Evens

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Evens
эвэсэл · эвены
Even women.jpg
Group of Even (Lamut) women with national costumes. Okhotsk okrug. Beginning of the 20th century.
Total population
22,487 [1] [2]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 22,383 [1]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 104 [2]
Languages
Russian, Even, Sakha
Religion
Shamanism, Russian Orthodoxy
Related ethnic groups
other Tungusic peoples
The settlement of the Evens in the Russian Federation for 2010 in % of the total number of this nation in the Russian Federation Rasselenie evenov 2010.png
The settlement of the Evens in the Russian Federation for 2010 in % of the total number of this nation in the Russian Federation

The Evens /əˈvɛn/ (эвэн; pl. эвэсэл, evesel, in Even and эвены, eveny in Russian; formerly called Lamuts) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. They live in regions of the Magadan Oblast and Kamchatka Krai and northern parts of Sakha east of the Lena River. According to the 2002 census, there were 19,071 Evens in Russia. According to the 2010 census, there were 22,383 Evens in Russia. They speak their own language called Even language, one of the Tungusic languages. The Evens are close to the Evenks by their origins and culture. Officially, they were considered to be of Orthodox faith since the 19th century, but the Evens managed to preserve different forms of non-Christian beliefs, such as shamanism. Traditional Even life is centred upon nomadic pastoralism of domesticated reindeer, supplemented with hunting, fishing and animal-trapping. There were 104 Evens in Ukraine, 19 of whom spoke Even. (Ukr. Cen. 2001)

Contents

History

The ancestors of the Evens were believed to have migrated from the Transbaikal area to the coastal areas of eastern Siberia. The economy was supplemented by winter hunts to obtain wild game. Hunters sometimes rode reindeer, sometimes moved along on wooden skis.

In the 17th century, the people today known as the Eveni were divided into three main tribes: the Okhotsk reindeer Tungus (Lamut), the Tiugesir, Memel’ and Buiaksir clans as well as a sedentary group of Arman’ speakers. Today, they are all known as Eveni. [3]

The traditional lodgings of the Evens were conical tents which were covered with animal skins. In the southern coastal areas, fish skins were used.[ citation needed ] Settled Evens used a type of earth and log dugout.[ citation needed ] Sheds were erected near the dwellings in order to house stocks of frozen fish and meat.

The Soviet years marked significant changes for the Evens. The Soviets created a written language for them and got rid of illiteracy among the Evens in the 1930s. Many nomadic Evens chose to settle down, joined the kolkhozes and engaged themselves in cattle-breeding and agriculture.

Notable Evens

Related Research Articles

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Evenks

The Evenks are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognised as one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 38,396. In China, the Evenki form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China, with a population of 30,875. There are 537 Evenks in Mongolia called Khamnigan in Mongolian language.

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Nivkh people

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Nganasan people

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Dolgans

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Selkup people

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The Even language, also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan, is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely scattered communities of reindeer herders from Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk in the east to the Lena river in the west, and from the Arctic coast in the north to the Aldan river in the south. Even is an endangered language, with only some 5,700 speakers. These speakers are specifically from the Magadan region, the Chukot region and the Koryak region. The dialects are Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr and Lamunkhin.

Dukha people

The Dukha, Dukhans or Duhalar are a small Tuvan Turkic community of reindeer herders living in northern Khövsgöl Aimag of Mongolia.

Tungusic peoples Ethno-linguistic family

Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages. They are native to Siberia and Northeast Asia.

Indigenous peoples of Siberia

Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia is around 33 million people. As a result of the 17th to 19th century Russian conquest of Siberia and the subsequent population movements during the Soviet era, the demographics of Siberia today is dominated by native speakers of Russian. There remain a considerable number of indigenous groups, between them accounting for below 10% of total Siberian population, some of which are distantly genetically related to indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Reindeer in Siberian shamanism

Reindeer in Siberian shamanism reflect the cultural, as well as the economic, relationship between the native peoples of Siberia, a region of Northern Asia, and the reindeer that live there. It involves the nomadic reindeer herders, those that hunt wild reindeer and those who maintain domesticated ones. Their religious beliefs reflect the spiritual philosophy of shamanism, and their traditions often involve reindeer in several steps of the process of practicing their religion.

Reindeer in Russia

Reindeer in Russia include tundra and forest reindeer and are subspecies of Rangifer tarandus. Tundra reindeer include the Novaya Zemlya (R.t.pearsoni) and Lapland subspecies and the Siberian tundra reindeer.

Reindeer herding

Reindeer herding is when reindeer are herded by people in a limited area. Currently, reindeer are the only semi-domesticated animal which naturally belongs to the North. Reindeer herding is conducted in nine countries: Norway, Finland, Sweden, Russia, Greenland, Alaska, Mongolia, China and Canada. A small herd is also maintained in Scotland.

References

  1. 1 2 Ethnic groups in Russia, 2010 census, Rosstat. Retrieved 15 February 2012 (in Russian)
  2. 1 2 "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  3. B. O. Dolgikh and Chester S. Chard (trans.), “The Formation of the Modern Peoples of the Soviet North" Arctic Anthropology 9(1) (1972): 17-26

Further reading