Evelio Javier

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Evelio Javier
Statue of Evelio Javier.jpg
Monument of Evelio B. Javier in San Jose, Antique.
Governor of Antique
In office
December 30, 1971 December 30, 1980
Succeeded by Arturo Pacificador
Personal details
Born(1942-10-14)October 14, 1942
Hamtic, Antique, Commonwealth of the Philippines
DiedFebruary 11, 1986(1986-02-11) (aged 43)
San Jose de Buenavista, Antique, Philippines
NationalityFilipino
Political party Liberal Party
Spouse(s)Precious Bello Lotilla
ChildrenFrancis Gideon Everardo Javier
David Javier
Alma mater Ateneo de Manila University
Occupationlawyer, civil servant

Evelio Bellaflor Javier (October 31, 1942 – February 11, 1986) was a young governor of the province of Antique in the Philippines and an opponent of the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos. His assassination on February 11, 1986 was one of the causes of the People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos. [1] Evelio Javier's brother, Exequiel Javier, served as congressman from 1987 to 1998 and from 2001 to 2010 and governor from 1998 to 2001, and 2010 to 2015.

Contents

Early life and marriage

Evelio Javier was born on October 31, 1942, in Barangay Lanag (now Brgy. Evelio Javier), Hamtic, Antique, to Everardo Autajay Javier (Moscoso), a prosecutor and Feliza Bellaflor, a teacher. [2] [3] He finished grade school in San Jose Elementary School in San Jose, Antique and graduated high school with first honors and college in Ateneo de Manila University. [2] [3] There, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Government and he earned his Bachelor of Laws at Ateneo Law School in 1968. [2] [3] He passed the bar examination in 1968 before he became a college professor at the Ateneo, a successful lawyer and entered into politics. [2] He was a member of the law school's Fraternal Order of Utopia. [2]

Prosecutor supreme representative of the prosecution (of the state)

A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law. Typically, the prosecutor represents the government in the case brought against the accused person.

Ateneo de Manila University a private teaching and research university run by the Society of Jesus in the Philippines

The Ateneo de Manila University is a private Roman Catholic research university in Quezon City, Philippines. Founded in 1859 by the Society of Jesus, Ateneo is the third-oldest university in the Philippines. Ateneo offers elementary and secondary education exclusively to male students. The undergraduate and graduate programmes are coeducational and organised into four schools, collectively known as the Loyola Schools, which are located at its main campus at Loyola Heights. Four professional schools occupy campuses in different parts of Metro Manila.

A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus should not be confused with baccalaureatus, which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree in some countries.

He married Precious Bello Lotilla, daughter of Vicente Lotilla and Angelina Bello of Sibalom, Antique in Manila on December 29, 1968. They had two sons, Francis Gideon Everardo and David Ignatius. [3]

Governor of Antique

Javier ran for governor of Antique and won in 1971 by one of the largest margins in history, making him, at the age of 28, the Philippines' youngest governor. [2] [3] He did not run again for election in 1980. [3] Instead he attended the JFK School of Government at Harvard University in 1981 on a scholarship, where he earned a Masters in Public Administration. [2] [3]

The Governor of Antique is the local chief executive of the province of Antique, Philippines.

Harvard University private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 post graduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, and its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.

In 1984, he ran for Assemblyman in the Batasang Pambansa, and lost. [4] Five years after his death, he was declared the winner by the Philippine Supreme Court. [3]

Batasang Pambansa

The Batasang Pambansa was the former parliament of the Philippines, established as an interim assembly in 1978 and later as an official body in 1984. It was the fourth unicameral legislature in Philippine history. Members of the Batasang Pambansa were referred to as "Mambabatas Pambansa",, shortened to "MP", similar to the Westminster system.

The May 1984 Elections

Evelio Javier ran for office during the 1984 Elections but he lost. Evelio Javier was known to be a crowd favorite wherein he won the hearts of the people of his province. Arturo Pacificador, a member of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) Party, was his competition who was known to have a lot of powerful people who support him.

The heat of the competition between the two climaxed during the eve of the elections on May 13, 1984. Supporters of Evelio Javier were found dead and it was suspected that the attack came from Pacificador's men.

During the time of the elections, it was known that there were a lot of methods to compromise the voting results such as vote-buying and giving threats to voters. This did not only happened on the national level of elections but also on the local elections. In the province of Antique, ballots of those who voted in the towns of Caluya, Cabate, Tibiao, Barbaza, Laua-an, and also of San Remigio were not placed in the boxes.

After the counting of the ballots, Arturo Pacificador won as the assemblyman for Antique. But Javier asked to rebuke the decision of the commission due to suspicions of compromising the results of the elections. [5]

Assassination

At 10:00 in the morning of February 11, 1986, three or four masked gunmen riding in a Nissan Patrol jeep went to the New Capitol building in San Jose, Antique. [3] While Evelio Javier was talking to his friends on the steps in front of the capitol building, the masked gunmen opened fire. [3] Time magazine described the scene: [6]

A portrait of Evelio Javier Eveliojavierportrait.jpg
A portrait of Evelio Javier

Evelio Javier, director of Corazon Aquino's campaign in the remote province of Antique, was sitting on the lawn in front of the capital building, taking a break from a debate over contested votes in his region, when a white vehicle pulled into the driveway. Without warning, a man in a black knit ski mask leaped out and started shooting. Javier jumped up and ran. Zigzagging across the building's broad concrete plaza, he tried to escape the relentless barrage of bullets. At least one hit its mark. Javier stumbled and fell into a small fishpond.

Somehow, though, the fleeing man struggled to his feet and staggered across the street. By this time, other gunmen had begun to close in. Two approached from the left. Another, brandishing a .45 pistol, appeared in front of a warehouse. Javier ducked into an alley and tried to hide behind an outhouse door. But the masked killer found his prey and finished him off with a burst of gunfire.

The toilet was owned by Leon Pe. [3] The News Today at the 20th anniversary reported, "As the prostrated corpse of Javier lied on the damp cement of the comfort room, another gunman, hankering for a kill, unmasked himself and made a shrill outcry - "Can you recognize me? Stand up and fight!" Whereupon, he fired the coup de grace directed at the head..." His body had 24 bullet wounds. [3]

Time reported that many in Javier's camp blamed Arturo Pacificador for the assassination: [6]

Opposition leaders and many residents immediately claimed they knew who was behind the killing: Arturo Pacificador, a Marcos crony who is assistant majority floor leader in the National Assembly. Pacificador has operated like a warlord in Antique, wielding political patronage with his connections in the ruling party and the power he has amassed under Marcos....

He won his seat in the National Assembly by beating Javier in one of the most controversial campaigns of the 1984 election. On the eve of the voting, seven Javier supporters were killed during a shoot-out with Pacificador and his followers. The Ministry of Justice investigated, but never released its findings.

On the day of his burial in San Jose de Buenavista, Antique, thousands of mourners followed his funeral procession to the cemetery wearing yellow shirts with yellow bands tied to their wrists. [3] They played his favorite song, "The Impossible Dream," during the procession to the cemetery. [3] Thousands of Antiquenos there showed their anger and sorrow by crying "Justice for Evelio! We love you!" on the day of his death.[ citation needed ]

Murder Case

In Feb 1986 Evelio Javier was assassinated after which his family filed charges against his political opponent, Arturo Pacifador, while the Ministry of Justice filed charges against the gunmen. By Oct 1986, the accusation consisted of 19 people two noteworthy ones were Evelio’s rival Arturo Pacificador, and Avelino Javellana his lawyer. [7] Of these 19 at the time only 6 were apprehended and all others were at large including both Pacifador and Javellana. [7] Two of the apprehended, Romeo Nagalese and Jose Delumen, had confessed to the crime andNagalase was discharged to be used as witness. On May 1989 Javellana was arrested but on his pleas of health and safety was not held in Antique jail but to be followed by two police escorts to Iloilo Mission Hospital. However before they could be transferred the two police officers were recalled by an unforeseen emergency and was instead escorted by the Provinvial Probation Officer of Antique. [7] One of the apprehended Oscar Tianzon pleaded not guilty and Javallena requested right of bail however opposition was made based on that charges of murder are not given the right of bail if evidence is strong. Tianzon was requested to be discharged as witness as he acted as lookout for the murder and the petition for bail was delayed till this could be resolved. The request was denied and Javallena’s right of bail was ruled as:

Men gathered in the streets days after Javier's death that helped in the start of the People Power Revolution Eveliojavierprotest.jpg
Men gathered in the streets days after Javier's death that helped in the start of the People Power Revolution

“The court searched the records for evidence to corroborate the material points in the aforesaid testimony of Tianzon against Javellana but found none to corroborate his statement pointing to Javellana as the gun supplier and the plotter. Neither has the prosecution presented evidence during the hearing to determine Tianzon's qualification tending to corroborate the implication of Javellana nor did the prosecution indicate to the court where such corroboration can be found by the court.” [7]

Further showing the presiding judge was biased towards the accused was that despite allowing Nagales to be discharged he was not used as witness to two other defendants and their cases were dismissed. [7] The trials were suspended in 1989 when the presiding judge was accused of partiality and the Supreme court issued a temporary restraining order. Petitions were made to resume the trials but these were denied in that light of the events of people power that it has become moot and academic. [8] During this time Javellana was placed under house arrest under Atty. Deogracias del Rosario. In 1995 Pacificador who had been in hiding all this time had resurfaced and was detained. Pacificador as well had petitioned for bail and was granted so in 1996 by judge Duremdes. [9] As with above this judge had ignored the witnesses claims and even Pacificador’s own admission to being in the ambush site. In the 2000s Estrada had once again opened trials for the both of them but these trials were once again suspended when Pacificador accused the judge of being biased against them. [10] In 2004 the Antique Regional Trial had acquitted Pacificador and three co-accused however Javellana and the others were convicted. [11]

Subsequent People Power Revolution

The assassination of Evelio Javier on Feb. 11, 1986 fueled the People Power Revolution that happened weeks later on Saturday, February 22, 1986 which ousted Ferdinand Marcos and made Cory Aquino the President of the Philippines. [4] Evelio's body processed through Manila, passing Ateneo de Manila University, where he had thousands of friends and colleagues, days before the Feb. 22 revolution.

Legacy

The day of his assassination is now marked as Governor Evelio B. Javier Day and is a special non-working public holiday in the provinces of Antique, Capiz, Aklan, and Iloilo, the four provinces on Panay island. [12]

In September 1986, Isagani Cruz wrote about Javier at the end of his decision in Javier vs. COMELEC:

Sign at entrance of the plaza of San Jose, which has been named after Gov. Javier Name sign Evelio Javier Freedom Park San Jose Antique Plaza.jpg
Sign at entrance of the plaza of San Jose, which has been named after Gov. Javier

Let us first say these meager words in tribute to a fallen hero who was struck down in the vigor of his youth because he dared to speak against tyranny. Where many kept a meekly silence for fear of retaliation and still others feigned and fawned in hopes of safety and even reward, he chose to fight. He was not afraid. Money did not tempt him. Threats did not daunt him. Power did not awe him. His was a singular and all-exacting obsession: the return of freedom to his country. And though he fought not in the barricades of war amid the sound and smoke of shot and shell, he was a soldier nonetheless, fighting valiantly for the liberties of his people against the enemies of his race, unfortunately, of his race too, who would impose upon the land a perpetual night of dark enslavement. He did not see the breaking of dawn, sad to say, but in the very real sense Evelio B. Javier made that dawn draw nearer because he was, like Saul and Jonathan, “swifter than eagles and stronger than lions." [2]

An airport, Evelio Javier Airport, in San Jose, Antique, was named in honor of Evelio.

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References

  1. News, By Stanley Palisada, ABS-CBN. "Remembering Evelio Javier". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Evelio B. Javier, Utopia Batch 1965". The Fraternal Order of Utopia. 2011-11-03. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Evelio B. Javier: 20th year of tribute to heroism". The News Today. February 3, 2006. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  4. 1 2 Palisada, Stanley (11 February 2011). "Remembering Evelio Javier". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  5. "EVELIO B. JAVIER, PETITIONER, VS. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS, AND ARTURO F. PACIFICADOR, RESPONDENTS. - Senate Electoral Tribunal". Senate Electoral Tribunal. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  6. 1 2 "Gangland Politics". Time magazine. February 24, 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "G.R. No. 89591-96 August 13, 1990". Lawphil. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  8. "G.R. Nos. L-68379-81 September 22, 1986". Lawphil. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  9. "G.R. No. 129120 July 2, 1999". Lawphil. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  10. "Whether the trial of Arturo Pacificador on charges of having murdered former Antique Governor Evelio Javier took place as scheduled on 23 to 25 May 2001". RefWorld. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  11. "Pacificador, once most powerful in Antique, dead". Inquirer. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  12. An Act Declaring February 11 of Each Year Governor Evelio B. Javier Day, A Special Non-Working Public Holiday in the Provinces of Antique, Capiz, Aklan and Iloilo, June 3, 1992, retrieved 2008-06-16