Eusebius of Rome

Last updated
Eusebius
Confessor
Born 4th century
Died 357
Rome
Venerated in Catholic Church
Major shrine Sant'Eusebio church, Rome
Feast 14 August

Eusebius of Rome (died c. 357), the founder of the church on the Esquiline Hill in Rome that bears his name, is listed in the Roman Martyrology as one of the saints venerated on 14 August.

Esquiline Hill hill

The Esquiline Hill is one of the Seven Hills of Rome. Its southern-most cusp is the Oppius.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

The Roman Martyrology is the official martyrology of the Catholic Church. Its use is obligatory in matters regarding the Roman Rite liturgy, but dioceses, countries and religious institutes may add to it duly approved appendices. It provides an extensive but not exhaustive list of the saints recognized by the Church.

The Martyrology of Usuard styles him confessor at Rome under the Arian emperor Constantius II and adds that he was buried in the cemetery of Callistus. Some later martyrologies call him a martyr. He is said to have been a Roman patrician and priest, and is mentioned with distinction in Latin martyrologies.

<i>Martyrology of Usuard</i>

The Martyrology of Usuard is a work by Usuard, a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. The prologue is dedicated to Charles the Bald indicating that it was undertaken at that monarch's instigation. It was apparently written shortly before the author's death.

Constantius II Roman emperor

Constantius II was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. His reign saw constant warfare on the borders against the Sasanian Empire and Germanic peoples, while internally the Roman Empire went through repeated civil wars and usurpations, culminating in Constantius' overthrow as emperor by his cousin Julian. His religious policies inflamed domestic conflicts that would continue after his death.

The "Acta Eusebii", discovered in 1479 by Mombritius and reproduced by Baluze in his "Miscellanea" (1678–1715), tell the following story: When Pope Liberius was permitted by Constantius II to return to Rome, supposedly at the price of his orthodoxy, by subscribing to the Arian formula of Sirmium, Eusebius, a priest, an ardent defender of the Nicene Creed, publicly preached against both pope and emperor, branding them as heretics. When the orthodox party who supported the antipope Felix were excluded from all the churches, Eusebius continued to say Mass in his own house. He was arrested and brought before Liberius and Constantius, and boldly reproved Liberius for deserting the Catholic faith. In consequence he was placed in a dungeon four feet wide (or was imprisoned in his own house), where he spent his time in prayer and died after seven months. His body was buried in the cemetery of Callistus with the simple inscription: "Eusebio homini Dei". This act of kindness was performed by two priests, Gregory and Orosius, friends of Eusebius. Gregory was put into the same prison and also died there. He was buried by Orosius, who professes to be the writer of the Acts.

Pope Liberius 4th-century Pope

Pope Liberius was Pope of the Catholic Church from 17 May 352 until his death on 24 September 366. According to the Catalogus Liberianus, he was consecrated on 22 May as the successor to Pope Julius I. He is not mentioned as a saint in the Roman Martyrology, making him the earliest pontiff not to be venerated as a saint in the Roman Rite. Liberius is mentioned in the Greek Menology, the Eastern equivalent to the martyrologies of the Western Church and a measure of sainthood prior to the institution of the formal Western processes of canonization.

Nicene Creed Statement of belief adopted at the First Ecumenical Council in 325

The Nicene Creed is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, and the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.

It is generally admitted that these Acts were a forgery either entirely or at least in part, and written in the same spirit if not by the same hand as the notice on Liberius in the "Liber Pontificalis". The Bollandists and Tillemont point out some historical difficulties in the narrative, especially the fact that Liberius, Constantius, and Eusebius were never in Rome at the same time. Constantius visited Rome but once, and remained there for about a month, and Liberius was then still in exile. Some, taking for granted the alleged fall of Liberius, would overcome this difficulty by stating that, at the request of Liberius, who resented the zeal of the priest, the secular power interfered and imprisoned Eusebius. It is not at all certain whether Eusebius died after the return of Liberius, during his exile, or even much before that period.

<i>Liber Pontificalis</i> Book of biographies of popes

The Liber Pontificalis is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II (867–872) or Pope Stephen V (885–891), but it was later supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV (1431–1447) and then Pope Pius II (1458–1464). Although quoted virtually uncritically from the 8th to 18th century, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny. The work of the French priest Louis Duchesne, and of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."

Sant'Eusebio, the basilica-style church on the Esquiline in Rome dedicated to him, is said to have been built on the site of his house. It is mentioned in the acts of a council held in Rome under Pope Symmachus in 498, and was rebuilt by Pope Zacharias. It is a titular church of the cardinal-priest and the station church for the Friday after the fourth Sunday in Lent. It once belonged to the Celestines (an order now extinct); Pope Leo XII gave it to the Jesuits.

SantEusebio building in Rome, Italy

Sant'Eusebio is a titular church in Rome, devoted to Saint Eusebius of Rome, a 4th-century martyr, and built in the Esquilino rione.

Pope Symmachus Pope from 498 to 514

Pope Symmachus was Pope from 22 November 498 to his death in 514. His tenure was marked by a serious schism over who was legitimately elected pope by the citizens of Rome.

A titular church or titulus is a church in Rome assigned or assignable to one of the cardinals, or more specifically to a Cardinal priest.

The Tridentine Calendar had a commemoration of Eusebius, after that of the commemoration of the vigil of the feast of the Assumption of Mary on 14 August, on which day the main liturgy was that of the feast of Lawrence of Rome, within whose octave it fell. The 1920 typical edition of the Roman Missal omitted the celebration on that date of the day within the Octave of Saint Lawrence. The Vigil of the Assumption became the principal liturgy, with a commemoration of Eusebius alone. The 1969 revision of the calendar removed the commemoration of Eusebius, while sanctioning the celebration of his feast in the Roman basilica that bears his name. [1]

The Tridentine Calendar is the calendar of saints to be honoured in the course of the liturgical year in the official liturgy of the Roman Rite as reformed by Pope Pius V, implementing a decision of the Council of Trent, which entrusted the task to the Pope.

In the Latin liturgical rites, a commemoration is the recital, within the Liturgy of the Hours or the Mass of one celebration, of part of another celebration, generally of lower rank, that is impeded because of a coincidence of date.

Assumption of Mary the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.

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Pope Callixtus I, also called Callistus I, was the Bishop of Rome from c. 218 to his death c. 222 or 223. He lived during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. Eusebius and the Liberian catalogue gave him five years of episcopate (217–222). He was martyred for his Christian faith and is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church.

Pope Julius I pope

Pope Julius I was Pope of the Catholic Church from 6 February 337 to his death in 352. He was notable for asserting the authority of the pope over the Arian Eastern bishops.

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Year 361 (CCCLXI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Taurus and Florentius. The denomination 361 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

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Agapitus of Palestrina Teenage Christian martyr

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Ranking of liturgical days in the Roman Rite serves two purposes. The rank indicates some particular points about the liturgical manner of celebrating the day: for instance, the Mass of a Solemnity will include recitation or singing of the Gloria in Excelsis and the Creed; that of what is now called in a specific technical sense a Feast will have the Gloria but not the Creed. A Memorial will have neither, although it may have proper readings.

Eusebius was a high-ranking officer of the Roman Empire, holding the position of praepositus sacri cubiculi for all the rule of Emperor Constantius II (337-361).

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References

  1. Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 134

PD-icon.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.