Monument of Evelio B. Javier in San Jose, Antique.
|Governor of Antique|
December 30, 1971 –January 30, 1980
|Succeeded by||Arturo Pacificador|
|Born||October 14, 1942|
Hamtic, Antique, Commonwealth of the Philippines
|Died||February 11, 1986 43) (aged|
San Jose de Buenavista, Antique, Philippines
|Political party||Liberal Party|
|Spouse(s)||Precious Bello Lotilla|
|Children||Francis Gideon Everardo Javier|
|Alma mater||Ateneo de Manila University|
|Occupation||lawyer, civil servant|
Evelio Bellaflor Javier (October 31, 1942 – February 11, 1986) was a young governor of the province of Antique in the Philippines and an opponent of the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos. His assassination on February 11, 1986 was one of the causes of the People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos.Evelio Javier's brother, Exequiel Javier, served as congressman from 1987 to 1998 and from 2001 to 2010 and governor from 1998 to 2001, and 2010 to 2015.
Evelio Javier was born on October 31, 1942, in Barangay Lanag (now Brgy. Evelio Javier), Hamtic, Antique, to Everardo Autajay Javier (Moscoso), a prosecutor and Feliza Bellaflor, a teacher.He finished grade school in San Jose Elementary School in San Jose, Antique and graduated high school with first honors and college in Ateneo de Manila University. There, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Government and he earned his Bachelor of Laws at Ateneo Law School in 1968. He passed the bar examination in 1968 before he became a college professor at the Ateneo, a successful lawyer and entered into politics. He was a member of the law school's Fraternal Order of Utopia.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law. Typically, the prosecutor represents the government in the case brought against the accused person.
The Ateneo de Manila University, also known as simply Ateneo or The Ateneo, is a private Roman Catholic Jesuit research university in Quezon City, Philippines. Founded in 1859 by the Society of Jesus, Ateneo is the third-oldest university in the Philippines.
A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus should not be confused with baccalaureatus, which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree in some countries.
He married Precious Bello Lotilla, daughter of Vicente Lotilla and Angelina Bello of Sibalom, Antique in Manila on December 29, 1968. They had two sons, Francis Gideon Everardo and David Ignatius.
Javier ran for governor of Antique and won in 1971 by one of the largest margins in history, making him, at the age of 28, the Philippines' youngest governor.He did not run again for election in 1980. Instead he attended the JFK School of Government at Harvard University in 1981 on a scholarship, where he earned a Masters in Public Administration.
The Governor of Antique is the local chief executive of the province of Antique, Philippines.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, and its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.
In 1984, he ran for Assemblyman in the Batasang Pambansa, and lost.Five years after his death, he was declared the winner by the Philippine Supreme Court.
The Batasang Pambansa was the former parliament of the Philippines, established as an interim assembly in 1978 and later as an official body in 1984. It was the fourth unicameral legislature in Philippine history. Members of the Batasang Pambansa were referred to as "Mambabatas Pambansa",, shortened to "MP", similar to the Westminster system.
Evelio Javier ran for office during the 1984 Elections but he lost. Evelio Javier was known to be a crowd favorite wherein he won the hearts of the people of his province. Arturo Pacificador, a member of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) Party, was his competition who was known to have a lot of powerful people who support him.
The heat of the competition between the two climaxed during the eve of the elections on May 13, 1984. Supporters of Evelio Javier were found dead and it was suspected that the attack came from Pacificador's men.
During the time of the elections, it was known that there were a lot of methods to compromise the voting results such as vote-buying and giving threats to voters. This did not only happened on the national level of elections but also on the local elections. In the province of Antique, ballots of those who voted in the towns of Caluya, Cabate, Tibiao, Barbaza, Laua-an, and also of San Remigio were not placed in the boxes.
After the counting of the ballots, Arturo Pacificador won as the assemblyman for Antique. But Javier asked to rebuke the decision of the commission due to suspicions of compromising the results of the elections.
At 10:00 in the morning of February 11, 1986, three or four masked gunmen riding in a Nissan Patrol jeep went to the New Capitol building in San Jose, Antique.While Evelio Javier was talking to his friends on the steps in front of the capitol building, the masked gunmen opened fire. Time magazine described the scene:
Evelio Javier, director of Corazon Aquino's campaign in the remote province of Antique, was sitting on the lawn in front of the capital building, taking a break from a debate over contested votes in his region, when a white vehicle pulled into the driveway. Without warning, a man in a black knit ski mask leaped out and started shooting. Javier jumped up and ran. Zigzagging across the building's broad concrete plaza, he tried to escape the relentless barrage of bullets. At least one hit its mark. Javier stumbled and fell into a small fishpond.
Somehow, though, the fleeing man struggled to his feet and staggered across the street. By this time, other gunmen had begun to close in. Two approached from the left. Another, brandishing a .45 pistol, appeared in front of a warehouse. Javier ducked into an alley and tried to hide behind an outhouse door. But the masked killer found his prey and finished him off with a burst of gunfire.
The toilet was owned by Leon Pe.The News Today at the 20th anniversary reported, "As the prostrated corpse of Javier lied on the damp cement of the comfort room, another gunman, hankering for a kill, unmasked himself and made a shrill outcry - "Can you recognize me? Stand up and fight!" Whereupon, he fired the coup de grace directed at the head..." His body had 24 bullet wounds.
Time reported that many in Javier's camp blamed Arturo Pacificador for the assassination:
Opposition leaders and many residents immediately claimed they knew who was behind the killing: Arturo Pacificador, a Marcos crony who is assistant majority floor leader in the National Assembly. Pacificador has operated like a warlord in Antique, wielding political patronage with his connections in the ruling party and the power he has amassed under Marcos....
He won his seat in the National Assembly by beating Javier in one of the most controversial campaigns of the 1984 election. On the eve of the voting, seven Javier supporters were killed during a shoot-out with Pacificador and his followers. The Ministry of Justice investigated, but never released its findings.
On the day of his burial in San Jose de Buenavista, Antique, thousands of mourners followed his funeral procession to the cemetery wearing yellow shirts with yellow bands tied to their wrists. [ citation needed ]They played his favorite song, "The Impossible Dream," during the procession to the cemetery. Thousands of Antiquenos there showed their anger and sorrow by crying "Justice for Evelio! We love you!" on the day of his death.
In Feb 1986 Evelio Javier was assassinated after which his family filed charges against his political opponent, Arturo Pacifador, while the Ministry of Justice filed charges against the gunmen. By Oct 1986, the accusation consisted of 19 people two noteworthy ones were Evelio’s rival Arturo Pacificador, and Avelino Javellana his lawyer.Of these 19 at the time only 6 were apprehended and all others were at large including both Pacifador and Javellana. Two of the apprehended, Romeo Nagalese and Jose Delumen, had confessed to the crime andNagalase was discharged to be used as witness. On May 1989 Javellana was arrested but on his pleas of health and safety was not held in Antique jail but to be followed by two police escorts to Iloilo Mission Hospital. However before they could be transferred the two police officers were recalled by an unforeseen emergency and was instead escorted by the Provinvial Probation Officer of Antique. One of the apprehended Oscar Tianzon pleaded not guilty and Javallena requested right of bail however opposition was made based on that charges of murder are not given the right of bail if evidence is strong. Tianzon was requested to be discharged as witness as he acted as lookout for the murder and the petition for bail was delayed till this could be resolved. The request was denied and Javallena’s right of bail was ruled as:
“The court searched the records for evidence to corroborate the material points in the aforesaid testimony of Tianzon against Javellana but found none to corroborate his statement pointing to Javellana as the gun supplier and the plotter. Neither has the prosecution presented evidence during the hearing to determine Tianzon's qualification tending to corroborate the implication of Javellana nor did the prosecution indicate to the court where such corroboration can be found by the court.”
Further showing the presiding judge was biased towards the accused was that despite allowing Nagales to be discharged he was not used as witness to two other defendants and their cases were dismissed.The trials were suspended in 1989 when the presiding judge was accused of partiality and the Supreme court issued a temporary restraining order. Petitions were made to resume the trials but these were denied in that light of the events of people power that it has become moot and academic. During this time Javellana was placed under house arrest under Atty. Deogracias del Rosario. In 1995 Pacificador who had been in hiding all this time had resurfaced and was detained. Pacificador as well had petitioned for bail and was granted so in 1996 by judge Duremdes. As with above this judge had ignored the witnesses claims and even Pacificador’s own admission to being in the ambush site. In the 2000s Estrada had once again opened trials for the both of them but these trials were once again suspended when Pacificador accused the judge of being biased against them. In 2004 the Antique Regional Trial had acquitted Pacificador and three co-accused however Javellana and the others were convicted.
The assassination of Evelio Javier on Feb. 11, 1986 fueled the People Power Revolution that happened weeks later on Saturday, February 22, 1986 which ousted Ferdinand Marcos and made Cory Aquino the President of the Philippines.Evelio's body processed through Manila, passing Ateneo de Manila University, where he had thousands of friends and colleagues, days before the Feb. 22 revolution.
The day of his assassination is now marked as Governor Evelio B. Javier Day and is a special non-working public holiday in the provinces of Antique, Capiz, Aklan, and Iloilo, the four provinces on Panay island.
In September 1986, Isagani Cruz wrote about Javier at the end of his decision in Javier vs. COMELEC:
Let us first say these meager words in tribute to a fallen hero who was struck down in the vigor of his youth because he dared to speak against tyranny. Where many kept a meekly silence for fear of retaliation and still others feigned and fawned in hopes of safety and even reward, he chose to fight. He was not afraid. Money did not tempt him. Threats did not daunt him. Power did not awe him. His was a singular and all-exacting obsession: the return of freedom to his country. And though he fought not in the barricades of war amid the sound and smoke of shot and shell, he was a soldier nonetheless, fighting valiantly for the liberties of his people against the enemies of his race, unfortunately, of his race too, who would impose upon the land a perpetual night of dark enslavement. He did not see the breaking of dawn, sad to say, but in the very real sense Evelio B. Javier made that dawn draw nearer because he was, like Saul and Jonathan, “swifter than eagles and stronger than lions."
An airport, Evelio Javier Airport, in San Jose, Antique, was named in honor of Evelio.
Antique is a province of the Philippines located in the region of Western Visayas. The province capital is San Jose, the most populous town in Antique. The province is situated in the western section of Panay Island and borders Aklan, Capiz and Iloilo to the east, while facing the Sulu Sea to the west.
Western Visayas is an administrative region in the Philippines, numerically designated as Region VI. It consists of six provinces and two highly urbanized cities. The regional center is Iloilo City. The region is dominated by the native speakers of four Visayan languages: Kinaray-a, Hiligaynon, Aklanon and Capiznon. The land area of the region is 20,794.18 km2 (8,028.68 sq mi), and with a population of 7,536,383 inhabitants, it is the most populous region in the Visayas.
Ferdinand"Bongbong"Romualdez Marcos Jr. is a Filipino politician and former senator in the 16th Congress of the Philippines. He is the second child and only son of former President and dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos and of former First Lady Imelda Romualdez-Marcos.
Fernando Hofileña López Sr. was a Filipino statesman. A member of the influential López family of Iloilo, López served as Vice President of the Philippines for three terms – under Elpidio Quirino (1949–1953) for the Liberals and Ferdinand Marcos for the Nacionalistas. He was also the chairman of ABS-CBN Corporation from 1986 to his death in 1993.
San Jose de Buenavista, officially the Municipality of San Jose de Buenavista, or better known simply as San Jose, is a 1st class municipality and capital of the province of Antique, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 62,534 people.
Sibalom, officially the Municipality of Sibalom,, is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Antique, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 60,306 people.
The Presidential election was held on 7 February 1986 in the Philippines were snap elections, and are popularly known as the snap elections, that followed the end of martial law and brought about the People Power Revolution, the downfall of President Ferdinand E. Marcos, and the accession of Corazon C. Aquino as president.
The United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) was the main political multi-party electoral alliance of the traditional political opposition during the turbulent last years of Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos in the mid-1980s. It was formed in January 1980, and was originally known as the United Democratic Opposition from 1980 to 1982. It was initially a union of eight major and minor political parties and organizations with the main aim to oust President Marcos through a legal political process. In April 1982, the coalition changed its name to United Nationalist Democratic Organization, and increased its members to twelve parties. Shortly after the assassination of popular oppositionist Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., the party was led by Senator Salvador Laurel of Batangas.
Evelio Javier Airport, also known as Antique Airport and San Jose Airport, is the only airport in the province of Antique in the Philippines. The airport is located in the provincial capital San Jose de Buenavista, and is classified as a Class 2 principal airport by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications that is responsible for the operations of not only this airport but also of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports.
The Ratification Cases, officially titled as Javellana v. Executive Secretary, was a 1973 Supreme Court of the Philippines case that allowed the 1973 Philippine Constitution to come into full force, which led to dictator President Ferdinand Marcos staying in power and ruling by decree until he was ousted by the People Power Revolution, in 1986. The decision became the cornerstone of subsequent decisions whenever the validity of the 1973 Constitution was questioned.
"The Impossible Dream " is a popular song composed by Mitch Leigh, with lyrics written by Joe Darion. The song is the most popular song from the 1965 Broadway musical Man of La Mancha and is also featured in the 1972 film of the same name starring Peter O'Toole.
Benjamin Santos Abalos, Sr. is a Filipino politician who served as a former chairman of the Commission on Elections. He was also a former chairman of the MMDA and mayor of Mandaluyong City. He is the father of former Mandaluyong City Mayor Benjamin "Benhur" Abalos, Jr..
Exequiel Bellaflor Javier is a Filipino politician. He has been elected to six terms as a Member of the House of Representatives, representing the Lone District of Antique from 1987 to 1998, and from 2001 to 2010. He has also served as the governor of the province of Antique.
Antonio J. Ledesma is a Filipino Roman Catholic clergyman who is currently the Archbishop of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro in the Philippines.
Abraham F. Sarmiento, Sr. was a Filipino jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1987 to 1991. An active figure in the political opposition against the martial law government of President Ferdinand Marcos, he was appointed to the Court by Marcos' successor, President Corazon Aquino.
Eugenio Hofileña López Sr., also known as Eñing López and Don Eugenio, was leading figure in the Philippines. He was founder of the Lopez Group of Companies. He belonged to the prominent López family of Iloilo, one of the leading political families in the Philippines.
Evelio Javier Day, officially Governor Evelio B. Javier Day, is a special non-working public holiday in the Philippines to "commemorate the death anniversary of the late Governor Evelio B. Javier" in the four provinces that comprise Panay Island, the Philippines, specifically Antique, Capiz, Aklan, and Iloilo. It has been a holiday on Panay Island every year since 1987.
Isagani A. Cruz was a Filipino judge who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1986 to 1994. He retired from the Supreme Court on October 11, 1994, due to the court's mandatory retirement age of 70 years.
Gubernatorial elections were held in the Philippines on May 9, 2016. All provinces elected their provincial governors for three-year terms, who will be inaugurated on June 30, 2016 after their proclamation. Governors that are currently serving their third consecutive terms are prohibited from running as governors.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Evelio Javier .|