In some religions, an exorcist (from the Greek „εξορκιστής“) is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or (sometimes) a building or even an object. An exorcist can be specially prepared or instructed person including: priest, a nun, a monk, a witch doctor (healer), a shaman, a psychic or a geomancer (Feng shui - Chinese geomancy).
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In a Roman Catholic context, exorcist may refer to a cleric who has been ordained into the minor order of exorcist, or a priest who has been mandated to perform the rite of solemn exorcism.
Since at least the third century, the Latin Church has formally ordained men to the minor order of exorcist.Text previously attributed to a fourth Council of Carthage (398), now identified as a collection called Statuta Ecclesiæ Antiqua , prescribes in its seventh canon the rite of ordination of such an exorcist: the bishop is to give him the book containing the formulae of exorcism, saying, "Receive, and commit to memory, and possess the power of imposing hands on energumens, whether baptized or catechumens".
These exorcists routinely performed ceremonies over adults and infants preparing to be baptised. Authors such as Eusebius (3rd century) and Augustine (4th century) provide details of these minor exorcisms: Eusebius mentions the imposition of hands and prayer.Augustine noted that rites of exorcism by exsufflation (breathing upon the candidate) were also performed for the baptism of infants.
The office of Exorcist was not a part of the sacrament of Holy Orders but as a sacramental was instead first conferred on those who had the special charism to perform its duties and later to those studying for the priesthood.By the twentieth century, the order had become purely ceremonial. As a minor order, exorcists wore the surplice.
In 1972, the minor orders were reformed; men preparing to be ordained as Catholic priests or deacons would no longer receive the minor order of exorcist; the minor orders of lector and acolyte were retained, but redesignated as ministries. It was left open to the Catholic bishops of individual countries to petition the Vatican to establish a ministry of exorcist if it seemed useful in that nation.
The rite of conferral continues in societies that use the 1962 (or earlier) form of the Roman Rite, such as the Priestly Fraternity of St Peter, Society of St. Pius X, and also among groups not in communion with the current Bishop of Rome, such as the Society of St Pius V. Some believe[ who? ] that attainment of the position of Acolyte in post-Council practices implies ordination to the minor orders which used to be below it, such as Exorcist and Porter, although this has not been officially defined (although Canon Law section 1009 does specifically state that the only "orders are the episcopate, the priesthood and the diaconate").
The Eastern Churches did not establish a minor order of exorcist, but simply recognised the calling of lay or ordained members of the faithful who had the appropriate spiritual gifts.In principle, every Christian has the power to command demons and drive them out in the name of Christ.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that: "Jesus performed exorcisms and from him the Church has received the power and office of exorcizing".The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly stated that the solemn exorcism of a person believed to be possessed may only be performed with the express authorisation of the local bishop or equivalent; "this permission is only to be given to priests of the highest repute". The revised 1983 Code of Canon Law similarly stated that the bishop is "to give this permission only to a presbyter who has piety, knowledge, prudence, and integrity of life."
The Catholic Church's Rite of Exorcism was revised in 1999. Paragraph 13 of its introduction states that a priest can be appointed by the local Bishop either for a single act of exorcism, or to the permanent position of 'exorcist'. The Rite then specifies that whenever it uses the word exorcist without qualification, it indicates a priest mandated in this way.
Among notable exorcists, Gabriele Amorth served as chief exorcist of the Diocese of Rome; he was the founder of the International Association of Exorcists.
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Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with the ancient Dravidians in the south. Of the four Vedas (holy books of the Hindus), the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to magic and medicine. Many of the rituals described in this book are for casting out demons and evil spirits.These beliefs are particularly strong and practiced in West Bengal, Odisha and southern states like Kerala.
Vaishnava traditions also employ a recitation of names of Lord Narasimha and reading scriptures (notably Bhagavata Purana) aloud.[ citation needed ] According to Gita Mahatmya of Padma Purana, reading the 3rd, 7th and 8th chapter of Bhagavad Gita and mentally offering the result to departed persons helps them to get released from their ghostly situation. Kirtan, continuous playing of mantras, keeping scriptures and holy pictures of the deities (Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Shakti etc. but especially of Narasimha) in the house, burning incense offered during a puja, sprinkling water from holy rivers, and blowing conches used in puja are other effective practices.[ citation needed ]
Main Puranic resource on ghost- and death-related information is Garuda Purana.
In certain Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, and the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament. The Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination.
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorized to perform various religious rites and ceremonies. The process and ceremonies of ordination vary by religion and denomination. One who is in preparation for, or who is undergoing the process of ordination is sometimes called an ordinand. The liturgy used at an ordination is sometimes referred to as an ordination.
An ostiarius, a Latin word sometimes anglicized as ostiary but often literally translated as porter or doorman, originally was a servant or guard posted at the entrance of a building. See also gatekeeper.
Minor orders are ranks of church ministry lower than major orders.
The Reverend Gabriele Amorth, was an Italian Roman Catholic Priest and an exorcist of the Diocese of Rome who performed tens of thousands of exorcisms over his sixty plus years as a Catholic Priest. As the appointed exorcist for the diocese of Rome, Father Amorth was the Vatican's Exorcist in Chief.
Of Exorcisms and Certain Supplications is an 84-page document of the Catholic Church containing the current version of the Rite of Exorcism authorised for use in the Latin Church.
Exorcism is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that is believed to be possessed. Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power. The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions.
In the history of Christianity, the African Rite refers to a now defunct Christian, Western liturgical rite, and is considered a development or possibly a local use of the primitive Roman Rite. Centered around the Archdiocese of Carthage in the Early African church, it used the Latin language.
The Euchologion is one of the chief liturgical books of the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches, containing the portions of the services which are said by the bishop, priest, or deacon. There are several different volumes of the book in use.
The sacrament of holy orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon. In the phrase "holy orders", the word "holy" simply means "set apart for some purpose." The word "order" designates an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordination means legal incorporation into an order. In context, therefore, a group with a hierarchical structure that is set apart for ministry in the Church.
The priesthood is one of the three holy orders of the Catholic Church, comprising the ordained priests or presbyters. The other two orders are the bishops and the deacons. Only men are allowed to receive holy orders, and the church does not allow any transgender people to do so. Church doctrine also sometimes refers to all baptised Catholics as the "common priesthood".
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church. Catholics trace the origins of the office of bishop to the apostles, who it is believed were endowed with a special charism by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Catholics believe this special charism has been transmitted through an unbroken succession of bishops by the laying on of hands in the sacrament of holy orders.
Theotonius was a Canon Regular and royal advisor. He is noted in Portugal, for being the first prior of the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Coimbra, Portugal. He is celebrated as the reformer of religious life in Portugal, and is the first Portuguese saint.
The Rite is a 2011 supernatural horror film directed by Mikael Håfström and written by Michael Petroni. It is loosely based on Matt Baglio's book The Rite: The Making of a Modern Exorcist, which itself is based on real events as witnessed and recounted by American then-exorcist-in-training Father Gary Thomas and his experiences of being sent to Rome to be trained and work daily with veteran clergy of the practice.
In Christianity, exorcism involves the practice of casting out one or more demons from a person whom they are believed to have possessed. The person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the Christian Church, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use prayers and religious material, such as set formulas, gestures, symbols, icons, amulets, etc. The exorcist often invokes God, Jesus and/or several different angels and archangels to intervene with the exorcism. A survey of Christian exorcists found that most exorcists believe that any mature Christian can perform an exorcism, not just members of clergy. Christian exorcists most commonly believe the authority given to them by the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is the source of their ability to cast out demons.
The Catholic Church authorizes the use of exorcism for those who are believed to be the victims of demonic possession. In Roman Catholicism, exorcism is a sacramental but not a sacrament, unlike baptism or confession. Unlike a sacrament, exorcism's "integrity and efficacy do not depend ... on the rigid use of an unchanging formula or on the ordered sequence of prescribed actions. Its efficacy depends on two elements: authorization from valid and licit Church authorities, and the faith of the exorcist." The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "When the Church asks publicly and authoritatively in the name of Jesus Christ that a person or object be protected against the power of the Evil One and withdrawn from his dominion, it is called exorcism."
The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA), or Ordo Initiationis Christianae Adultorum is a process developed by the Catholic Church for prospective converts to Catholicism who are above the age of infant baptism. Candidates are gradually introduced to aspects of Catholic beliefs and practices. The basic process applies to adults and children who have reached catechetical age.
In the Catholic Church the term minister enjoys a variety of usages. It most commonly refers to the person, whether lay or ordained, who is commissioned to perform some act on behalf of the Church. It is not a particular office or rank of clergy, as is the case in some other churches, but minister may be used as a collective term for vocational or professional pastoral leaders including clergy and non-clergy. It is also used in reference to the canonical and liturgical administration of sacraments, as part of some offices, and with reference to the exercise of the lay apostolate.
The expression minor exorcism can be used in a technical sense or a general sense. The general sense indicates any exorcism which is not a solemn exorcism of a person believed to be possessed, including various forms of deliverance ministry. This article deals only with the technical sense which specifically refers to certain prayers used with persons preparing to become baptised members of the Christian Church. These prayers request God's assistance so that the person to be baptised will be kept safe from the power of Satan or protected in a more general way from temptation.
Yet we have seen that Johannes Nider and Heinrich Kramer found nothing wrong with the performance of exorcism by laypeople, as long as they did not usurp the clerical rite, which included some prayers only a priest could pronounce. Every Christian, Nider reminded his readers, had the power to command demons and drive them out in the name of Christ, but lay exorcists should be extremely careful not to use unknown characters and charms, and should be aware that the only mode to adjure demons is the imperative and never the supplicative.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Exorcist .|