.J. (2003). "Origin of Malagasy Carnivora". In Goodman, S.M.; Benstead, J.P. (eds.). The Natural History of Madagascar. University of Chicago Press. pp. 1253–1256. ISBN   978-0-226-30306-2.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Barycka, E. (2007). "Evolution and systematics of the feliform Carnivora". Mammalian Biology. 72 (5): 257–282. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2006.10.011.
  9. Köhncke, M.; Leonhardt, K. (1986). "Cryptoprocta ferox" (PDF). Mammalian Species (254): 1–5. doi:10.2307/3503919. JSTOR   3503919. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-21. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  10. Gaubert, P.; Veron, G. (2003). "Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 270 (1532): 2523–2530. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2521. PMC   1691530 . PMID   14667345.