|Governor of Antique|
December 30, 1971 –January 30, 1980
|Preceded by||Julian Pacificador|
|Succeeded by||Arturo Pacificador|
|Died||February 11,1986 43) (aged|
San Jose de Buenavista,Antique,Philippines
|Political party||Liberal Party|
|Spouse(s)||Precious Bello Lotilla|
|Children||Francis Gideon Everardo Javier|
David Ignatius Javier
|Alma mater||Ateneo de Manila University|
Evelio Bellaflor Javier (October 14,1942 –February 11,1986) was a Filipino politician. He served as governor of the province of Antique and was an opponent of the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos. His assassination on February 11,1986 was one of the causes of the People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos.Evelio Javier's brother,Exequiel Javier,served as congressman from 1987 to 1998 and from 2001 to 2010 and governor from 1998 to 2001,and 2010 to 2015.
Evelio Javier was born on October 14,1942,in Barangay Lanag (now Brgy. Evelio Javier),Hamtic,Antique,to Everardo Autajay Javier (Moscoso),a prosecutor and Feliza Bellaflor,a teacher.He finished grade school in San Jose Elementary School in San Jose,Antique and graduated high school with first honors and college in Ateneo de Manila University. There,he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in History and Government and he earned his Bachelor of Laws at Ateneo Law School in 1968. He passed the bar examination in 1968 before he became a college professor at the Ateneo,a successful lawyer,and entered into politics. He was a member of the law school's Fraternal Order of Utopia.
He married Precious Bello Lotilla,daughter of Vicente Lotilla and Angelina Bello of Sibalom,Antique in Manila on December 29,1968. They had two sons,Francis Gideon Everardo and David Ignatius.
Javier ran for governor of Antique and won in 1971 by one of the largest margins in history,making him,at the age of 28,the Philippines' youngest governor.He did not run again for election in 1980. Instead he attended the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1981 on a scholarship,where he earned a Masters in Public Administration.
In 1984,he ran for Assemblyman in the Batasang Pambansa,and lost.Seven months after his death,he was declared the winner by the Philippine Supreme Court.
Javier ran for office during the 1984 elections but lost. Javier was known to be a crowd favorite wherein he won the hearts of the people of his province. Arturo Pacificador,a member of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) Party,was his competition who was known to have a lot of powerful people who supported him.
The heat of the competition between the two climaxed during the eve of the elections on May 13,1984. Seven of Javier's supporters were killed in what came to be known as the Sibalom Bridge Massacre. This,along with the massive election fraud prompted Javier's filing of a protest at the Supreme Court.
During the time of the elections,it was known that there were a lot of methods to compromise the voting results such as vote-buying and giving threats to voters. This did not only happen on the national level of elections,but also on the local elections. In the province of Antique,ballots of those who voted in the towns of Caluya,Cabate,Tibiao,Barbaza,Laua-an,and San Remigio were not placed in the boxes.
After the counting of the ballots,Pacificador won as the assemblyman for Antique. However,Javier asked to rebuke the decision of the commission due to suspicions of compromising the results of the elections,which the Supreme Court eventually decided in his favor months after the People Power Revolution.
At 10:00 in the morning of February 11,1986,three or four masked gunmen riding in a Nissan Patrol jeep went to the New Capitol building in San Jose,Antique.While Javier was talking to friends on the steps in front of the capitol building,the masked gunmen opened fire. Time described the scene:
Evelio Javier, director of Corazon Aquino's campaign in the remote province of Antique, was sitting on the lawn in front of the capital building, taking a break from a debate over contested votes in his region, when a white vehicle pulled into the driveway. Without warning, a man in a black knit ski mask leaped out and started shooting. Javier jumped up and ran. Zigzagging across the building's broad concrete plaza, he tried to escape the relentless barrage of bullets. At least one hit its mark. Javier stumbled and fell into a small fishpond. Somehow, though, the fleeing man struggled to his feet and staggered across the street. By this time, other gunmen had begun to close in. Two approached from the left. Another, brandishing a .45 pistol, appeared in front of a warehouse. Javier ducked into an alley and tried to hide behind an outhouse door. But the masked killer found his prey and finished him off with a burst of gunfire.
The toilet was owned by Leon Pe.The News Today at the 20th anniversary reported, "As the prostrated corpse of Javier lied on the damp cement of the comfort room, another gunman, hankering for a kill, unmasked himself and made a shrill outcry - 'Can you recognize me? Stand up and fight!' Whereupon he fired the coup de grace directed at the head..." His body had 24 bullet wounds.
Time reported that many in Javier's camp blamed Pacificador for the assassination:
Opposition leaders and many residents immediately claimed they knew who was behind the killing: Arturo Pacificador, a Marcos crony who is assistant majority floor leader in the National Assembly. Pacificador has operated like a warlord in Antique, wielding political patronage with his connections in the ruling party and the power he has amassed under Marcos.... He won his seat in the National Assembly by beating Javier in one of the most controversial campaigns of the 1984 election. On the eve of the voting, seven Javier supporters were killed during a shoot-out with Pacificador and his followers. The Ministry of Justice investigated, but never released its findings.
On the day of his burial in San Jose de Buenavista, Antique, thousands of mourners followed his funeral procession to the cemetery wearing yellow shirts with yellow bands tied to their wrists. [ citation needed ]They played his favorite song, "The Impossible Dream", during the procession to the cemetery. Thousands of Antiquenos there showed their anger and sorrow by crying "Justice for Evelio! We love you!" on the day of his death.
After Javier's assassination, his family filed charges against his political opponent, Arturo Pacificador, while the Ministry of Justice filed charges against the gunmen. By October 1986, the accusation consisted of 19 people; two noteworthy ones were Javier’s rival Pacificador, and Avelino Javellana, his lawyer.Of these 19, at the time only 6 were apprehended and all others were at large including both Pacifador and Javellana. Two of the apprehended, Romeo Nagalese and Jose Delumen, had confessed to the crime and Nagalase was discharged to be used as witness. In May 1989, Javellana was arrested, but on his pleas of health and safety was not held in Antique jail, but to be followed by two police escorts to Iloilo Mission Hospital. However, before they could be transferred, the two police officers were recalled by an unforeseen emergency and was instead escorted by the Provinvial Probation Officer of Antique. One of the apprehended Oscar Tianzon pleaded not guilty and Javellana requested right of bail, however opposition was made based on that charges of murder are not given the right of bail if evidence is strong. Tianzon was requested to be discharged as witness as he acted as lookout for the murder and the petition for bail was delayed until this could be resolved. The request was denied and Javellana’s right of bail was ruled as:
"The court searched the records for evidence to corroborate the material points in the aforesaid testimony of Tianzon against Javellana but found none to corroborate his statement pointing to Javellana as the gun supplier and the plotter. Neither has the prosecution presented evidence during the hearing to determine Tianzon's qualification tending to corroborate the implication of Javellana nor did the prosecution indicate to the court where such corroboration can be found by the court."
Further showing the presiding judge was biased towards the accused was that despite allowing Nagales to be discharged he was not used as witness to two other defendants and their cases were dismissed.The trials were suspended in 1989 when the presiding judge was accused of partiality and the Supreme Court issued a temporary restraining order. Petitions were made to resume the trials but these were denied in that light of the events of people power that it has become moot and academic. During this time Javellana was placed under house arrest under Atty. Deogracias del Rosario. In 1995, Pacificador had resurfaced and was detained. Pacificador as well had petitioned for bail and was granted so in 1996. As with above this judge had ignored the witnesses claims and even Pacificador’s own admission to being in the ambush site. In the 2000s, trials were once again opened for both of them, but these trials were once again suspended when Pacificador accused the judge of being biased against them. In 2004, the Antique Regional Trial Court acquitted Pacificador and three co-accused. However, Javellana and the others were convicted.
The assassination of Javier fueled the People Power Revolution that happened weeks later on February 22, 1986, which ousted Ferdinand Marcos and made Corazon Aquino the President of the Philippines.Javier's body processed through Manila, passing Ateneo de Manila University, where he had thousands of friends and colleagues, days before the revolution.
The day of his assassination is now marked as Governor Evelio B. Javier Day and is a special non-working public holiday in the provinces of Antique, Aklan, Capiz, and Iloilo, the four provinces on Panay island.
In September 1986, Supreme Court Associate Justice Isagani Cruz wrote about Javier at the end of his decision in Javier vs. COMELEC:
Let us first say these meager words in tribute to a fallen hero who was struck down in the vigor of his youth because he dared to speak against tyranny. Where many kept a meekly silence for fear of retaliation and still others feigned and fawned in hopes of safety and even reward, he chose to fight. He was not afraid. Money did not tempt him. Threats did not daunt him. Power did not awe him. His was a singular and all-exacting obsession: the return of freedom to his country. And though he fought not in the barricades of war amid the sound and smoke of shot and shell, he was a soldier nonetheless, fighting valiantly for the liberties of his people against the enemies of his race, unfortunately, of his race too, who would impose upon the land a perpetual night of dark enslavement. He did not see the breaking of dawn, sad to say, but in the very real sense Evelio B. Javier made that dawn draw nearer because he was, like Saul and Jonathan, "swifter than eagles and stronger than lions."
An airport, Evelio Javier Airport, in San Jose, Antique, was named in honor of Javier.
Antique, officially the Province of Antique, is a province in the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is San Jose de Buenavista, the most populous town in Antique. The province is situated in the western section of Panay Island and borders Aklan, Capiz and Iloilo to the east, while facing the Sulu Sea to the west.
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino, popularly known as Cory Aquino, was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th president of the Philippines, from 1986 to 1992. Corazon Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the two-decade rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and led to the establishment of the current democratic Fifth Philippine Republic.
Ferdinand "Bongbong" Romualdez Marcos Jr. is a Filipino politician who most recently served as a senator from 2010 to 2016. He is the second child and only son of the dictator and kleptocrat Ferdinand Marcos Sr. and former First Lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos.
San Jose de Buenavista, officially the Municipality of San Jose de Buenavista, or locals referred to as San Jose, is a 1st class municipality and capital of the province of Antique, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 65,140 people. Making it the most populous municipality in the province of Antique.
The 1986 Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections were held on February 7, 1986. Popularly known as the 1986 snap election, it is among the landmark events that led up to the People Power Revolution, the downfall of Ferdinand E. Marcos' martial law regime, and the accession of Corazon C. Aquino as president.
The Ateneo de Manila University is a private research university in Quezon City, Philippines. Founded in 1859 by the Society of Jesus, the Ateneo is the third-oldest university in the Philippines.
The United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) was the main political multi-party electoral alliance of the traditional political opposition during the turbulent last years of Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos in the mid-1980s. It was formed in January 1980, and was originally known as the United Democratic Opposition from 1980 to 1982. It was initially a union of eight major and minor political parties and organizations with the main aim to oust President Marcos through a legal political process. In April 1982, the coalition received its present name, and increased its members to twelve parties. Shortly after the assassination of popular opposition senator Benigno Aquino Jr., the party was led by Senator Salvador Laurel of Batangas.
Antique Airport, also known as San Jose Airport, and officially as Evelio Javier Airport is the only airport in the province of Antique in the Philippines. The airport is located in the provincial capital San Jose de Buenavista, and is classified as a Class 2 principal airport by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines, a body of the Department of Transportation and Communications that is responsible for the operations of not only this airport but also of all other airports in the Philippines except the major international airports.
Jose "Lito" Livioko Atienza Jr. is a Filipino politician serving as the Party-list Representative for Buhay since 2013, and as a House Deputy Speaker since November 2020. He previously served as the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources from 2007 to 2009 in the administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. He also served three consecutive terms as Mayor of Manila from 1998 to 2007.
The Regular Batasang Pambansa, or the First Batasang Pambansa, was the meeting of the Batasang Pambansa from the beginning of its session on July 23, 1984 until it was abolished by President Corazon Aquino on March 25, 1986.
The Ratification Cases, officially titled as Javellana v. Executive Secretary, was a 1973 Supreme Court of the Philippines case that allowed the 1973 Philippine Constitution to come into full force, which led to dictator President Ferdinand Marcos staying in power and ruling by decree until he was ousted by the People Power Revolution in 1986. The decision became the cornerstone of subsequent decisions whenever the validity of the 1973 Constitution was questioned.
Benjamin Santos Abalos Sr. is a Filipino politician who served as a former chairman of the Commission on Elections. He was also a former chairman of the MMDA and mayor of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila. He is the father of former Mandaluyong mayor and incumbent Metro Manila Development Authority chairman Benjamin "Benhur" Abalos Jr..
Exequiel Bellaflor Javier is a Filipino politician. He has been elected to six terms as a Member of the House of Representatives, representing the Lone District of Antique from 1987 to 1998, and from 2001 to 2010. He has also served as the governor of the province of Antique.
Abraham F. Sarmiento Sr. was a Filipino jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1987 to 1991. An active figure in the political opposition against the martial law government of President Ferdinand Marcos, he was appointed to the Court by Marcos' successor, President Corazon Aquino.
1986 in the Philippines details events of note that happened in the Philippines in the year 1986.
Evelio Javier Day, officially Governor Evelio B. Javier Day, is a special non-working public holiday in the Philippines to "commemorate the death anniversary of the late Governor Evelio B. Javier" in the four provinces that comprise Panay Island, the Philippines, specifically Antique, Capiz, Aklan, and Iloilo. It has been a holiday on Panay Island every year since 1987.
Isagani A. Cruz was a Filipino judge who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines from 1986 to 1994. He retired from the Supreme Court on October 11, 1994, due to the court's mandatory retirement age of 70 years.
The 2016 Philippine Gubernatorial elections were held in the Philippines on May 9, 2016. All provinces elected their provincial governors for three-year terms, who will be inaugurated on June 30, 2016, after their proclamation. Governors that are currently serving their third consecutive terms are prohibited from running as governors.
The dictatorship of Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos in the 1970s and 1980s is historically remembered for its record of human rights abuses, particularly targeting political opponents, student activists, journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought against the Marcos dictatorship. Based on the documentation of Amnesty International, Task Force Detainees of the Philippines, and similar human rights monitoring entities, historians believe that the Marcos dictatorship was marked by 3,257 known extrajudicial killings, 35,000 documented tortures, 77 'disappeared', and 70,000 incarcerations.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Evelio Javier .|