Eva Carrillo de García

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María de los Ángeles Guadalupe Eva Carrillo y Gallardo de García (1883-1979), was a Mexican-American missionary, nurse, social-welfare volunteer, and civil-rights activist. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Contents

Background

Eva Carrillo de García was born on December 12, 1883 in Los Angeles, California to Teressa Gallardo de Carrillo and Nicanor Luis Carrilo. Before she turned five, her mother died of typhoid fever. Her father remarried. Eva became a ward of the Methodist Church and Dr. Levi Salmans, the first medical Methodist missionary to Mexico. She attended the Colegio Juarez in Guanajuato, Mexico. By 1906, she graduated from Bethany Hospital, a school for nursing in Larned, Kansas. By 1910, she graduated from the Chicago Training School for City, Home, and Foreign Missions. This school was an early branch of Northwestern University. After graduating, she worked as a nurse at the Battle Creek Sanitarium in Michigan, which was the famous Kellogg health facility of the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Typhoid fever A bacterial infectious disorder contracted by consumption of food or drink contaminated with Salmonella typhi. This disorder is common in developing countries and can be treated with antibiotics.

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days; weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, and mild vomiting also commonly occur. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases there may be confusion. Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months. Diarrhea is uncommon. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever, along with paratyphoid fever.

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Larned, Kansas City and County seat in Kansas, United States

Larned is a city in and the county seat of Pawnee County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 4,054.

At Battle Creek, she met Dr. Alberto G. García. They married in New Orleans, Louisiana on December 6, 1911. They had eight children – Ruissy Eva Garcia, Esperanza Maria Garcia, John Albert Garcia, Alicia Ella Garcia, Martha X. Garcia, Nicanor Garcia, Virginia Garcia and Hermès Garcia. Six of these children attended the University of Texas at Austin.

University of Texas at Austin public research university in Austin, Texas, United States

The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It was founded in 1883 and is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff.

Mrs. Garcia gave her primary attention to raising her family but still managed to be active in numerous activities – both political and church activities. Having been trained as a nurse, she also worked at the George O. Robinson Orphanage in San Juan, Puerto Rico. She and her husband lived in Central America and Mexico until moving to Austin, Texas in 1915.

San Juan, Puerto Rico Municipality in Puerto Rico, United States

San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it is the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, with a population of 395,326. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico's capital is the third oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, founded in 1496 and Panama City, in Panama, founded in 1519. Several historical buildings are located in San Juan; among the most notable are the city's former defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro and Fort San Cristóbal, and La Fortaleza, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Americas.

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.

Austin, Texas Capital of Texas

Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 11th-most populous city in the United States and the 4th-most populous city in Texas. It is also the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix, Arizona, and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U.S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census. The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes, rivers, and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, and Lake Walter E. Long.

Significance

In 1920, Alberto and Eva co-wrote and co-published the first Spanish-language newspaper in Austin, called La Vanguardia. Eva also participated in health/education drives. One of these drives was focused on preventing tuberculosis. As an elder at University Methodist Church, she was an active number of the women’s groups there. She helped found Emmanuel Methodist, the second Mexican Methodist church in Austin. She organized parties for graduating students. She also worked with youth and collaborated with city probation officer and juvenile agencies to stop boys and girls from turning to delinquency. In late 1920s and early 1930s, she taught Spanish to students from Austin Military Academy.

Tuberculosis Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.

She was active in many clubs, including the League of Women Voters of Texas. In late 1930s, García became a founding member and the president of Ladies LULAC in Austin. She fought to desegregate movie theaters and swimming pools. She also fought to desegregate schools. Together with her husband, she encouraged others to buy property, vote, pay the poll tax, and defend their rights.

The collection of their papers are housed at the Benson Collection at UT Austin. More information: https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/taro/aushc/00274/00274-P.html

Death

Garcia died on September 26, 1979, and was buried in Capital Memorial Park. In March 1989, Garcia's name and picture were added in a pictorial display at the Capitol in order to mark National Women's History Month. This display, which was sponsored by the Austin Commission for Women, was given, as a gift, to the city of Austin for the 150th anniversary of the city’s founding.

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References

  1. Las Tejanas: 2003- Page 187 "Eva Carrillo de Garcia, seated right, was a nurse and social worker. She and Dr. Alberto Garcia, her husband, seated left, published El Vanguardia, the first known Spanish language newspaper in Austin, in 1920."
  2. Womenshealth-womentelescope Jan 18, 2012 "Eva Carillo de García, a nurse and social worker, publishes with her husband, Dr. Alberto García,"
  3. Vicki L. Ruiz, Virginia Sánchez Korrol "Eva Carrillo de Garcia." Latinas in the United States Set: A Historical Encyclopedia.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006. set: A Historical Encyclopedia 2006 - Page 28 "Eva Carrillo de García"
  4. Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. Latinas in the United States,
  5. Texas State Historical Association (TSHA) "GARCIA, EVA CARRILLO DE The Handbook of Texas Online A Digital Gateway to Texas History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2013.