European Union

Last updated

Flag of Europe.svg
Motto: "In Varietate Concordia" (Latin)
"United in Diversity"
Anthem: "Ode to Joy" (orchestral)
Global European Union.svg
Capital Brussels ( de facto ) [1]
Largest city London
Official languages
Official scripts [3]
Religion
Demonym(s) European [5]
Type Political and economic union
Member states
Government Supranational and intergovernmental
Donald Tusk
David Sassoli
Jean-Claude Juncker
Legislaturesee "Politics" section below
Formation [6]
1 January 1958
1 July 1987
1 November 1993
1 December 2009
1 July 2013
Area
 Total
4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi)(7th)
 Water (%)
3.08
Population
 2019 estimate
Increase2.svg 513,481,691 [7] (3rd)
 Density
117.2/km2 (303.5/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)2018 estimate
 Total
Increase2.svg $22.0 trillion [8] (2nd)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg $43,150 [8]
GDP  (nominal)2018 estimate
 Total
Increase2.svg $18.8 trillion [8] (2nd)
 Per capita
Increase2.svg $36,580 [9]
Gini  (2017)Decrease Positive.svg 30.7 [10]
medium
HDI  (2017)Increase2.svg 0.899 [lower-alpha 3]
very high
Currency Euro (EUR; ; in eurozone) and
Time zone UTC  to UTC+2 (WET, CET, EET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+1 to UTC+3 (WEST, CEST, EEST)
(see also Summer Time in Europe)
Note: with the exception of the Canary Islands and Madeira, the outermost regions observe different time zones not shown. [lower-alpha 4]
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD/CE)
See also: Date and time notation in Europe
Internet TLD .eu [lower-alpha 5]
Website
europa.eu

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. [12] It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, [13] enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, [14] agriculture, [15] fisheries and regional development. [16] For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. [17] A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

Member state of the European Union State that is party to treaties of the European Union (EU)

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states. Each member state is party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership. Unlike members of most international organisations, the member states of the EU are subjected to binding laws in exchange for representation within the common legislative and judicial institutions. Member states must agree unanimously for the EU to adopt policies concerning defence and foreign policy. Subsidiarity is a founding principle of the EU.

European Single Market single market of the European Union and participating non-EU countries

The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU). The market encompasses the EU's 28 member states, and has been extended, with exceptions, to Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the Agreement on the European Economic Area and to Switzerland through bilateral treaties.

European Union law body of treaties and legislation which have direct effect or indirect effect on the laws of European Union member states

European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union. The EU has political institutions and social and economic policies. According to its Court of Justice, the EU represents "a new legal order of international law". The EU's legal foundations are the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, unanimously agreed by the governments of 28 member states. New states may join the EU, if they agree to operate by the rules of the organisation, and existing members may leave according to their "own constitutional requirements". Citizens are able to vote directly in elections to the Parliament, while their national governments operate on behalf of them in the Council of the European Union and the European Council. The Commission is the executive branch. The Council of the European Union represents member state governments, while the Court of Justice is meant to uphold the rule of law and human rights. As the Court of Justice said, the EU is "not merely an economic union" but is intended to "ensure social progress and seek the constant improvement of the living and working conditions of their peoples".

Contents

The EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. [18] The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome. The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The Communities and their successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to their remit. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. No member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations. (Greenland, an autonomous country within Denmark, left the Communities in 1985). However, the United Kingdom signified its intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal.

Maastricht Treaty treaty that created the European Union

The Maastricht Treaty was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Communities in Maastricht, Netherlands, to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. The treaty founded the European Union and established its pillar structure which stayed in place until the Lisbon Treaty came into force in 2009. The treaty also greatly expanded the competences of the EEC/EU and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro.

European Coal and Steel Community international organisation serving to unify European countries after World War II

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of six European countries created after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority. It was formally established in 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, signed by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The ECSC was the first international organisation to be based on the principles of supranationalism, and started the process of formal integration which ultimately led to the European Union.

European Economic Community international organisation created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the formation of the European Union (EU) in 1993, the EEC was incorporated and renamed as the European Community (EC). In 2009 the EC's institutions were absorbed into the EU's wider framework and the community ceased to exist.

Containing 7.3% of the world population, [19] the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting approximately 24.6% of global nominal GDP. [20] Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. [21] Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union was described in 2006 as an emerging superpower. [22]

Gross domestic product market value of goods and services produced within a country

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period, often annually. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations.

Human Development Index composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office.

2012 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2012 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union (EU) "for over six decades [having] contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe" by a unanimous decision of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

History

Background

Scheme of Indo-European migrations from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis
The assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture) and the subsequent Yamnaya culture.
Area possibly settled up to c. 2500 BCE.
Area settled up to 1000 BCE. IE expansion.png
Scheme of Indo-European migrations from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis
  The assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture) and the subsequent Yamnaya culture.
  Area possibly settled up to c. 2500 BCE.
  Area settled up to 1000 BCE.
Europe in the Early Middle Ages Europe 814.svg
Europe in the Early Middle Ages
The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent (with its vassals in pink). Roman Empire Trajan 117AD.png
The Roman Empire in AD 117, at its greatest extent (with its vassals in pink).

During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii ("transfer of rule") of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire (481–843) and the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West. [lower-alpha 6] This political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii ("restoration of the empire"), [25] either in the forms of the Reichsidee ("imperial idea") or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum ("christian empire"). [26] [27] Medieval Christendom [28] [29] and the political power of the Papacy [30] [31] are often cited as conducive to European integration and unity.

Fall of the Western Roman Empire Political change in late antiquity that came with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities. The Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over its Western provinces; modern historians mention factors including the effectiveness and numbers of the army, the health and numbers of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperors, the internal struggles for power, the religious changes of the period, and the efficiency of the civil administration. Increasing pressure from invading barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse. The reasons for the collapse are major subjects of the historiography of the ancient world and they inform much modern discourse on state failure.

Translatio imperii is a historiographical concept, originating in the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an "emperor". The concept is closely linked to translatio studii. Both terms are thought to have their origins in the second chapter of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–476 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, North Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, it was a principate with Italy as metropole of the provinces and its city of Rome as sole capital. The Roman Empire was then ruled by multiple emperors and divided into a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when it sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople following the capture of Ravenna by the barbarians of Odoacer and the subsequent deposition of Romulus Augustus. The fall of the Western Roman Empire to Germanic kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, and ultimately the Empire (1547–1917), declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. [32] The gap between Greek East and Latin West had already been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054; and would be eventually widened again by the Iron Curtain (1945–91). [33]

Tsardom of Russia former country  (1547-1721)

The Tsardom of Russia, also Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Byzantine Empire Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military force in Europe. "Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Pan-European political thought truly emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire (1804–15). In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent, especially in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, [34] Giuseppe Mazzini [35] or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski. [36] The term United States of Europe (French : États-Unis d'Europe) was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: [37]

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

American Revolution Revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

The Congress of Vienna met in 1814-15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. CongressVienna.jpg
The Congress of Vienna met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood ... A day will come when we shall see ... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas.

During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent. [38] In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established ... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." [39] During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. [40] His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which then Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. [41] In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, and mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace.

Meeting in the Hall of Knights in The Hague, during the congress (May 9, 1948) Europa Congres Ridderzaal Den Haag. Overzicht, Bestanddeelnr 902-7379.jpg
Meeting in the Hall of Knights in The Hague, during the congress (May 9, 1948)

Preliminary (194557)

Robert Schuman proposing the Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950

After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent. [42] In a speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, Winston Churchill went further and advocated the emergence of a United States of Europe. [43] The 1948 Hague Congress was a pivotal moment in European federal history, as it led to the creation of the European Movement International and of the College of Europe, where Europe's future leaders would live and study together. [44]

It also led directly to the founding of the Council of Europe in 1949, the first great effort to bring the nations of Europe together, initially ten of them. However, the Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority. It raised great hopes of further European integration, and there were fevered debates in the two years that followed as to how this could be achieved.

But in 1952, disappointed at what they saw as the lack of progress within the Council of Europe, six nations decided to go further and created the European Coal and Steel Community, which was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe". [45] This community helped to economically integrate and coordinate the large number of Marshall Plan funds from the United States. [46] European leaders Alcide De Gasperi from Italy, Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman from France, and Paul-Henri Spaak from Belgium understood that coal and steel were the two industries essential for waging war, and believed that by tying their national industries together, future war between their nations became much less likely. [47] These men and others are officially credited as the founding fathers of the European Union.

Treaty of Rome (195792)

The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession EC-EU-enlargement animation.gif
The continental territories of the member states of the European Union (European Communities pre-1993), coloured in order of accession

In 1957, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community (EEC) and established a customs union. They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958. [47]

The EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly. The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein (Hallstein Commission) and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand (Armand Commission) and then Étienne Hirsch. Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. [48] [49]

During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in 1965 an agreement was reached and on 1 July 1967 the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities . [50] [51] Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission (Rey Commission). [52]

In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the Community to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured) Thefalloftheberlinwall1989.JPG
In 1989, the Iron Curtain fell, enabling the Community to expand further (Berlin Wall pictured)

In 1973, the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark (including Greenland, which later left the Communities in 1985, following a dispute over fishing rights), Ireland, and the United Kingdom. [53] Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum. In 1979, the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held. [54]

Greece joined in 1981, Portugal and Spain following in 1986. [55] In 1985, the Schengen Agreement paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states and some non-member states. [56] In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the EEC [57] and the Single European Act was signed.

In 1990, after the fall of the Eastern Bloc, the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany. [58] A close fiscal integration with the introduction of the euro was not matched by institutional oversight making things more troubling.[ when? ] Attempts to solve the problems and to make the EU[ when? ] more efficient and coherent had limited success. [59]

Maastricht Treaty (19922007)

The euro was introduced in 2002, replacing 12 national currencies. Seven countries have since joined. Euro banknotes 2002.png
The euro was introduced in 2002, replacing 12 national currencies. Seven countries have since joined.

The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty—whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on 1 November 1993. [18] [60] The treaty also gave the name European Community to the EEC, even if it was referred as such before the treaty. With further enlargement planned to include the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta, the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June 1993. The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord. [59] In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU.

In 2002, euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries. The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. In 2004, the EU saw its biggest enlargement to date when Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the Union. [61]

Lisbon Treaty (2007present)

The Lisbon Treaty entered into force in 2009 Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg
The Lisbon Treaty entered into force in 2009

In 2007, Bulgaria and Romania became EU members. The same year, Slovenia adopted the euro, [61] followed in 2008 by Cyprus and Malta, by Slovakia in 2009, by Estonia in 2011, by Latvia in 2014, and by Lithuania in 2015.

On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. [62] [63]

Group photograph of European Union heads of government on occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome in Rome, Italy Treaty of Rome anniversary group photograph 2017-03-25 03.jpg
Group photograph of European Union heads of government on occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome in Rome, Italy

In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe." [64] [65] In 2013, Croatia became the 28th EU member. [66]

From the beginning of the 2010s, the cohesion of the European Union has been tested by several issues, including a debt crisis in some of the Eurozone countries, increasing migration from the Middle East, and the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU. [67] A referendum in the UK on its membership of the European Union was held in 2016, with 51.9% of participants voting to leave. [68] The UK formally notified the European Council of its decision to leave on 29 March 2017, initiating the formal withdrawal procedure for leaving the EU, committing the UK in principle to leave the EU two years later, on 29 March 2019, [69] unless an extension was sought and granted, which occurred.

Structural evolution

The following timeline illustrates the integration that has led to the formation of the present union, in terms of structural development driven by international treaties:

Signed:
In force:
Document:
1947
1947
Dunkirk
Treaty
1948
1948
Brussels
Treaty
1951
1952
Paris
Treaty
1954
1955
Modified
Brussels
Treaty
1957
1958
Rome &
Euratom
treaties
1965
1967
Merger
Treaty
1975
1976
Council
Agreement
on TREVI
1986
1987
Single
European
Act
1985/90
1995
Schengen
Treaty
&
Convention
1992
1993
Maastricht Treaty
1997
1999
Amsterdam
Treaty
2001
2003
Nice
Treaty
2007
2009
Lisbon
Treaty
 
              
Three pillars of the European Union:  
European Communities
(with common institutions)
 
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)   
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)Treaty expired in 2002 European Union (EU)
   European Economic Community (EEC)  European Community (EC)
     Schengen Rules  
   Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI) Justice and Home Affairs
(JHA)
  Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)
  European Political Cooperation  (EPC) Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Franco-British alliance Western Union (WU)
( Cannibalised militarily by NATO in 1951)
Western European Union (WEU)
(Social and cultural activities transferred to the Council of Europe in 1960)
  
Treaty terminated in 2011  
            

Future enlargement

The criteria for accession to the Union are included in the Copenhagen criteria, agreed in 1993, and the Treaty of Maastricht (Article 49). Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty (as amended) says that any "European state" that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may apply to join the EU. Whether a country is European or not is subject to political assessment by the EU institutions. [70]

There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the Union: Turkey (applied on 14 April 1987), North Macedonia (applied on 22 March 2004 as "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"), Montenegro (applied in 2008), Albania (applied in 2009), and Serbia (applied in 2009). While the others are progressing, Turkish talks are at an effective standstill. [71] [72] [73]

Demographics

Population

EU population density in 2014 Density of Population in EU 2014.svg
EU population density in 2014

As of 1 January 2019, the population of the European Union was about 513.5 million people (6.9% of the world population). [7] [74] In 2015, 5.1 million children were born in the EU-28, corresponding to a birth rate of 10 per 1,000, which is 8 births below the world average. [75] For comparison, the EU-28 birth rate had stood at 10.6 in 2000, 12.8 in 1985 and 16.3 in 1970. [76] Its population growth rate was positive at an estimated 0.23% in 2016. [77]

In 2010, 47.3 million people who lived in the EU were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million). [78] In 2017, approximately 825,000 persons acquired citizenship of a member state of the European Union. The largest groups were nationals of Morocco, Albania, India, Turkey and Pakistan. [79] 2.4 million immigrants from non-EU countries entered the EU in 2017. [80] [81]

Urbanisation

The EU contains about 40 urban areas with populations of over one million, including the two  megacities  (cities with a population of over 10 million) of London and Paris. [82] Also, there are several other metropolises with a population of over 5 million like Madrid, Barcelona, Berlin and includes polycentric urbanised regions like Rhine-Ruhr (Cologne, Dortmund, Düsseldorf et al.), Randstad (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht et al.), Frankfurt Rhine-Main, the Flemish Diamond (Antwerp, Brussels, Leuven, Ghent et al.) and Upper Silesian area (Katowice, Ostrava et al.). [82]

Languages

Language Native speakers Total
English 13%51%
German 18%32%
French 13%26%
Italian 12%16%
Spanish 8%15%
Polish 8%9%
Romanian 5%5%
Dutch 4%5%
Greek 3%4%
Hungarian 3%3%
Portuguese 2%3%
Czech 2%3%
Swedish 2%3%
Bulgarian 2%2%
Slovak 1%2%
Danish 1%1%
Finnish 1%1%
Lithuanian 1%1%
Croatian 1%1%
Slovene <1%<1%
Estonian <1%<1%
Irish <1%<1%
Latvian <1%<1%
Maltese <1%<1%

Survey 2012. [84]
Native: Native language [85]
Total: EU citizens able to hold a
conversation in this language [86]

The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish. Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language and the European Parliament provides translation for documents and plenary sessions. [87] [88] [89]

Due to the high number of official idioms, most of the institutions use only a handful of working languages. [90] The European Commission conducts its internal business in three procedural languages : English, French, and German. Similarly, the European Court of Justice uses French as the working language, [91] [92] while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. [93] [94]

Even though language policy is the responsibility of member states, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens. [lower-alpha 7] [95] English is the most widely spoken language in the EU, being understood by 51% of the EU population when counting both native and non-native speakers. [96] German is the most widely spoken mother tongue (16% of the EU population). More than half (56%) of EU citizens are able to engage in a conversation in a language other than their mother tongue. [97]

Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, represented by the Balto-Slavic, [lower-alpha 8] the Italic, [lower-alpha 9] the Germanic, [lower-alpha 10] the Hellenic, [lower-alpha 11] and the Celtic [lower-alpha 12] branches. Some EU languages, however, namely Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian (all three Uralic), Basque [lower-alpha 13] (isolate) and Maltese (Semitic), do not belong to Indo-European languages. [98] The three official alphabets of the European Union (Cyrillic, Latin, and modern Greek) all derive from the Archaic Greek scripts. [3] [99]

Besides the 24 official languages, there are about 150 regional and minority languages, spoken by up to 50 million people. [98] Catalan, Galician, Basque, Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh are not recognised official languages of the European Union but have semi-official status: official translations of the treaties are made into them and citizens have the right to correspond with the institutions in these languages. [100] [101] The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ratified by most EU states provides general guidelines that states can follow to protect their linguistic heritage. The European Day of Languages is held annually on 26 September and is aimed at encouraging language learning across Europe. [102]

Religion

Religious affiliation in the European Union (2015) [4]
Affiliation% of EU population
Christian 71.671.6
 
Catholic 45.345.3
 
Protestant 11.111.1
 
Eastern Orthodox 9.69.6
 
Other Christian5.65.6
 
Muslim 1.81.8
 
Other faiths2.62.6
 
Irreligious 2424
 
Non-believer/Agnostic 13.613.6
 
Atheist 10.410.4
 

The EU has no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [103] recognises the "status under national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations". [104]

The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe". [104] Discussion over the draft texts of the European Constitution and later the Treaty of Lisbon included proposals to mention Christianity or a god, or both, in the preamble of the text, but the idea faced opposition and was dropped. [105]

Christians in the European Union are divided among members of Catholicism (both Roman and Eastern Rite), numerous Protestant denominations (Anglicans, Lutherans, and Reformed forming the bulk of this category), and the Eastern Orthodox Church. In 2009, the EU had an estimated Muslim population of 13 million, [106] and an estimated Jewish population of over a million. [107] The other world religions of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sikhism are also represented in the EU population.

According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in 2015 by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 71.6% of the EU population. Catholics are the largest Christian group, accounting for 45.3% of the EU population, while Protestants make up 11.1%, Eastern Orthodox make up 9.6%, and other Christians make up 5.6%. [4]

Eurostat's Eurobarometer opinion polls showed in 2005 that 52% of EU citizens believed in a god, 27% in "some sort of spirit or life force", and 18% had no form of belief. [108] Many countries have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years. [109] The countries where the fewest people reported a religious belief were Estonia (16%) and the Czech Republic (19%). [108] The most religious countries were Malta (95%, predominantly Roman Catholic) as well as Cyprus and Romania (both predominantly Orthodox) each with about 90% of citizens professing a belief in their respective god. Across the EU, belief was higher among women, older people, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 or 16, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the political scale". [108]

Member states

Through successive enlargements, the European Union has grown from the six founding states (Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) to the current 28. Countries accede to the union by becoming party to the founding treaties, thereby subjecting themselves to the privileges and obligations of EU membership. This entails a partial delegation of sovereignty to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions, a practice often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty". [110] [111]

To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defined at the 1993 meeting of the European Council in Copenhagen. These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law; a functioning market economy; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law. Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council. [112] No member state has yet left the Union, although Greenland (an autonomous province of Denmark) withdrew in 1985. [113] Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty provides the basis for a member to leave the Union. [114] Since mid-2017, the United Kingdom has been negotiating terms for its withdrawal from the EU.

There are six countries that are recognised as candidates for membership: Albania, Iceland, North Macedonia, [lower-alpha 14] Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey, [115] though Iceland suspended negotiations in 2013. [116] Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are officially recognised as potential candidates, [115] with Bosnia and Herzegovina having submitted a membership application.

The four countries forming the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) are not EU members, but have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, which are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area, and Switzerland, which has similar ties through bilateral treaties. [117] [118] The relationships of the European microstates, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City include the use of the euro and other areas of co-operation. [119] The following 28 sovereign states (of which the map only shows territories situated in and around Europe) constitute the European Union: [120]

FinlandSwedenEstoniaLatviaLithuaniaPolandSlovakiaHungaryRomaniaBulgariaGreeceCyprusCzech RepublicAustriaSloveniaItalyMaltaPortugalSpainFranceGermanyLuxembourgBelgiumNetherlandsDenmarkUnited KingdomIrelandEuropean Union
European Union
List of member states
Arms Flag State Capital Code Accession Population
(2019) [7]
AreaPopulation
density
MEPs
Austria coat of arms official.svg Flag of Austria.svg Austria Vienna AT1 January 19958,858,77583,855 km2
(32,377 sq mi)
106/km2
(270/sq mi)
18
Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium Brussels BEFounder11,467,92330,528 km2
(11,787 sq mi)
376/km2
(970/sq mi)
21
Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria Sofia BG1 January 20077,000,039110,994 km2
(42,855 sq mi)
63/km2
(160/sq mi)
17
Croatia chequy.svg Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia Zagreb HR1 July 20134,076,24656,594 km2
(21,851 sq mi)
72/km2
(190/sq mi)
11
Lesser coat of arms of Cyprus.svg Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus Nicosia CY1 May 2004875,8989,251 km2
(3,572 sq mi)
95/km2
(250/sq mi)
6
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic Prague CZ1 May 200410,649,80078,866 km2
(30,450 sq mi)
135/km2
(350/sq mi)
21
National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark Copenhagen DK1 January 19735,806,08143,075 km2
(16,631 sq mi)
135/km2
(350/sq mi)
13
Small coat of arms of Estonia.svg Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia Tallinn EE1 May 20041,324,82045,227 km2
(17,462 sq mi)
29/km2
(75/sq mi)
6
Coat of Arms of Finland Alternative style.svg Flag of Finland.svg Finland Helsinki FI1 January 19955,517,919338,424 km2
(130,666 sq mi)
16/km2
(41/sq mi)
13
Arms of the French Republic.svg Flag of France.svg France Paris FRFounder67,028,048640,679 km2
(247,368 sq mi)
105/km2
(270/sq mi)
74
Coat of arms of Germany.svg Flag of Germany.svg Germany Berlin DEFounder [lower-alpha 15] 83,019,214357,021 km2
(137,847 sq mi)
233/km2
(600/sq mi)
96
Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Flag of Greece.svg Greece Athens GR1 January 198110,722,287131,990 km2
(50,960 sq mi)
81/km2
(210/sq mi)
21
Arms of Hungary.svg Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary Budapest HU1 May 20049,797,56193,030 km2
(35,920 sq mi)
105/km2
(270/sq mi)
21
Arms of the Republic of Ireland.svg Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Dublin IE1 January 19734,904,22670,273 km2
(27,133 sq mi)
70/km2
(180/sq mi)
11
Emblem of Italy.svg Flag of Italy.svg Italy Rome ITFounder60,359,546301,338 km2
(116,347 sq mi)
200/km2
(520/sq mi)
73
Lesser coat of arms of Latvia (escutcheon).svg Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia Riga LV1 May 20041,919,96864,589 km2
(24,938 sq mi)
30/km2
(78/sq mi)
8
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania Vilnius LT1 May 20042,794,18465,200 km2
(25,200 sq mi)
43/km2
(110/sq mi)
11
EU Member States' CoA Series- Luxembourg.svg Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg Luxembourg City LUFounder613,8942,586 km2
(998 sq mi)
237/km2
(610/sq mi)
6
Arms of Malta.svg Flag of Malta.svg Malta Valletta MT1 May 2004493,559316 km2
(122 sq mi)
1,562/km2
(4,050/sq mi)
6
Royal Arms of the Netherlands.svg Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Amsterdam NLFounder17,282,16341,543 km2
(16,040 sq mi)
416/km2
(1,080/sq mi)
26
Herb Polski.svg Flag of Poland.svg Poland Warsaw PL1 May 200437,972,812312,685 km2
(120,728 sq mi)
121/km2
(310/sq mi)
51
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1481-1910).png Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal Lisbon PT1 January 198610,276,61792,390 km2
(35,670 sq mi)
111/km2
(290/sq mi)
21
Coat of arms of Romania.svg Flag of Romania.svg Romania Bucharest RO1 January 200719,401,658238,391 km2
(92,043 sq mi)
81/km2
(210/sq mi)
32
Coat of arms of Slovakia.svg Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia Bratislava SK1 May 20045,450,42149,035 km2
(18,933 sq mi)
111/km2
(290/sq mi)
13
Coat of arms of Slovenia.svg Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia Ljubljana SI1 May 20042,080,90820,273 km2
(7,827 sq mi)
103/km2
(270/sq mi)
8
Arms of Spain.svg Flag of Spain.svg Spain Madrid ES1 January 198646,934,632504,030 km2
(194,610 sq mi)
93/km2
(240/sq mi)
54
Shield of arms of Sweden.svg Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden Stockholm SE1 January 199510,230,185449,964 km2
(173,732 sq mi)
23/km2
(60/sq mi)
20
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom London GB1 January 197366,647,112243,610 km2
(94,060 sq mi)
274/km2
(710/sq mi)
73
28 total513,481,6914,475,757 km2
(1,728,099 sq mi)
115/km2
(300/sq mi)
751

Geography

The EU's member states cover an area of 4,423,147 square kilometres (1,707,787 sq mi). [lower-alpha 16] The EU's highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level. [121] The lowest points in the EU are Lammefjorden, Denmark and Zuidplaspolder, Netherlands, at 7 m (23 ft) below sea level. [122] The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are influenced by its coastline, which is 65,993 kilometres (41,006 mi) long.

Including the overseas territories of France which are located outside the continent of Europe, but which are members of the union, the EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic (north-east Europe) to tropical (French Guiana), rendering meteorological averages for the EU as a whole meaningless. The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate (North-Western Europe and Central Europe), a Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe), or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Northern Balkans and Central Europe). [123]

The EU's population is highly urbanised, with some 75% of inhabitants living in urban areas as of 2006. Cities are largely spread out across the EU, although with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. [124]

Politics

Organigram of the political system with the seven institutions of the Union in blue, national / intergovernmental elements in orange Organs of the European Union.svg
Organigram of the political system with the seven institutions of the Union in blue, national / intergovernmental elements in orange
European Commission presidency candidates at Eurovision Debate (May 2019). Left to right: Zahradil, Cue, Keller, Vestager, Timmermans, Weber Debate of lead candidates for the European Commission presidency (40894703423).jpg
European Commission presidency candidates at Eurovision Debate (May 2019). Left to right: Zahradil, Cué, Keller, Vestager, Timmermans, Weber

The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making, [125] [126] and according to the principles of conferral (which says that it should act only within the limits of the competences conferred on it by the treaties) and of subsidiarity (which says that it should act only where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states acting alone). Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. [127] Generally speaking, they can be classified into two groups: those which come into force without the necessity for national implementation measures (regulations) and those which specifically require national implementation measures (directives). [128]

Constitutionally, the EU bears some resemblance to both a confederation and a federation, [129] [130] but has not formally defined itself as either. (It does not have a formal constitution: its status is defined by the Treaty of European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union). It is more integrated than a traditional confederation of states because the general level of government widely employs qualified majority voting in some decision-making among the member states, rather than relying exclusively on unanimity. [131] [132] It is less integrated than a federal state because it is not a state in its own right: sovereignty continues to flow 'from the bottom up', from the several peoples of the separate member states, rather than from a single undifferentiated whole. This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', retaining control over the allocation of competences to the Union through constitutional change (thus retaining so-called Kompetenz-kompetenz); in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal from the Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. In addition, the principle of subsidiarity requires that only those matters that need to be determined collectively are so determined.

The European Union has seven principal decision-making bodies, its institutions: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the European Court of Auditors. Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, while executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council (not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union). The monetary policy of the eurozone is determined by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union. The EU budget is scrutinised by the European Court of Auditors. There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area.

EU policy is in general promulgated by EU directives, which are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member states, and EU regulations, which are immediately enforceable in all member states. Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process [133]

European Parliament

The hemicycle of the European Parliament in Strasbourg European Parliament Strasbourg Hemicycle - Diliff.jpg
The hemicycle of the European Parliament in Strasbourg
President of the European Parliament, David Sassoli David Maria Sassoli.jpg
President of the European Parliament, David Sassoli

The European Parliament is one of three legislative institutions of the EU, which together with the Council of the European Union is tasked with amending and approving the Commission's proposals. The 751 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly elected by EU citizens every five years on the basis of proportional representation. Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system. [134]

In the ordinary legislative procedure, the European Commission proposes legislation, which requires the joint approval of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to pass. This process applies to nearly all areas, including the EU budget. The Parliament is the final body to approve or reject the proposed membership of the Commission, and can attempt motions of censure on the Commission by appeal to the Court of Justice. The President of the European Parliament (currently David Sassoli) carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally. The President and Vice-Presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half years. [135]

European Council

President of the European Council, Donald Tusk Donald Tusk 2013-12-19.jpg
President of the European Council, Donald Tusk

The European Council gives political direction to the EU. It convenes at least four times a year and comprises the President of the European Council (currently Donald Tusk), the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state (either its head of state or head of government). The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (currently Federica Mogherini) also takes part in its meetings. It has been described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority". [136] It is actively involved in the negotiation of treaty changes and defines the EU's policy agenda and strategies.

The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies. It acts externally as a "collective head of state" and ratifies important documents (for example, international agreements and treaties). [137]

Tasks for the President of the European Council are ensuring the external representation of the EU, [138] driving consensus and resolving divergences among member states, both during meetings of the European Council and over the periods between them.

The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe, an international organisation independent of the EU based in Strasbourg.

Council of the European Union

Lithuania held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2013. Lithuania presidency EU stamp 2013.jpg
Lithuania held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2013.

The Council of the European Union (also called the "Council" [139] and the "Council of Ministers", its former title) [140] forms one half of the EU's legislature. It consists of a government minister from each member state and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed. Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. [141] In addition to its legislative functions, the Council also exercises executive functions in relations to the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the Union. Visegrad Group, Benelux, Baltic Assembly, New Hanseatic League or Craiova Group.

European Commission

Commission President, Ursula von der Leyen Ursula von der Leyen presents her vision to MEPs 2 (portrait crop).jpg
Commission President, Ursula von der Leyen

The European Commission acts both as the EU's executive arm, responsible for the day-to-day running of the EU, and also the legislative initiator, with the sole power to propose laws for debate. [142] [143] [144] The Commission is 'guardian of the Treaties' and is responsible for their efficient operation and policing. [145] It operates de facto as a cabinet government, with 28 Commissioners for different areas of policy, one from each member state, though Commissioners are bound to represent the interests of the EU as a whole rather than their home state.

One of the 28 is the President of the European Commission (Jean-Claude Juncker for 20142019), appointed by the European Council, subject to the Parliament's approval. After the President, the most prominent Commissioner is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who is ex-officio a Vice-President of the Commission and is also chosen by the European Council. [146] The other 26 Commissioners are subsequently appointed by the Council of the European Union in agreement with the nominated President. The 28 Commissioners as a single body are subject to approval (or otherwise) by vote of the European Parliament.

Budget

The 2011 EU budget (€141.9 bn) [147]

  Cohesion and competitiveness for growth and employment (45%)
  Direct aids and market related expenditures (31%)
  Rural development (11%)
  EU as a global partner (6%)
  Administration (6%)
  Citizenship, freedom, security and justice (1%)

The EU had an agreed budget of €120.7 billion for the year 2007 and €864.3 billion for the period 2007–2013, [148] representing 1.10% and 1.05% of the EU-27's GNI forecast for the respective periods. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP. [149]

In the 2010 budget of €141.5 billion, the largest single expenditure item is " cohesion & competitiveness " with around 45% of the total budget. [150] Next comes " agriculture " with approximately 31% of the total. [150] "Rural development, environment and fisheries " takes up around 11%. [150] "Administration" accounts for around 6%. [150] The "EU as a global partner" and "citizenship, freedom, security and justice" bring up the rear with approximately 6% and 1% respectively. [150]

The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions". [151] The Court also gives opinions and proposals on financial legislation and anti-fraud actions. [152] The Parliament uses this to decide whether to approve the Commission's handling of the budget.

The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since 2007 and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level. [153] [154] In their report on 2009 the auditors found that five areas of Union expenditure, agriculture and the cohesion fund, were materially affected by error. [155] The European Commission estimated in 2009 that the financial effect of irregularities was €1,863 million. [156]

Competences

EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence. These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws. [157]

That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area. Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area.

The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:

As outlined in Title I of Part I of the consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
Exclusive competence
Shared competence
Supporting competence
The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act as to …
Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the Union has done so, that is …
Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in …
  • research, technological development and  (outer) space
  • development cooperation, humanitarian aid
The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements supplemental to their common policies not covered elsewhere in …
The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement Member States' actions in …
  • the protection and improvement of human health
  • industry
  • culture
  • tourism
  • education, youth, sport and vocational training
  • civil protection (disaster prevention)
  • administrative cooperation

The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties. [158] These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals. These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation [lower-alpha 17] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants. [lower-alpha 18] The EU has legal personality, with the right to sign agreements and international treaties. [159]

Under the principle of supremacy, national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and (within limits) even constitutional provisions. [lower-alpha 19]

The direct effect and supremacy doctrines were not explicitly set out the European Treaties but were developed by the Court of Justice itself over the 1960s, apparently under the influence of its then most influential judge, Frenchman Robert Lecourt [160]

Courts of Justice

The Court of Justice, seated in Luxembourg City European Court of Justice - Luxembourg (1674586821).jpg
The Court of Justice, seated in Luxembourg City

The judicial branch of the EU—formally called the Court of Justice of the European Union—consists of two courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court [161] The Court of Justice primarily deals with cases taken by member states, the institutions, and cases referred to it by the courts of member states. [162] Because of the doctrines of direct effect and supremacy, many judgments of the Court of Justice are automatically applicable within the internal legal orders of the member states.

The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts, [163] and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes between the European Union and its civil service. [164] Decisions from the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice but only on a point of law. [165]

Fundamental rights

The Parada Rownosci in Warsaw in 2018, when the Court of Justice declared that same-sex spouses have EU residence rights. Parada Rownosci 2018 01.jpg
The Parada Równości in Warsaw in 2018, when the Court of Justice declared that same-sex spouses have EU residence rights.

The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities  ... in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail." [167]

In 2009, the Lisbon Treaty gave legal effect to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged. It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states." [168] The Court of Justice has long recognised fundamental rights and has, on occasion, invalidated EU legislation based on its failure to adhere to those fundamental rights. [169]

Although signing the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) is a condition for EU membership, [lower-alpha 20] previously, the EU itself could not accede to the Convention as it is neither a state [lower-alpha 21] nor had the competence to accede. [lower-alpha 22] The Lisbon Treaty and Protocol 14 to the ECHR have changed this: the former binds the EU to accede to the Convention while the latter formally permits it.

Although, the EU is independent from Council of Europe, they share purpose and ideas especially on rule of law, human rights and democracy. Further European Convention on Human Rights and European Social Charter, the source of law of Charter of Fundamental Rights are created by Council of Europe. The EU also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition. Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership. [170]

Acts

The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: regulations, directives, and decisions. Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [lower-alpha 23] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions. [lower-alpha 17] Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result. The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states. [lower-alpha 24] When the time limit for implementing directives passes, they may, under certain conditions, have direct effect in national law against member states.

Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation. They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law, or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions. Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy. [171]

Justice and home affairs

Since the creation of the EU in 1993, it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism. Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition, [172] family law, [173] asylum law, [174] and criminal justice. [175] Prohibitions against sexual and nationality discrimination have a long standing in the treaties. [lower-alpha 25] In more recent years, these have been supplemented by powers to legislate against discrimination based on race, religion, disability, age, and sexual orientation. [lower-alpha 26] By virtue of these powers, the EU has enacted legislation on sexual discrimination in the work-place, age discrimination, and racial discrimination. [lower-alpha 27]

The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces, [176] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors, [177] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities. [178] The EU also operates the Schengen Information System [17] which provides a common database for police and immigration authorities. This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime.

Foreign relations

EU Free trade agreements (2017)
European Union
Agreement in force
Pending
Negotiating
Suspended EU free trade agreements.PNG
EU Free trade agreements (2017)
  European Union
  Agreement in force
  Pending
  Negotiating
  Suspended

Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in 1957, when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the EU's common commercial policy. [179] Steps for a more wide-ranging co-ordination in foreign relations began in 1970 with the establishment of European Political Cooperation which created an informal consultation process between member states with the aim of forming common foreign policies. It was not, however, until 1987 when European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. EPC was renamed as the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) by the Maastricht Treaty. [180]

The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. [181] The CFSP requires unanimity among the member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular issue. The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq. [182]

The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment. The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service (EEAS), a unique EU department [183] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December 2010 on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. [184] The EEAS will serve as a foreign ministry and diplomatic corps for the European Union. [185]

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement. The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries. [186] :762 This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power". [187]

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements (FTAs) [188] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others. [189]

Defence

Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants - Albania, Montenegro and Turkey. 2018 NATO Summit in Brussels (29510554308).jpg
Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants – Albania, Montenegro and Turkey.

The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes. [190] 22 EU members are members of NATO [191] while the remaining member states follow policies of neutrality. [192] The Western European Union, a military alliance with a mutual defence clause, was disbanded in 2010 as its role had been transferred to the EU. [193]

According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the United Kingdom spent $61 billion on defence in 2014, placing it fifth in the world, while France spent $53 billion, the sixth largest. [194] Together, the UK and France account for approximately 40 per cent of European countries' defence budget and 50 per cent of their military capacity. [195] Both are officially recognised nuclear weapon states holding permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. Most EU member states opposed the Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty. [196]

The Bulgarian fleet in Varna, Black Sea. Verni and Tsezar' Kunikov in Varna, 2009.jpg
The Bulgarian fleet in Varna, Black Sea.

Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy quickly about 1500 personnel. [197]

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia. [198] EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff. [199] Frontex is an agency of the EU established to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders. It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In 2015 the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management. In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states. [200]

Humanitarian aid

If considered collectively, EU member states are the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world. ECHO plane.jpg
If considered collectively, EU member states are the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world.

The European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection department, or "ECHO", provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. In 2012, its budget amounted to €874 million, 51% of the budget went to Africa and 20% to Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Pacific, and 20% to the Middle East and Mediterranean. [203]

Humanitarian aid is financed directly by the budget (70%) as part of the financial instruments for external action and also by the European Development Fund (30%). [204] The EU's external action financing is divided into 'geographic' instruments and 'thematic' instruments. [204] The 'geographic' instruments provide aid through the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI, €16.9 billion, 2007–2013), which must spend 95% of its budget on official development assistance (ODA), and from the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which contains some relevant programmes. [204] The European Development Fund (EDF, €22.7 billion for the period 2008–2013 and €30.5 billion for the period 2014-2020) is made up of voluntary contributions by member states, but there is pressure to merge the EDF into the budget-financed instruments to encourage increased contributions to match the 0.7% target and allow the European Parliament greater oversight. [204] [205]

In 2016, the average among EU countries was 0.4% and five had met or exceeded the 0.7% target: Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden and the United Kingdom. [206]

Regional and global influence

Eiffel Tower, Paris Eiffel Tower wearing Europe colors - panoramio.jpg
Eiffel Tower, Paris

Because of its ability to shape rules and norms on a global level as well as its attempts to influence neighbouring countries, the EU has been called an emerging or potential superpower by scholars and academics like T. R. Reid, [207] Andrew Reding, [208] Andrew Moravcsik, [209] Mark Leonard, [210] Jeremy Rifkin, [211] John McCormick, [212] and some politicians like Romano Prodi [213] and Tony Blair, [214] They believe that the EU is a superpower, or will become one, in the 21st century  while noting that, for them, the concept of "superpower" has changed to one of soft power rather than the hard (military) superpowers of the 20th century.

The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union, or more closely integrated with the European Union. The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation. This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country.

Critics of the concept of the EU as an emerging superpower point to the lack of either a strong European military or of unified EU foreign policy. [215]

Economy

Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant in purchasing power standards (PPS) in relation to the EU-28 average, by NUTS 2 regions, 2016 Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant in purchasing power standards (PPS) in relation to the EU-28 average, by NUTS 2 regions, 2015.png
Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant in purchasing power standards (PPS) in relation to the EU-28 average, by NUTS 2 regions, 2016
European Union
The five largest economies in the world according to the IMF by Nominal GDP in 2018 [216]

The European Union has established a single market across the territory of all its members representing 512 million citizens. In 2017, the EU had a combined GDP of $21 trillion international dollars, a 17% share of global gross domestic product by purchasing power parity (PPP). [217] As a political entity the European Union is represented in the World Trade Organization (WTO). EU member states own the estimated second largest after the United States(US$98.2 trillion) net wealth in the world, equal to 25% (US$78 trillion) of the $317 trillion(~€280 trillion [218] ) global wealth. [219]

19 member states have joined a monetary union known as the eurozone, which uses the Euro as a single currency. The currency union represents 342 million EU citizens. [220] The euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. [221] [222] [223]

Of the top 500 largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in 2010, 161 have their headquarters in the EU. [224] In 2016, unemployment in the EU stood at 8.9% [225] while inflation was at 2.2%, and the current account balance at −0.9% of GDP. The average annual net earnings in the European Union was around €24,000(US$30,000) [226] in 2015, which was about 70% of that in the United States. [227]

There is a significant variation in Nominal GDP per capita within individual EU states. The difference between the richest and poorest regions (281 NUTS-2 regions of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) ranged, in 2017, from 15% (Severozapaden, Bulgaria) of the EU28 average (€30,000) to 700% (Inner London – West, UK), or from €4,600 to €209,900. [228]

Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe. [229] [230] Several funds provide emergency aid, support for candidate members to transform their country to conform to the EU's standard (Phare, ISPA, and SAPARD), and support to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS). TACIS has now become part of the worldwide EuropeAid programme. EU research and technological framework programmes sponsor research conducted by consortia from all EU members to work towards a single European Research Area. [231]

Internal market

Eirepas.JPG
Croatian driving licence.jpg
SK-number-plate-2004.svg
Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language(s). (Irish model), Croatian version of an EU driving licence card with the EU flag on it, The common EU format of vehicle registration plate (Slovak version pictured)

Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market, and a customs union between its member states. The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU, [220] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas, as they travel internally. The non-EU member states of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union. [117] Half the trade in the EU is covered by legislation harmonised by the EU. [232]

Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries. [233] Until the drive towards economic and monetary union the development of the capital provisions had been slow. Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states.

The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states. [234]

The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis. While services account for 60–70% of GDP, legislation in the area is not as developed as in other areas. This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services. [235] According to the Treaty the provision of services is a residual freedom that only applies if no other freedom is being exercised.

Monetary union

European Central Bank - building under construction - Frankfurt - Germany - 13.jpg
BlueEurozone.svg
Left: The seat of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. Right: 19 of the 28 EU member states have adopted the euro as their legal tender. The Eurozone (dark blue) represents 340 million people. The euro is the second-largest reserve currency in the world.

The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in 1969. In 1992, having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union. The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism.

In 1999 the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining. In 2002, the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states. The eurozone (constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro) has since grown to 19 countries. [236] [lower-alpha 28]

Christine Lagarde, designated President of the European Central Bank. Lagarde, Christine (official portrait 2011).jpg
Christine Lagarde, designated President of the European Central Bank.

The euro, and the monetary policies of those who have adopted it in agreement with the EU, are under the control of the European Central Bank (ECB). [237] The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. It is at the centre of the European System of Central Banks, which comprehends all EU national central banks and is controlled by its General Council, consisting of the President of the ECB, who is appointed by the European Council, the Vice-President of the ECB, and the governors of the national central banks of all 28 EU member states. [238]

The European System of Financial Supervision is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision composed by three authorities: the European Banking Authority, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and the European Securities and Markets Authority. To complement this framework, there is also a European Systemic Risk Board under the responsibility of the ECB. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU. [239]

To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.

Energy

Consumed energy (2012)
Energy sourceOriginPercents
OilImported
 
33%
Domestic
 
6%
GasImported
 
14%
Domestic
 
9%
Nuclear [lower-alpha 29] Imported
 
0%
Domestic
 
13%
Coal/LigniteImported
 
0%
Domestic
 
10%
RenewableImported
 
0%
Domestic
 
7%
OtherImported
 
7%
Domestic
 
1%

In 2006, the EU-27 had a gross inland energy consumption of 1,825 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe). [240] Around 46% of the energy consumed was produced within the member states while 54% was imported. [240] In these statistics, nuclear energy is treated as primary energy produced in the EU, regardless of the source of the uranium, of which less than 3% is produced in the EU. [241]

The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community. The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October 2005, and the first draft policy was published in January 2007. [242]

The EU has five key points in its energy policy: increase competition in the internal market, encourage investment and boost interconnections between electricity grids; diversify energy resources with better systems to respond to a crisis; establish a new treaty framework for energy co-operation with Russia while improving relations with energy-rich states in Central Asia [243] and North Africa; use existing energy supplies more efficiently while increasing renewable energy commercialisation; and finally increase funding for new energy technologies. [242]

In 2007, EU countries as a whole imported 82% of their oil, 57% of their natural gas [244] and 97.48% of their uranium [241] demands. There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce. [245]

Infrastructure

Approximate extent of completed motorway network in Europe as of March 2016 Europe Completed Motorways Dec 2012.png
Approximate extent of completed motorway network in Europe as of March 2016

The EU is working to improve cross-border infrastructure within the EU, for example through the Trans-European Networks (TEN). Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Fréjus Rail Tunnel, the Öresund Bridge, the Brenner Base Tunnel and the Strait of Messina Bridge. In 2010 the estimated network covers: 75,200 kilometres (46,700 mi) of roads; 78,000 kilometres (48,000 mi) of railways; 330 airports; 270 maritime harbours; and 210 internal harbours. [246] [247]

Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems.

The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since 2004 added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda. [248] The Polish road network was upgraded such as the A4 autostrada. [249]

The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. Galileo is a proposed Satellite navigation system, to be built by the EU and launched by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System, but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system. [250]

Agriculture

Vineyards in Romania; EU farms are supported by the Common Agricultural Policy, the largest budgetary expenditure. RO BZ Pietroasele vineyard.jpg
Vineyards in Romania; EU farms are supported by the Common Agricultural Policy, the largest budgetary expenditure.

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the long lasting policies of the European Community. [251] The policy has the objectives of increasing agricultural production, providing certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, stabilising markets, and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers. [lower-alpha 30] It was, until recently, operated by a system of subsidies and market intervention. Until the 1990s, the policy accounted for over 60% of the then European Community's annual budget, and as of 2013 accounts for around 34%. [252]

The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels. To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies (amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices) to export their products outside the Community. This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world. [253] Supporters of CAP argue that the economic support which it gives to farmers provides them with a reasonable standard of living. [253]

Since the beginning of the 1990s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially, these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in 1988, where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' (or disassociation) of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce (by the Fischler reforms in 2004). Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size. This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. [251] One of these reforms entailed the modification of the EU's sugar regime, which previously divided the sugar market between member states and certain African-Caribbean nations with a privileged relationship with the EU. [254]

Competition

The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market. [lower-alpha 31] The Commission as the competition regulator for the single market is responsible for antitrust issues, approving mergers, breaking up cartels, working for economic liberalisation and preventing state aid. [255] [ failed verification ]

The Competition Commissioner, currently Margrethe Vestager, is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations. [256] [ failed verification ] For example, in 2001 the Commission for the first time prevented a merger between two companies based in the United States (GE and Honeywell) which had already been approved by their national authority. [257] Another high-profile case against Microsoft, resulted in the Commission fining Microsoft over €777 million following nine years of legal action. [258]

Social policy

The EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping. To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimum employment and environmental standards. These included the Working Time Directive and the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive. The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states.

Environment

European Environment Agency in Copenhagen. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.jpg
European Environment Agency in Copenhagen.

In 1957, when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. [259] Over the past 50 years, an increasingly dense network of legislation has been created, extending to all areas of environmental protection, including air pollution, water quality, waste management, nature conservation, and the control of chemicals, industrial hazards, and biotechnology. [260] According to the Institute for European Environmental Policy, environmental law comprises over 500 Directives, Regulations and Decisions, making environmental policy a core area of European politics. [261]

European policy-makers originally increased the EU's capacity to act on environmental issues by defining it as a trade problem. [262] Trade barriers and competitive distortions in the Common Market could emerge due to the different environmental standards in each member state. [263] In subsequent years, the environment became a formal policy area, with its own policy actors, principles and procedures. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987. [261]

Biogeographic regions of the continental European Union, according to the European Environmental Agency European Union biogeography countries.svg
Biogeographic regions of the continental European Union, according to the European Environmental Agency

Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe. More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e.g. the role of the EU in securing the ratification and coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol despite opposition from the United States. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, [264] which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. [265] EU law has played a significant role in improving habitat and species protection in Europe, as well as contributing to improvements in air and water quality and waste management. [261]

Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy. In 2007, member states agreed that, in the future, 20% of the energy used across the EU must be renewable, and carbon dioxide emissions have to be lower in 2020 by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels. [266] The EU has adopted an emissions trading system to incorporate carbon emissions into the economy. [267] The European Green Capital is an annual award given to cities that focuses on the environment, energy efficiency, and quality of life in urban areas to create smart city.

In the Elections to the European Parliament in 2019, the green parties increased their power, possibly because of the rise of post materialist values. [268]

Proposals to reach a zero carbon economy in the European Union by 2050 were suggested in 2018 - 2019. Almost all member states supported that goal at an EU summit in June 2019. The Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland disagreed. [269]

Education and science

Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Renaissance humanist after whom the Erasmus Programme is named Holbein-erasmus.jpg
Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Renaissance humanist after whom the Erasmus Programme is named

Basic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments. In higher education, the policy was developed in the 1980s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. In its first 20 years, it supported international exchange opportunities for well over 1.5 million university and college students and became a symbol of European student life. [270]

There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training, and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013. These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU. [271] [272] Through its support of the Bologna Process, the EU is supporting comparable standards and compatible degrees across Europe.

Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes, the first of which started in 1984. The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research. The independent European Research Council allocates EU funds to European or national research projects. [273] EU research and technological framework programmes deal in a number of areas, for example energy where the aim is to develop a diverse mix of renewable energy to help the environment and to reduce dependence on imported fuels. [274]

Health care

European Health Insurance Card
(Slovenian version pictured) EHIC Slovenia.jpg
European Health Insurance Card
(Slovenian version pictured)

Although the EU has no major competences in the field of health care, Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities". The European Commission's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products. [275] [276] [277]

All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries. [278] A directive on cross-border healthcare aims at promoting co-operation on health care between member states and facilitating access to safe and high-quality cross-border healthcare for European patients. [279] [280] [281]

Culture

The European Capital of Culture programme was launched in the summer of 1985 with Athens being the first title-holder View of the Acropolis Athens 2 (pixinn.net).jpg
The European Capital of Culture programme was launched in the summer of 1985 with Athens being the first title-holder

Cultural co-operation between member states has been a concern of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty. [282] Actions taken in the cultural area by the EU include the Culture 2000 seven-year programme, [282] the European Cultural Month event, [283] and orchestras such as the European Union Youth Orchestra. [284] The European Capital of Culture programme selects one or more cities in every year to assist the cultural development of that city. [285]

Sport

Football is one of the most popular sports in the European Union. (Camp Nou in Barcelona) Camp Nou - Interior (2005).jpg
Football is one of the most popular sports in the European Union. (Camp Nou in Barcelona)

Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing. [286]

Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU. However, there are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship. [287]

The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity. [288] This followed lobbying by governing organisations such as the International Olympic Committee and FIFA, due to objections over the application of free market principles to sport, which led to an increasing gap between rich and poor clubs. [289] The EU does fund a programme for Israeli, Jordanian, Irish, and British football coaches, as part of the Football 4 Peace project. [290]

Symbols

Bust of Charlemagne with the German Reichsadler embossed on the metal and the French fleur-de-lis embroidered on the fabric. Aachen Cathedral Treasury Aachen Domschatz Bueste1.jpg
Bust of Charlemagne with the German Reichsadler embossed on the metal and the French fleur-de-lis embroidered on the fabric. Aachen Cathedral Treasury

The flag used is the Flag of Europe, which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. Originally designed in 1955 for the Council of Europe, the flag was adopted by the European Communities, the predecessors of the present Union, in 1986. The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms, [291] though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world": [292]

Against the blue sky of the Western world, the stars symbolise the peoples of Europe in a form of a circle, the sign of union. The number of stars is invariably twelve, the figure twelve being the symbol of perfection and entirety.

Council of Europe. Paris, 7–9 December 1955.
Europa and the bull, depicted by Jean-Francois de Troy (1716) The Abduction of Europa, Jean-Francois de Troy.jpg
Europa and the bull, depicted by Jean-François de Troy (1716)

United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year 2000, having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils. [293] Since 1985, the flag day of the Union has been Europe Day, on 9 May (the date of the 1950 Schuman declaration). The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy , the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's ninth symphony. The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in 1985 and has since been played on official occasions. [294] Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe. Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union. Statues of Europa and the bull decorate several of the Union's institutions and a portrait of her is seen on the 2013 series of Euro banknotes. The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. [295]

Charles the Great, also known as Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus) and later recognised as Pater Europae ("Father of Europe"), [296] [297] [298] has a symbolic relevance to Europe. The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since 1949 awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification. [299] Since 2008, the organisers of this prize, in conjunction with the European Parliament, have awarded the Charlemagne Youth Prize in recognition of similar efforts by young people. [300]

Media

Euronews headquarters in Lyon, France Siege d'Euronews.jpg
Euronews headquarters in Lyon, France

Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens, as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights. [301] :1 Within the EU enlargement process, guaranteeing media freedom is named a "key indicator of a country's readiness to become part of the EU". [302]

The vast majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. However, some EU-wide media focusing on European affairs have emerged since the early 1990s, such as Euronews, EUobserver, EURACTIV or Politico Europe. [303] ARTE is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts. 80% of its programming are provided in equal proportion by the two member companies, while the remainder is being provided by the European Economic Interest Grouping ARTE GEIE and the channel's European partners. [304]

The MEDIA Programme of the European Union intends to support the European popular film and audiovisual industries since 1991. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond. [305]

See also

Notes

  1. The 24 languages are equally official and accepted as working languages. However, only three of them – English, French and German – have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions. [2]
  2. Currently undergoing exit procedures known as Brexit.
  3. Calculated using UNDP data for the member states with weighted population. [11]
  4. Martinique, Guadeloupe (UTC−4); French Guiana (UTC−3); Azores (UTC−1 / UTC); Mayotte (UTC+3); and La Réunion (UTC+4); which, other than the Azores, do not observe DST.
  5. .eu is representative of the whole of the EU; member states also have their own TLDs.
  6. Kikuchi Yoshio (菊池良生) of  Meiji University  suggested that the notion of  Holy Roman Empire  as a federal political entity influenced the later structural ideas of the European Union. [24]
  7. See Articles 165 and 166 (ex Articles 149 and 150) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu
  8. Slavic: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Polish, Slovak and Slovene. Baltic: Latvian and Lithuanian.
  9. French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish.
  10. Danish, Dutch, English, German and Swedish.
  11. Greek
  12. Irish
  13. Basque is not an official language of the European Union but has a semi-official status.
  14. Referred to by the EU as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
  15. On 3 October 1990, the constituent states of the former German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany, automatically becoming part of the EU.
  16. This figure includes the extra-European territories of member states which are part of the European Union, and excludes the European territories of member states which are not part of the Union. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union.
  17. 1 2 See Article 288 (ex Article 249 TEC) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu
  18. According to the principle of Direct Effect first invoked in the Court of Justice's decision in Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen , Eur-Lex (European Court of Justice1963). See: Craig and de Búrca, ch. 5.
  19. According to the principle of Supremacy as established by the ECJ in Case 6/64, Falminio Costa v. ENEL [1964] ECR 585. See Craig and de Búrca, ch. 7. See also: Factortame litigation: Factortame Ltd. v. Secretary of State for Transport (No. 2) [1991] 1 AC 603, Solange II (Re Wuensche Handelsgesellschaft, BVerfG decision of 22 October 1986 [1987] 3 CMLR 225,265) and Frontini v. Ministero delle Finanze [1974] 2 CMLR 372; Raoul George Nicolo [1990] 1 CMLR 173.
  20. It is effectively treated as one of the Copenhagen criteria, Assembly.coe.int. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership. Archived 26 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  21. The European Convention on Human Rights was previously only open to members of the Council of Europe (Article 59.1 of the Convention), and even now only states may become member of the Council of Europe (Article 4 of the Statute of the Council of Europe).
  22. Opinion (2/92) of the European Court of Justice on "Accession by the Community to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms" 1996 E.C.R. I-1759 (in French), ruled that the European Community did not have the competence to accede to the ECHR.
  23. See: Case 34/73, Variola v. Amministrazione delle Finanze [1973] ECR 981.
  24. To do otherwise would require the drafting of legislation which would have to cope with the frequently divergent legal systems and administrative systems of all of the now 28 member states. See Craig and de Búrca, p. 115
  25. See Articles 157 (ex Article 141) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu
  26. See Article 2(7) of the Amsterdam Treaty on eur-lex.europa.eu Archived 17 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  27. Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin (OJ L 180, 19 July 2000, pp. 22–26); Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (OJ L 303, 2 December 2000, pp. 16–22).
  28. "ERM II". Danish Finance Ministry. 20 March 2009. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  29. Although almost all uranium is imported, nuclear power is considered primary energy produced in the EU.
  30. Article 39 (ex Article 33) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on eur-lex.europa.eu
  31. Article 3(1)(g) of the Treaty of Rome

Related Research Articles

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European Council institution of the European Union

The European Council is a collective body that defines the European Union's overall political direction and priorities. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy also takes part in its meetings. Established as an informal summit in 1975, the European Council was formalised as an institution in 2009 upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. Its current president is Donald Tusk, former Prime Minister of Poland. Charles Michel, current Belgian Prime Minister is President-Elect, taking office on 1 December 2019.

European Commission Executive branch of the European Union

The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be completely independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, and the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, and then appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament.

In political science, intergovernmentalism treats states, and national governments in particular, as the primary actors in the integration process. Intergovernmentalist approaches claim to be able to explain both periods of radical change in the European Union because of converging governmental preferences and periods of inertia because of diverging national interests. Intergovernmentalism is distinguishable from realism and neorealism because of its recognition of the significance of institutionalisation in international politics and the impact of domestic politics upon governmental preferences.

President of the European Commission Head of the European Commission

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European Economic Area Area of the European Unions internal market and some of EFTA states established in 1994

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Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. CFSP deals only with a specific part of the EU's external relations, which domains include mainly Trade and Commercial Policy and other areas such as funding to third countries, etc. Decisions require unanimity among member states in the Council of the European Union, but once agreed, certain aspects can be further decided by qualified majority voting. Foreign policy is chaired and represented by the EU's High Representative, currently Federica Mogherini.

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Politics of the European Union

The politics of the European Union are different from other organisations and states due to the unique nature of the European Union (EU). The EU is similar to a confederation, where many policy areas are federalised into common institutions capable of making law; however the EU does not, unlike most states, control foreign policy, defence policy or the majority of direct taxation policies. These areas are primarily under the control of the EU's member states although a certain amount of structured co-operation and coordination takes place in these areas. For the EU to take substantial actions in these areas, all Member States must give their consent. EU laws that override national laws are more numerous than in historical confederations; however the EU is legally restricted from making law outside its remit or where it is no more appropriate to do so at a national or local level (subsidiarity) when acting outside its exclusive competencies. The principle of subsidiarity does not apply to areas of exclusive competence.

Cultural policies of the European Union

European Union culture policies aim to address and promote the cultural dimension of European integration through relevant legislation and government funding. These policies support the development of cultural activity, education or research conducted by private companies, NGO's and individual initiatives based in the EU working in the fields of cinema and audiovisual, publishing, music and crafts.

Energy policy of the European Union Legislation in the area of energetics in the European Union

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Treaty of Lisbon International agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union

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Area of freedom, security and justice

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Treaties of the European Union treaty on European Union and treaty on the functioning of the European Union

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