Europium dichloride

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Europium dichloride
Cotunnite structure.png
Names
Other names
Europium(II) chloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.973 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 237-386-7
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/2ClH.Eu/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2
    Key: BMANZYKPCBPZFG-UHFFFAOYSA-L
  • Cl[Eu]Cl
Properties
Cl2Eu
Molar mass 222.86 g·mol−1
Appearancewhite solid
Density 4.86 g·cm−3 [1]
Melting point 738 °C (1,011 K) [2]
Boiling point 2,190 °C (2,460 K) [2]
Related compounds
Other anions
europium difluoride
europium dibromide
europium diiodide
Other cations
samarium dichloride
thulium dichloride
Related compounds
europium trichloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Europium dichloride is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula EuCl2. When it is irradiated by ultraviolet light, it has bright blue fluorescence. [3]

Contents

Production

Europium dichloride can be produced by reducing europium trichloride with hydrogen gas at high temperature [4]

2 EuCl3 + H2 → 2 EuCl2 + 2 HCl

If dry europium trichloride reacts with lithium borohydride in THF, it can also produce europium dichloride: [5]

2 EuCl3 + 2 LiBH4 → 2 EuCl2 + 2 LiCl + H2↑ + B2H6

Properties

Europium dichloride can form yellow ammonia complexes:EuCl2•8NH3, and can dissolve to pale yellowish EuCl2•NH3. [4] Europium dichloride can react with europium hydride at 120-bar H2, producing EuClH that fluoresces green. [6]

Related Research Articles

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3. At least four distinct species have this formula; additionally hydrated derivatives are known. TiCl3 is one of the most common halides of titanium and is an important catalyst for the manufacture of polyolefins.

Titanium(II) chloride Chemical compound

Titanium(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula TiCl2. The black solid has been studied only moderately, probably because of its high reactivity. Ti(II) is a strong reducing agent: it has a high affinity for oxygen and reacts irreversibly with water to produce H2. The usual preparation is the thermal disproportionation of TiCl3 at 500 °C. The reaction is driven by the loss of volatile TiCl4:

Samarium(II) chloride (SmCl2) is a chemical compound, used as a radical generating agent in the ketone-mediated intraannulation reaction.

Indium(III) bromide Chemical compound

Indium(III) bromide, (indium tribromide), InBr3, is a chemical compound of indium and bromine. It is a Lewis acid and has been used in organic synthesis.

There are three sets of Indium halides, the trihalides, the monohalides, and several intermediate halides. In the monohalides the oxidation state of indium is +1 and their proper names are indium(I) fluoride, indium(I) chloride, indium(I) bromide and indium(I) iodide.

Zirconium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Zirconium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound with formula ZrCl3. It is a blue-black solid that is highly sensitive to air.

The nitridoborates are chemical compounds of boron and nitrogen with metals. These compounds are typically produced at high temperature by reacting hexagonal boron nitride with metal nitrides or by metathesis reactions involving nitridoborates. A wide range of these compounds have been made involving lithium, alkaline earth metals and lanthanides, and their structures determined using crystallographic techniques such as X-ray crystallography. Structurally one of their interesting features is the presence of polyatomic anions of boron and nitrogen where the geometry and the B–N bond length have been interpreted in terms of π-bonding.

Cobalt(III) chloride or cobaltic chloride is an unstable and elusive compound of cobalt and chlorine with formula CoCl
3
. In this compound, the cobalt atoms have a formal charge of +3.

An oxyhydride is a mixed anion compound containing both oxide O2− and hydride ions H. These compounds may be unexpected as the hydrogen and oxygen could be expected to react to form water. But if the metals making up the cations are electropositive enough, and the conditions are reducing enough, solid materials can be made that combine hydrogen and oxygen in the negative ion role.

A hydridonitride is a chemical compound that contains hydride and nitride ions in a single phase. These inorganic compounds are distinct from inorganic amides and imides as the hydrogen does not share a bond with nitrogen, and contain a larger proportion of metals.

The inorganic imides are compounds containing an ion composed of nitrogen bonded to hydrogen with formula HN2−. Organic imides have the NH group, and two single or one double covalent bond to other atoms. The imides are related to the inorganic amides (H2N), the nitrides (N3−) and the nitridohydrides (N3−•H).

A chloride nitride is a mixed anion compound containing both chloride (Cl) and nitride ions (N3−). Another name is metallochloronitrides. They are a subclass of halide nitrides or pnictide halides.

Phosphanides are chemicals containing the [PH2] anion. This is also known as the phosphino anion or phosphido ligand. The IUPAC name can also be dihydridophosphate(1−).

Arsenide bromides or bromide arsenides are compounds containing anions composed of bromide (Br) and arsenide (As3−). They can be considered as mixed anion compounds. They are in the category of pnictidehalides. Related compounds include the arsenide chlorides, arsenide iodides, phosphide bromides, and antimonide bromides.

Arsenide chlorides or chloride arsenides are compounds containing anions composed of chloride (Cl) and arsenide (As3−). They can be considered as mixed anion compounds. They are in the category of pnictidehalides. Related compounds include the arsenide bromides, arsenide iodides, phosphide chlorides, and antimonide chlorides.

An iodide nitride is a mixed anion compound containing both iodide (I) and nitride ions (N3−). Another name is metalloiodonitrides. They are a subclass of halide nitrides or pnictide halides. Some different kinds include ionic alkali or alkaline earth salts, small clusters where metal atoms surround a nitrogen atom, layered group 4 element 2-dimensional structures, and transition metal nitrido complexes counter-balanced with iodide ions. There is also a family with rare earth elements and nitrogen and sulfur in a cluster.

Carbide chlorides are mixed anion compounds containing chloride anions and anions consisting entirely of carbon. In these compounds there is no bond between chlorine and carbon. But there is a bond between a metal and carbon. Many of these compounds are cluster compounds, in which metal atoms encase a carbon core, with chlorine atoms surrounding the cluster. The chlorine may be shared between clusters to form polymers or layers. Most carbon chloride compounds contain rare earth elements. Some are known from group 4 elements. The hexatungsten carbon cluster can be oxidised and reduced, and so have different numbers of chlorine atoms included.

Carbide bromides are mixed anion compounds containing bromide and carbide anions. Many carbide bromides are cluster compounds, containing on, two or more carbon atoms in a core, surrounded by a layer of metal atoms, encased in a shell of bromide ions. These ions may be shared between clusters to form chains, double chains or layers.

Carbide iodides are mixed anion compounds containing iodide and carbide anions. Many carbide iodides are cluster compounds, containing one, two or more carbon atoms in a core, surrounded by a layer of metal atoms, encased in a shell of iodide ions. These ions may be shared between clusters to form chains, double chains or layers.

Europium compounds Chemical compounds with at least one europium atom

Europium compounds are compounds formed by the lanthanide metal europium (Eu). In these compounds, europium generally exhibits the +3 oxidation state, such as EuCl3, Eu(NO3)3 and Eu(CH3COO)3. Compounds with europium in the +2 oxidation state are also known. The +2 ion of europium is the most stable divalent ion of lanthanide metals in aqueous solution. Lipophilic europium complexes often feature acetylacetonate-like ligands, e.g., Eufod.

References

  1. Roger Blachnik (Hrsg.): Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker. Band III: Elemente, anorganische Verbindungen und Materialien, Minerale. begründet von Jean d’Ans, Ellen Lax. 4., neubearbeitete und revidierte Auflage. Springer, Berlin 1998, ISBN   3-540-60035-3, S. 446–447
  2. 1 2 Polyachenok, O. G.; Novikov, G. I. Saturated vapor pressures of SmCl2, EuCl2, YbCl2. Zhurnal Neorganicheskoi Khimii, 1963. 8 (12): 2631–2634. ISSN   0044-457X.
  3. Howell, J.K.; Pytlewski, L.L. (August 1969). "Synthesis of divalent europium and ytterbium halides in liquid ammonia". Journal of the Less Common Metals. 18 (4): 437–439. doi:10.1016/0022-5088(69)90017-4.
  4. 1 2 Klemm, Wilhelm; Doll, Walter. Measurements on the bivalent and the quadrivalent compounds of the rare earths. VI. The halides of bivalent europium. Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie, 1939. 241: 233–238. ISSN   0044-2313.
  5. Rossmanith, K.; Muckenhuber, E. Reaction of rare earth chlorides with lithium borohydride. II. Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1961. 92: 600–604. ISSN   0026-9247.
  6. Kunkel, Nathalie; Rudolph, Daniel; Meijerink, Andries; Rommel, Stefan; Weihrich, Richard; Kohlmann, Holger; Schleid, Thomas (2015). "Green Luminescence of Divalent Europium in the Hydride Chloride EuHCl". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 641 (7): 1220–1224. doi:10.1002/zaac.201400531. ISSN   0044-2313.