Exorcism

Last updated
Painting of Saint Francis Borgia performing an exorcism, as depicted by Goya St. Francis Borgia Helping a Dying Impenitent by Goya.jpg
Painting of Saint Francis Borgia performing an exorcism, as depicted by Goya

Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that is believed to be possessed. [1] Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power. The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions.

Contents

Requested and performed exorcism began to decline in the United States by the 18th century and occurred rarely until the latter half of the 20th century when the public saw a sharp rise due to the media attention exorcisms were getting. There was "a 50% increase in the number of exorcisms performed between the early 1960s and the mid-1970s". [2]

Buddhism

The ritual of the Exorcising-Ghost day is part of Tibetan tradition. The Tibetan religious ceremony 'Gutor' ༼དགུ་གཏོར་༽, literally offering of the 29th, is held on the 29th of the 12th Tibetan month, with its focus on driving out all negativity, including evil spirits and misfortunes of the past year, and starting the new year in a peaceful and auspicious way.

The temples and monasteries throughout Tibet hold grand religious dance ceremonies, with the largest at Potala Palace in Lhasa. Families clean their houses on this day, decorate the rooms and eat a special noodle soup called 'Guthuk'. ༼དགུ་ཐུག་༽ In the evening, the people carry torches, calling out the words of exorcism. [3]

In Sri Lanka, Sinhala Buddhists invoke the protection of the Buddha as well as the deity Suniyam to control and disperse dangerous supernatural forces in a ritual known as the yaktovil . [4]

Christianity

Exorcising a Mute by Gustav Dore, 1865. JesusCuresamute.gif
Exorcising a Mute by Gustav Dore, 1865.

In Christianity, exorcism is the practice of casting out or getting rid of demons. In Christian practice the person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the Christian Church, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use prayers and religious material, such as set formulas, gestures, symbols, icons, amulets, etc. The exorcist often invokes God, Jesus or several different angels and archangels to intervene with the exorcism. Protestant Christian exorcists most commonly believe the authority given to them by the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (the Trinity) is the source of their ability to cast out demons. [5]

In general, people considered to be possessed are not regarded as evil in themselves, nor wholly responsible for their actions, because possession is considered to be unwilling manipulation by a demon resulting in harm to self or others. Therefore, practitioners regard exorcism as more of a cure than a punishment. The mainstream rituals usually take this into account, making sure that there is no violence to the possessed, only that they be tied down if there is potential for violence. [6]

Roman Catholic Church

In Catholicism, exorcisms are performed in the name of Jesus Christ. [7] A distinction is made between a formal exorcism (solemn exorcism), which can only be conducted by a priest during a baptism or with the permission of a bishop, and "prayers of deliverance" which can be said by anyone.

The statue of Saint Philip of Agira with the Gospel in his left hand, the symbol of the exorcists, in the May celebrations in his honor at Limina, Sicily Ottava di San Filippo d'Agira a Limina - Province of Messina, Sicily, Italy - Sunday 19 May 2013.jpg
The statue of Saint Philip of Agira with the Gospel in his left hand, the symbol of the exorcists, in the May celebrations in his honor at Limina, Sicily

The Catholic rite for a formal exorcism, called a "Major Exorcism", is given in Section 11 of the Rituale Romanum. [8] [9] The Ritual lists guidelines for conducting an exorcism, and for determining when a formal exorcism is required. [10] Priests are instructed to carefully determine that the nature of the affliction is not actually a psychological or physical illness before proceeding. [7]

In Catholic practice, the person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is an ordained priest. The exorcist recites prayers according to the rubrics of the rite, and may make use of religious materials such as icons, sacramentals, and relics. The exorcist invokes God—specifically the Name of Jesus Christ—as well as members of the Church Triumphant and the Archangel Michael to intervene with the exorcism. According to Catholic understanding, several weekly exorcisms over many years are sometimes required to expel a deeply entrenched demon. [10] [11]

Saint Michael's Prayer against Satan and the Rebellious Angels, attributed to Pope Leo X, is the strongest prayer of the Roman Catholic Church against cases of diabolic possession. The Holy Rosary also has an exorcistic and intercessory power.[ citation needed ]

Lutheran Churches

From the 16th century onward, Lutheran pastoral handbooks describe the primary symptoms of demonic possession to be knowledge of secret things, knowledge of languages one has never learned, and supernatural strength. [12] Before conducting a major exorcism, Lutheran liturgical texts state that a physician be consulted in order to rule out any medical or psychiatric illness. [12] The rite of exorcism centers chiefly around driving out demons "with prayers and contempt" and includes the Apostle's Creed and Our Father. [12]

Baptismal liturgies in Lutheran Churches include a minor exorcism. [13] [14]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does not have a particular "exorcism ordinance" but exorcisms would be considered a type of Priesthood Blessing. While a very rare practice in the Church, there are two methods for performing an exorcism. The first is by Anointing consecrated oil and Laying on of hands followed by a blessing on a specific person and commanding the spirit to leave. The second and most common method is done by "raising the hand to the square" and then "commanding the spirit away in the name of Jesus Christ and with the Power of the Holy Melchizedek priesthood." Exorcisms can only be performed by someone holding the Melchizedek priesthood, the higher of the 2 priesthoods of the Church, and can be performed by anyone holding that priesthood, however they are generally performed by Bishops, Missionaries, Mission presidents, or Stake presidents.

Exorcisms are not recorded by the church and therefore the number of exorcisms performed in the religion are unknown. Demonic possession is rarely talked about in the church. Demonic possession has been talked about twice by Joseph Smith, the founder of the faith. The first time refers to his experience during the First Vision and he recorded the following in his "1831 account of the First Vision":

"I kneeled down and began to offer up the desires of my heart to God, I had scarcely done so, when immediately I was seized upon by some power which entirely overcame me and had such astonishing influence over me as to bind my tongue so that I could not speak.

Thick darkness gathered around me and it seemed to me for a time as if I were doomed to sudden destruction. But exerting all my powers to call upon God to deliver me out of the power of this enemy which had seized upon me, and at the very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and abandon myself to destruction, not to an imaginary ruin but to the power of some actual being from the unseen world who had such a marvelous power as I had never before felt in any being. Just at this moment of great alarm I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head above the brightness of the sun, which descended gradually until it fell upon me." [15]

His second experience comes from a journal entry in which he talks about the time he performed an exorcism on a friend. [16]

Hinduism

The image of Hanuman at the Hanuman temple in Sarangpur is said to be so powerful that a mere look at it by people affected by evil spirits, drives the evil spirits out of the people affected Kashtbhanjan.jpg
The image of Hanuman at the Hanuman temple in Sarangpur is said to be so powerful that a mere look at it by people affected by evil spirits, drives the evil spirits out of the people affected

Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with Hindus. Of the four Vedas (holy books of the Hindus), the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to exorcism, [18] magic and alchemy. [19] The basic means of exorcism are the mantra and the yajna used in both Vedic and Tantric traditions. Vaishnava traditions also employ a recitation of names of Narasimha and reading scriptures, notably the Bhagavata Purana aloud.

According to Gita Mahatmya of Padma Purana, reading the 3rd, 7th and 9th chapter of Bhagavad Gita and mentally offering the result to departed persons helps them to get released from their ghostly situation. Kirtan , continuous playing of mantras, keeping scriptures and holy pictures of the deities (Shiva, Vishnu, Hanuman, Brahma, Shakti, etc.) (especially of Narasimha) in the house, burning incense offered during a Puja , sprinkling water from holy rivers, and blowing conches used in puja are other effective practices.[ citation needed ] It is also believed that praying to Lord Hanuman gives the best result. It is also mentioned in the Hanuman Chalisa. It is believed that just uttering the name of Lord Hanuman makes the evil forces and devils tremble, in fear.

The main puranic resource on ghost and death-related information is Garuda Purana. [20]

A complete description of birth and death and also about the human soul are explained in Katō Upanishad, a part of Yajur Veda. A summary of this is also available as a separate scripture called Kāttakaṃ.

Islam

Terms for exorcism practises include ṭard (or dafʿ) al-shayṭān/al-jinn (expulsion of the demon/the spirit), ʿilāj (treatment), and ibrāʾ al-maṣrūʿ (curing the possessed), but also ruḳya (enchantment) [21] is used to exorcise various spirits. [22]

Islamic exorcisms might consist of the treated person lying down, while a sheikh places a hand on a patient’s head while reciting verses from the Quran, but this is not mandatory. [23] The drinking or sprinkling of holy water (water from the Zamzam Well) may also take place along with applying of clean non-alcohol-based perfumes, called as ittar. [24]

Specific verses from the Quran are recited, which glorify God (e.g. The Throne Verse (Arabic: آية الكرسي Ayatul Kursi)), and invoke God's help. In some cases, the adhan (call for daily prayers) is also read, as this has the effect of repelling non-angelic unseen beings or the jinn . [25]

The Islamic prophet Muhammad taught his followers to read the last three suras from the Quran, Surat al-Ikhlas (The Fidelity), Surat al-Falaq (The Dawn) and Surat an-Nas (Mankind). Hadiths reporting Muhammad, but also Jesus, performing exorcism rites serve as example and permissibility for exorcism rites. [26]

Judaism

Josephus reports exorcisms performed by administering poisonous root extracts and others by making sacrifices. [27]

In more recent times, Rabbi Yehuda Fetaya (1859-1942) authored the book Minchat Yahuda, which deals extensively with exorcism, his experience with possessed people, and other subjects of Jewish thought. The book is written in Hebrew and was translated into English.

The Jewish exorcism ritual is performed by a rabbi who has mastered practical Kabbalah. Also present is a minyan (a group of ten adult males), who gather in a circle around the possessed person. The group recites Psalm 91 three times, and then the rabbi blows a shofar (a ram's horn). [28]

The shofar is blown in a certain way, with various notes and tones, in effect to "shatter the body" so that the possessing force will be shaken loose. After it has been shaken loose, the rabbi begins to communicate with it and ask it questions such as why it is possessing the body of the possessed. The minyan may pray for it and perform a ceremony for it in order to enable it to feel safe, and so that it can leave the person's body. [28]

Taoism

In Taoism, exorcisms are performed because an individual has been possessed by an evil spirit for one of two reasons. The individual has disturbed a ghost, regardless of intent, and the ghost now seeks revenge. An alive person could also be jealous and uses black magic as revenge thereby conjuring a ghost to possess someone. [29] Members of the fashi, both Chinese ritual officers and priests ordained by a celestial master, perform Chinese rituals, in particular, exorcisms.

Historically, Taoist exorcisms include chanting, physical movements, and praying as a way to drive away the spirit. [30] Rituals such as these occur during festivals. Rituals such as these are considered of low order during these festivals. They are more for entertainment than a necessity during festivals.[ citation needed ]

The leaders of the exorcisms create a dramatic performance to call out the demons so the village can once again have peace. The leaders strike themselves with a sharp weapon so they bleed. Blood is considered to be a protector, so after the rituals, the blood is blotted with a tissue and put on the door of houses as an act of protection against evil spirits. [31]

Scientific view

Demonic possession is not a psychiatric or medical diagnosis recognized by either the DSM-5 or the ICD-10. Those who profess a belief in demonic possession have sometimes ascribed to possession the symptoms associated with physical or mental illnesses, such as hysteria, mania, psychosis, Tourette's syndrome, epilepsy, schizophrenia or dissociative identity disorder. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

Additionally, there is a form of monomania called demonomania or demonopathy in which the patient believes that he or she is possessed by one or more demons. [38] The illusion that exorcism works on people experiencing symptoms of possession is attributed by some to placebo effect and the power of suggestion. [39] [40] Some cases suggest that supposedly possessed persons are actually narcissists or are suffering from low self-esteem and act demonically possessed in order to gain attention. [41]

Within the scientific community, the work of psychiatrist M. Scott Peck, a believer in exorcism, generated significant debate and derision. Much was made of his association with (and admiration for) the controversial Malachi Martin, a Roman Catholic priest and a former Jesuit, despite the fact that Peck consistently called Martin a liar and a manipulator. [42] [43] Other criticisms leveled against Peck included claims that he had transgressed the boundaries of professional ethics by attempting to persuade his patients to accept Christianity. [42]

Exorcism and mental illness

One scholar has described psychosurgery as "Neurosurgical Exorcisms", with trepanation having been widely used to release demons from the brain. [44] Meanwhile, another scholar has equated psychotherapy with exorcism. [45]

United Kingdom

In the UK, exorcisms are increasing. They happen mainly in charismatic and Pentecostal churches, and also among communities of West African origin. Frequently, the people exorcised are mentally disturbed. Mentally ill people are sometimes told to stop their medication as the church believes prayer or exorcism is enough. If psychiatric patients do not get better after exorcism, they may believe they have failed to overcome the demon and get worse. [46]

Notable exorcisms and exorcists

See also

Related Research Articles

Demon Paranormal being prevalent in religion, occultism, mythology, and folklore

A demon is a supernatural being, typically associated with evil, prevalent historically in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, and folklore; as well as in media such as comics, video games, movies and television series.

Spirit possession is the supposed control of a human body by spirits, aliens, demons or gods. The concept of spirit possession exists in many religions, including Christianity, Buddhism, Haitian Vodou, Wicca, Hinduism, Islam and Southeast Asian and African traditions. In a 1969 study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, spirit possession beliefs were found to exist in 74 percent of a sample of 488 societies in all parts of the world. Depending on the cultural context in which it is found, possession may be considered voluntary or involuntary and may be considered to have beneficial or detrimental effects on the host. Within possession cults, the belief that one is possessed by spirits is more common among women than men.

<i>The Exorcist</i> (novel) novel by William Peter Blatty

The Exorcist is a 1971 horror novel by American writer William Peter Blatty. The book details the demonic possession of eleven-year-old Regan MacNeil, the daughter of a famous actress, and the two priests who attempt to exorcise the demon. Published by Harper & Row, the novel was the basis of a highly successful film adaption released two years later, whose screenplay was also written and produced by Blatty, and part of The Exorcist franchise.

Demonic possession involves the belief that an alien spirit, demon, or entity controls a person's actions. Those who believe themselves so possessed commonly claim that symptoms of demonic possession include missing memories, perceptual distortions, loss of a sense of control, and hyper-suggestibility. Erika Bourguignon found in a study of 488 societies worldwide that seventy-four percent believe in possession by spirits, with the highest numbers of believing societies in Pacific cultures and the lowest incidence among Native Americans of both North and South America.

Spiritual warfare Christian concept of fighting against the work of preternatural evil forces

Spiritual warfare is the Christian concept of fighting against the work of preternatural evil forces. It is based on the biblical belief in evil spirits, or demons, that are said to intervene in human affairs in various ways. Although spiritual warfare is a prominent feature of neo-charismatic churches, various Christian groups have adopted practices to repel such forces, as based on their doctrine of Christian demonology, too. Prayer is a common form of spiritual warfare among Christians. Other practices may include exorcism, the laying on of hands, fasting with prayer, praise and worship, and anointing with oil.

Deliverance ministry Type of prayer used by some Christian groups

In Christianity, deliverance ministry refers to groups that perform practices and rituals to cleanse people of demons and evil spirits. This is done in order to address problems manifesting in their life as a result of demonic presences, which have authority to oppress the person. Believers attribute people's physical, psychological, spiritual, and emotional problems to the activities of these evil spirits in their lives. Deliverance rituals are meant to cast out evil spirits, helping people overcome negative behaviors, feelings, and experiences. Each individual event is different, but many include some or all of these major steps: diagnosis, naming the demon, expulsion, and some form of action taken by the exorcised person after their exorcism to keep the demon from returning. Exorcisms may be performed by individuals or by churches or ministries; in casting out spirits, adherents believe they are following the example of Jesus Christ and his disciples given in the New Testament. The doctrines and practices of these ministries are not accepted by all Christians.

In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or (sometimes) a building or even an object. An exorcist can be specially prepared or instructed person including: priest, a nun, a monk, a witch doctor (healer), a shaman, a psychic or a geomancer.

Gabriele Amorth Italian Roman Catholic priest and exorcist

Gabriele Amorth was an Italian Catholic priest and exorcist of the Diocese of Rome who performed tens of thousands of exorcisms over his sixty plus years as a priest. As the appointed exorcist for the diocese of Rome, Fr. Amorth was the Chief Exorcist of the Vatican.

<i>Of Exorcisms and Certain Supplications</i>

Of Exorcisms and Certain Supplications is an 84-page document of the Catholic Church containing the current version of the Rite of Exorcism authorised for use in the Latin Church.

Anneliese Michel German homicide victim

Anna Elisabeth "Anneliese" Michel was a German woman who underwent Catholic exorcism rites during the year before her death. She was diagnosed with epileptic psychosis and had a history of psychiatric treatment, which was overall not effective.

Jean-Joseph Surin was a French Jesuit mystic, preacher, devotional writer and exorcist. He is remembered for his participation in the exorcisms of Loudun in 1634-37.

<i>The Rite</i> (2011 film) 2011 film by Mikael Håfström

The Rite is a 2011 supernatural horror film directed by Mikael Håfström and written by Michael Petroni. It is loosely based on Matt Baglio's book The Rite: The Making of a Modern Exorcist, which itself is based on supposedly real events as witnessed and recounted by American then-exorcist-in-training Father Gary Thomas and his experiences of being sent to Rome to be trained and work daily with veteran clergy of the practice.

Clara Germana Cele was a South African Christian woman, who in 1906, was said to be possessed by a demon.

In the late 1940s, in the United States, priests of the Roman Catholic Church performed a series of exorcisms on an anonymous boy, documented under the pseudonym "Roland Doe" or "Robbie Mannheim". The 14-year-old boy, was the alleged victim of demonic possession, and the events were recorded by the attending priest, Raymond J. Bishop. Subsequent supernatural claims surrounding the events were used as elements in William Peter Blatty's novel The Exorcist in 1971.

Christopher Neil-Smith (1920–1995) was an Anglican priest who served as vicar of St Saviour's Hampstead and is best known for his practice of exorcism and his parapsychological interests.

Exorcism in Christianity Ceremony performed by priests and nums to cast out demons

In Christianity, exorcism involves the practice of casting out one or more demons from a person whom they are believed to have possessed. The person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the Christian Church, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use prayers and religious material, such as set formulas, gestures, symbols, icons, amulets, etc. The exorcist often invokes God, Jesus and/or several different angels and archangels to intervene with the exorcism. A survey of Christian exorcists found that most exorcists believe that any mature Christian can perform an exorcism, not just members of clergy. Christian exorcists most commonly believe the authority given to them by the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is the source of their ability to cast out demons.

Exorcism in the Catholic Church The use of exorcism in the Catholic Church

The Catholic Church authorizes the use of exorcism for those who are believed to be the victims of demonic possession. In Roman Catholicism, exorcism is a sacramental but not a sacrament, unlike baptism or confession. Unlike a sacrament, exorcism's "integrity and efficacy do not depend ... on the rigid use of an unchanging formula or on the ordered sequence of prescribed actions. Its efficacy depends on two elements: authorization from valid and licit Church authorities, and the faith of the exorcist." The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "When the Church asks publicly and authoritatively in the name of Jesus Christ that a person or object be protected against the power of the Evil One and withdrawn from his dominion, it is called exorcism."

Exorcism in Islam

Exorcism in Islam is called 'aza'imIPA: ['aza'im]). Ruqya on the other hand summons jinn and demons by invoking the names of God, and to command them to abandon their mischiefs and is thought to repair damage believed caused by jinn possession, witchcraft (sihr) or the evil eye. Exorcisms today are part of a wider body of contemporary Islamic alternative medicine called "prophetic medicine".

Puritan exorcism was the use of exorcism by Puritan ministers. The demonology of Puritans was not unusual within the Early Modern demonology of Protestants, but the use of ritual and prayer in exorcism was more distinctive. The Church of England did not recognise the ritual of exorcism, while the Roman Catholic Church has always done so. Some radical Puritan ministers performed exorcisms; but some leading Puritan writers, such as William Perkins, opposed the ritual, while accepting the underlying theories, for example about witchcraft.

Minor exorcism in Christianity

The expression minor exorcism can be used in a technical sense or a general sense. The general sense indicates any exorcism which is not a solemn exorcism of a person believed to be possessed, including various forms of deliverance ministry. This article deals only with the technical sense which specifically refers to certain prayers used with persons preparing to become baptised members of the Christian Church. These prayers request God's assistance so that the person to be baptised will be kept safe from the power of Satan or protected in a more general way from temptation.

References

  1. Jacobs, Louis (1999). "Exorcism". A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. doi:10.1093/acref/9780192800886.001.0001. ISBN   9780192800886.
  2. Martin, M (1992). Hostage to the Devil: The Possession and Exorcism of Five Contemporary Americans. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. p. 120.
  3. "Exorcising-Ghost Day". Tibet Travel. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  4. Scott, David. Formations of Ritual: Colonial and Anthropological Discourses on the Sinhala Yaktovil. NED - New edition ed., University of Minnesota Press, 1994. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttp68. Accessed 3 May 2020.
  5. Mohr, M. D., & Royal, K. D. (2012). "Investigating the Practice of Christian Exorcism and the Methods Used to Cast out Demons", Journal of Christian Ministry, 4, p. 35. Available at: http://journalofchristianministry.org/article/view/10287/7073.
  6. Malachi M. (1976) Hostage to the Devil: the possession and exorcism of five living Americans. San Francisco, Harpercollins p. 462 ISBN   0-06-065337-X
  7. 1 2 Libreria Editrice Vaticana; Pope John Paul II, eds. (28 April 2000), "Sacramentals", Catechism of the Catholic Church (2ND ed.), Citta del Vaticano: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, p.  928, ISBN   978-1-57455-110-5 , retrieved 15 February 2012
  8. "The Roman ritual". www.ewtn.com. Translated by Weller, Philip T. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  9. "Rituale Romanum" (PDF). www.liturgia.it. 10 June 1925.
  10. 1 2 Baglio, Matt (2010). The Rite: the Making of a Modern Exorcist (1st Image ed.). New York: Doubleday. ISBN   978-0-385-52271-7.
  11. Amorth, Gabriele (1999). An Exorcist Tells His Story. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. ISBN   978-0-898-70710-6. Anthropological date collected by Mohr and Royal (2012), in which they surveyed nearly 200 Protestant Christian exorcists, revealed stark contrasts to traditional Catholic practices.
  12. 1 2 3 Mayes, Benjamin. "Quotes from Lutheran Pastoral Handbooks on the Topic of Demon Possession" . Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  13. Wagner, C. Peter (16 October 2012). Supernatural Forces in Spiritual Warfare. Destiny Image, Incorporated. p. 106. ISBN   9780768487916. A brief exorcism found its way into early Lutheran baptismal services and an exorcism prayer formula is recorded in the First Prayer Book of Edward VI (1549).
  14. Kolb, Robert; Trueman, Carl R. (17 October 2017). Between Wittenberg and Geneva: Lutheran and Reformed Theology in Conversation. Baker Publishing Group. p. 162. ISBN   9781493411450. This liturgy retained the minor exorcism (a formal renunciation of the devil's works and ways), which later in the sixteenth century became an issue dividing Lutherans and Calvinists.
  15. Snell, David (2017-09-02). "3 Times Joseph Smith and Satan Went Head to Head". Third Hour. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  16. "The Knight Family: Ever Faithful to the Prophet". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  17. Rajaram Narayan Saletore (1981). Indian witchcraft. Abhinav Publications. p. 40. ISBN   9780391024809 . Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  18. Usha Srivastava (2011). Encyclopaedia of Indian Medicines (3 Volume Set). Pinnacle Technology. pp. 5–6. ISBN   9781618202772.
  19. Monier-Williams 1974 , pp. 25–41
  20. Holly A. Hunt. Emotional Exorcism: Expelling the Four Psychological Demons That Make Us Backslide. ABC-CLIO. p. 6.
  21. Fahd, T., “Ruḳya”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 16 December 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_6333> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN   9789004161214, 1960-2007
  22. Szombathy, Zoltan, “Exorcism”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 16 December 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_26268> First published online: 2014 First print edition: ISBN   9789004269637, 2014, 2014-4
  23. Staff (14 May 2012). "Belgium court charges six people in deadly exorcism of Muslim woman". Al Arabiya .
  24. "Belgium court charges six people in deadly exorcism of Muslim woman". Al Arabiya . 14 May 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  25. MacDonald, D.B., Massé, H., Boratav, P.N., Nizami, K.A. and Voorhoeve, P., “Ḏj̲inn”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 15 November 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0191> First published online: 2012 First print edition: ISBN   978-90-04-16121-4, 1960–2007 "All their (jinn) activities take place at night and come to an end with the first cock.row or the first call to mrning prayer."
  26. Szombathy, Zoltan, “Exorcism”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Edited by: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Consulted online on 16 December 2019 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_26268> First published online: 2014 First print edition: 9789004269637, 2014, 2014-4
  27. Josephus, "B. J." vii. 6, § 3; Sanh. 65b.
  28. 1 2 Belanger, Jeff (29 November 2003). "Dybbuk – Spiritual Possession and Jewish Folklore". Ghostvillage.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  29. http://taoist-sorcery.blogspot.com/2012/08/taoist-exorcism-by-taoist-master.html
  30. http://web.stanford.edu/group/hopes/cgi-bin/hopes_test/exorcism-and-mental-illness-across-different-cultures/
  31. http://www.patheos.com/Library/Taoism/Ritual-Worship-Devotion-Symbolism/Rites-and-Ceremonies?offset=1&max=1
  32. Henderson, J. (1981). Exorcism and Possession in Psychotherapy Practice. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 27: 129–34.
  33. Maniam, T. (1987). Exorcism and Psychiatric Illness: Two Case Reports. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 42: 317–19.
  34. Pfeifer, S. (1994). Belief in demons and exorcism in psychiatric patients in Switzerland. British Journal of Medical Psychology 4 247–58.
  35. Beyerstein, Barry L. (1995). Dissociative States: Possession and Exorcism. In Gordon Stein (ed.). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 544–52. ISBN   1-57392-021-5
  36. Tajima-Pozo, K., Zambrano-Enriquez, D., de Anta, L., Moron, M., Carrasco, J., Lopez-Ibor, J., & Diaz-Marsa, M. (2011). "Practicing exorcism in schizophrenia". Case Reports.
  37. Ross, C. A., Schroeder, B. A. & Ness, L. (2013). Dissociation and symptoms of culture-bound syndromes in North America: A preliminary study. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 14: 224–35.
  38. Noll, Richard. (2006). The Encyclopedia of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. Facts On File Inc. p. 129. ISBN   0-8160-6405-9
  39. Levack, Brian P. (1992). Possession and Exorcism. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN   0-8153-1031-5
  40. Radford, Benjamin. (2005). "Voice of Reason: Exorcisms, Fictional and Fatal". LiveScience. "To the extent that exorcisms "work," it is primarily due to the power of suggestion and the placebo effect."
  41. Levack, Brian P. (1992). Possession and Exorcism. Routledge. p. 277. ISBN   0-8153-1031-5
  42. 1 2 The devil you know, National Catholic Reporter, 29 April 2005, a commentary on Glimpses of the Devil by Richard Woods
  43. The Patient Is the Exorcist, an interview with M. Scott Peck by Laura Sheahen
  44. Silverman, W A. "Neurosurgical Exorcism." Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 15.2 (2001): 98–99.
  45. Gettis, Alan. "Psychotherapy as exorcism." Journal of Religion and Health 15.3 (1976): 188–90.
  46. 'Spiritual abuse': Christian thinktank warns of sharp rise in UK exorcisms The Guardian
  47. Calmet, Augustin (2015-12-30). Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: of Hungary, Moravia, et al. The Complete Volumes I & II. 2016. p. 132. ISBN   978-1-5331-4568-0.
  48. Calmet, Augustin (2015-12-30). Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: of Hungary, Moravia, et al. The Complete Volumes I & II. 2016. pp. 138–143. ISBN   978-1-5331-4568-0.
  49. Tessa Harris (2013-12-24). The Devil's Breath. Kensington Books. p. 349. ISBN   9780758267009.
  50. "Blumhardt's Battle: A Conflict With Satan". Thomas E. Lowe, LTD. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  51. Friedrich Zuendel. "The Awakening: One Man's Battle With Darkness" (PDF). The Plough. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
  52. Rosemary Guiley (2009). The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology. Infobase Publishing. p. 12. ISBN   9781438131917.
  53. Dali's gift to exorcist uncovered Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Catholic News 14 October 2005.
  54. Powers of the mind. TV Books. May 1999. ISBN   978-1-57500-028-2 . Retrieved 31 December 2007. The Reverend Luther Miles Schulze, was called in to help and took Mannheim to his home where he could study the phenomenon at close range;
  55. Paranormal Experiences. Unicorn Books. 8 June 2009. ISBN   978-81-7806-166-5 . Retrieved 31 December 2007. A thirteen-year-old American boy named, Robert Mannheim, started using an...The Reverend Luther Miles Schulze, who was called to look into the matter,...
  56. A Faraway Ancient Country. Lulu. 2007. ISBN   978-0-615-15801-3 . Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  57. Garrison, Chad. "Hell of a House".
  58. "Part I – The Haunted Boy: the Inspiration for the Exorcist".
  59. Bill Ellis. Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media. University Press of Kentucky. p. 97. ISBN   978-0813126821.
  60. Video on YouTube
  61. "Bizarre exorcism draws suspended prison terms". The Press-Courier. 22 April 1978. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  62. Duffey, John M. (2011). Lessons Learned: The Anneliese Michel Exorcism. ISBN   978-1-60899-664-3
  63. "FLASHBACK: Bobby Jindal's Exorcism Problem".
  64. http://www1.cbn.com/thebrodyfile/archive/2009/02/24/bobby-jindals-story-about-demons-and-spiritual-warfare
  65. Bindra, Satinder (7 September 2001). "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism". CNN . Archived from the original on 17 September 2005. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  66. "Deadly curse verdict: five found guilty". The Dominion Post . 13 June 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2011.

Works cited

Further reading