European route E20

Last updated

Tabliczka E20.svg
E20
E20 route.svg
Major junctions
West end Shannon Airport, Ireland
East end Saint Petersburg, Russia
Location
CountriesFlag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Highway system

European route E20 is a part of the United Nations International E-road network. It runs roughly west–east through Ireland, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, and Russia.

Contents

Its length is 1,880 km (1,170 mi) but it is not continuous; at three points, a sea crossing is required. Roll-on/roll-off ferries make the crossings from Dublin to Liverpool and from Stockholm to Tallinn. No publicly accessible ferries traverse the North Sea from Kingston-upon-Hull to Esbjerg (as of 2019), but a ferry for commercial drivers leaves Immingham for Esbjerg on most days. [1]

Route

The west coast motorway E6/E20 in Gothenburg, coming from Malmo. In the interchange (Olskroksmotet) the motorway E20 continues in the north-easterly direction to Stockholm and E6 continues in the northly direction to Oslo. E6-E20 Olskroksmotet in Gothenburg.png
The west coast motorway E6/E20 in Gothenburg, coming from Malmö. In the interchange (Olskroksmotet) the motorway E20 continues in the north-easterly direction to Stockholm and E6 continues in the northly direction to Oslo.

Ireland

The initial section of the E20 from Shannon Airport to Dublin via Limerick is approximately 228 km long and is only partially signed, along the M7/N7. The section from Shannon Airport to east of Limerick is mainly dual carriageway, with a short section of motorway as part of the Limerick Southern Ring Road. The Shannon Tunnel, opened on 16 July 2010, completed the bypass of Limerick. The section from Limerick to Naas is motorway (M7), and the final section from Naas to Dublin is dual carriageway (N7). A ferry must be used from Dublin to Liverpool. [2]

United Kingdom

E20 follows the A5080 from Liverpool to Huyton, the M62 and M60 from Huyton to South Cave, and the A63 from South Cave to Kingston upon Hull. The route length across the UK is 205 kilometres (127 mi) in total but is not signposted.

There are no ferries between Kingston upon Hull and Esbjerg. Alternative ferries were once available from Immingham, which is 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Kingston upon Hull, and Harwich, which is 350 kilometres (220 mi) from Kingston upon Hull. There are no longer any passenger routes operating between the UK and Scandinavia.

The closest alternative is to take the Eurotunnel Shuttle from Cheriton (Folkestone) to Calais, or take a ferry from Harwich to Hook of Holland. Both of these routes would require a detour of around 900 miles (940 miles to Esbjerg, as this route would require you to drive along the E20 to reach Esbjerg). [3]

Denmark

In Denmark, E20 is a motorway from Esbjerg to the Øresund Bridge. The length of the Danish part is 315 km (196 mi).

It passes first along Jutland from Esbjerg to Kolding, then crosses the Little Belt Bridge onto Funen. E20 crosses the entirety of Funen, passing approximately 2 km south of Odense. Then, at Nyborg, E20 crosses the Great Belt Fixed Link onto Zealand. E20 follows the Vestmotorvejen until Køge, where it goes north to Copenhagen. In Copenhagen, E20 passes south of the city, crossing onto Kastrup where it meets the Copenhagen Airport. Between Køge and Copenhagen, the road has three E-road numbers (E47 and E55).

The Great Belt Bridge and Øresund Bridge are both tolled. [4] [5] The Øresund crossing begins as a tunnel at Kastrup, which then transfers onto the bridge at the man-made island Peberholm. The road crosses the border between Denmark and Sweden on the Øresund Bridge.

Sweden

In Sweden, E20 is a motorway from the Öresund Bridge in Malmö to Alingsås 48 km northeast of Gothenburg, a 330 km (210 mi) long motorway. Furthermore, it is a motorway most of the route from Vretstorp (20 km (12 mi) west of Örebro) to Stockholm.

The Swedish part of E20 is 770 km (480 mi) long. Its extent is shared with E6 along a 280 km (170 mi) long stretch, with E18 along 50 km (31 mi) and with E4 along 35 km (22 mi).

The part through Stockholm has very heavy traffic, including the most heavily trafficked road in Scandinavia[ citation needed ], Essingeleden (160 000 vehicles/day). There is often congestion on this stretch. A new tunnel for route E20, "Norra länken", was built north of the city center and opened 30 November 2014. [6] The planned Förbifart Stockholm bypass will divert traffic from Essingeleden.[ citation needed ]

Between Stockholm and Tallinn a car ferry departs daily, taking 15 hours. The port in Stockholm is located at Lilla Värtan, about 4 km northeast of the central core of the city.

A 21 km stretch of the E20 between Hallsberg and Örebro is planned to become by 2025 the first permanent electric road in Sweden. [7]

Estonia

In Estonia, E20 follows the route of national main road nr. 1 (Tallinn–Narva). In Tallinn to relieve traffic a bridge has been built on the intersection of the E263 and the E20. The E20 across Estonia is partially an unsigned expressway (speed limit 110 km/h in summer), for 80.7 km east of Tallinn to Aaspere along with a section near Haljala (km 87 - 90.5) and a section between Kohtla-Järve and Jõhvi (km 155.9–163.2). The remainder being single carriageway. The distance from Tallinn to the Russian border at the Narva River is 218 km.

Russia

In Russia, the route takes the Narva Highway (also listed in the Russian road numbering system as the A180 route, formerly known as the M11 route) running from Ivangorod to Saint Petersburg as a dual-lane highway. The distance from Ivangorod to Saint Petersburg is 142 km.

The border control facilities at the Estonia-Russia crossing are equipped and being operated for a limited amount of traffic on both sides of the border. The border crossing requires a reservation - despite this, waiting lines still can extend for many hours and even days. [8]

Itinerary

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Denmark</span>

Transport in Denmark is developed and modern. The motorway network covers 1,111 km while the railway network totals 2,667 km of operational track. The Great Belt Fixed Link connecting the islands of Zealand and Funen and the New Little Belt Bridge connecting Funen and Jutland greatly improved the traffic flow across the country on both motorways and rail. The two largest airports of Copenhagen and Billund provide a variety of domestic and international connections, while ferries provide services to the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Germany, Sweden, and Norway, as well as domestic routes servicing most Danish islands.

Transportation in Sweden is carried out by car, bus, train, tram, boat or aeroplane.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Great Belt Bridge</span> Bridge–tunnel road and railway crossing of the Great Belt in Denmark

The Great Belt Bridge or Great Belt fixed link is a multi-element fixed link crossing the Great Belt strait between the Danish islands of Zealand and Funen. It consists of a road suspension bridge and a railway tunnel between Zealand and the small island Sprogø in the middle of the Great Belt, and a box-girder bridge for both road and rail traffic between Sprogø and Funen. The total length is 18 kilometres (11 mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Øresund</span> The strait between Denmark and Sweden

Øresund or Öresund, commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden). The strait has a length of 118 kilometres (73 mi); its width varies from 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to 28 kilometres (17 mi). It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Øresund Bridge</span> Road and railway bridge over Øresund

The Öresund or Øresund Bridge is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Denmark and Sweden. It is the longest in Europe with both roadway and railway combined in a single structure, running nearly 8 kilometres from the Swedish coast to the artificial island Peberholm in the middle of the strait. The crossing is completed by the 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) Drogden Tunnel from Peberholm to the Danish island of Amager.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Copenhagen Airport</span> International airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, the rest of Zealand, the Øresund Region, and a large part of southern Sweden including Scania. It is the second largest airport in the Nordic countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Narva</span> City in Estonia

Narva is a municipality and city in Estonia. It is located in Ida-Viru county, at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, on the west bank of the Narva river which forms the Estonia-Russia international border. With 54,409 inhabitants Narva is Estonia's third largest city after capital Tallinn and Tartu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roads in Ireland</span> Overview of roads in Ireland

The island of Ireland, comprising Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, has an extensive network of tens of thousands of kilometres of public roads, usually surfaced. These roads have been developed and modernised over centuries, from trackways suitable only for walkers and horses, to surfaced roads including modern motorways. The major routes were established before Irish independence and consequently take little cognisance of the border other than a change of identification number and street furniture. Northern Ireland has had motorways since 1962, and has a well-developed network of primary, secondary and local routes. The Republic started work on its motorway network in the early 1980s; and historically, the road network there was once somewhat less well developed. However, the Celtic Tiger economic boom and an influx of European Union structural funding, saw national roads and regional roads in the Republic come up to international standard quite quickly. In the mid-1990s, for example, the Republic went from having only a few short sections of motorway to a network of motorways, dual carriageways and other improvements on most major routes as part of a National Development Plan. Road construction in Northern Ireland now tends to proceed at a slower pace than in the Republic, although a number of important bypasses and upgrades to dual carriageway have recently been completed or are about to begin.

The N7 road is a national primary road in Ireland, connecting Limerick and Dublin. The majority of the route is motorway standard and is designated as the M7 motorway. At the Rosbrien interchange in Limerick the route continues as the N18 dual carriageway to Shannon and Ennis. The road passes through the midlands of Ireland, and acts as a trunk route out of Dublin for the N8 and N9 national primary routes to Cork and Waterford respectively. It forms part of European route E20.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">M7 motorway (Ireland)</span> Motorway in Ireland

The M7 motorway is a motorway in Ireland. The motorway runs continuously from the outskirts of Naas in County Kildare to Rossbrien on the outskirts of Limerick City. The M7 forms part of the Dublin to Limerick N7 national primary road. The section of the motorway bypassing Naas, an 8 km stretch, was the first section of motorway to open in Ireland, in 1983. Following substantial works to extend the M7 to Limerick, by the end of 2010, the motorway replaced all of the old single-carriageway N7 route which is now designated as R445. At 166.5 km, the M7 is the longest motorway in Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">European route E67</span> Road in trans-European E-road network

European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. It goes via Prague, Wrocław, Warsaw, Kaunas, Panevėžys, Riga, Tallinn and Helsinki.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Narva (river)</span> River between Estonia and Russia

The river Narva, formerly also Narova flows 77 kilometres (48 mi) north into the Baltic Sea and is the largest Estonian river by discharge. A similar length of land far to the south, together with it and a much longer intermediate lake, altogether forms the Estonia-Russia border.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">European route E47</span> Road in trans-European E-road network

European route E47 is a road connecting Lübeck in Germany to Helsingborg in Sweden via the Danish capital, Copenhagen. It is also known as the Vogelfluglinie and the Sydmotorvej. The road is of motorway standard all the way except for 28 km (17 mi) in Germany and 6 km of city roads in Helsingør; there are also two ferry connections. A fixed link between Germany and Denmark was planned to have been completed by 2020, now delayed to 2028. It will be a tunnel rather than a bridge. Although a bridge-tunnel combination has been constructed between Denmark and Sweden further south, a very frequent ferry service continues to operate between Helsingør in Denmark and the northern terminus of the E47 at Helsingborg in Sweden.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ivangorod</span> Town in Russia

Ivangorod is a town in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the east bank of the Narva river which flows along the Estonia–Russia international border, 159 kilometers (99 mi) west of St. Petersburg. The town's population was recorded as 9,854 (2010 Census); 11,206 (2002 Census); 11,833 (1989 Census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">European route E18</span> Road in trans-European E-road network

European route E18 runs from Craigavon in Northern Ireland to Saint Petersburg in Russia, passing through Scotland, England, Norway, Sweden and Finland. It is about 1,890 kilometres in length.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">R445 road (Ireland)</span>

The R445 road is a regional road in Ireland. The route is a non-motorway alternative route to the N7/M7 motorway between Naas and Limerick, and at 170 km it is one of the longest regional roads in Ireland. Indeed, much of the route comprises roads that were formerly part of the N7 between the cities, prior to motorway and other bypasses. Some of the R445 route also comprises local link roads to new N7/M7 route sections.

MS <i>Vana Tallinn</i> 1973 ferry

MS Vana Tallinn was a cruiseferry owned by the Estonian ferry company Tallink and operated on the line between Kapellskär and Paldiski. She was built in 1974 by Aalborg Skibsværft AS, Aalborg, Denmark for DFDS as MS Dana Regina, and has sailed under the names MS Nord Estonia and MS Thor Heyerdahl.

MS <i>Helliar</i>

Helliar is a ferry owned by Caledonian Maritime Assets and operated by NorthLink Ferries. Built by Astilleros de Huelva in Spain in 1997 as Lehola for the Estonian Shipping Company she has served a number of owners and operators as RR Triumph and Triumph before her sale to Clipper Group and being renamed Clipper Racer. In 2011, she was chartered to NorthLink Ferries and renamed Helliar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Estonia–Russia border</span> International border

The Estonia–Russia border is the international border between the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Federation. The border is 294 kilometres (183 mi) long. It emerged during World War I, in 1918, as Estonia declared its independence from the then warring Russian and German Empires. The border goes mostly along the national, administrative and ethnic boundaries that have gradually formed since the 13th century. The exact location of the border was a subject of Estonian–Russian dispute that was resolved with the signing of the Border Agreement, but neither Russia nor Estonia have completed its ratification yet. It is an external border of the European Union.

References

  1. "DFDS". www.dfds.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  2. "Dublin to Liverpool Ferry | Ferries to Liverpool | P&O Ferries - UK". www.poferries.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  3. "Hull to Esbjerg". Hull to Esbjerg. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  4. "Øresundsbron". dk.oresundsbron.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  5. "Personbil - Storebælt". www.storebaelt.dk. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  6. Trafikverket. "Om projektet Norra länken". Trafikverket. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  7. David Arminas (26 January 2022), "Sweden to create permanent electric road", World Highways (Routes Du Monde)
  8. "Electronic reservation system for border crossings at the Estonia-Russia checkpoints; updates on the waiting lines". Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2011.