The Félibrige (French pronunciation: [felibʁiʒ] ; Lo Felibritge in classical Occitan, Lou Felibrige in Mistralian spelling, pronounced [lu feliˈβɾidʒe] ) is a literary and cultural association founded in 1854 by Frédéric Mistral and other Provençal writers to defend and promote the Occitan language (also called the langue d'Oc) and literature. It is presided over by a capoulié. [ circular reference ]
The word félibrige is derived from félibre , a Provençal word meaning pupil or follower.
Le Félibrige was founded at the Château de Font-Ségugne (located in Châteauneuf-de-Gadagne, Vaucluse) on 21 May 1854 (Saint Estelle's day), by seven young Provençal poets: Théodore Aubanel, Jean Brunet, Paul Giéra, Anselme Mathieu, Frédéric Mistral, Joseph Roumanille and Alphonse Tavan. Together, they aimed to restore the Provençal language and codify its orthography.
Its symbol is a seven-pointed star which, as Frederic Mistral writes in Lou tresor dóu Felibrige, is "a tribute to its seven founders".
The movement was launched in Provence but quickly reached the entire Occitania. It spread among Occitanian writers such as Michel Camélat and Simin Palay (from Gascony and Béarn), Albert Arnavielle, Justin Bessou, Jacques and Gabriel Azaïs and Achille Mir (Languedoc), Arsène Vermenouze (Auvergne), Joseph Roux (Limousin), José Mange (Provence), Brémonde de Tarascon (Bouches-du-Rhône), Batisto Bonnet (Gard) and Charles Maurras.
The Félibrige is an organisation focussed on protecting and promoting Occitan language and culture, fighting for recognition of cultural diversity both within France and across the wider world. It is also one of the two organisations represented across Occitania since 1945, along with the Institut d'Estudis Occitans (IEO).
There is a yearly meeting, Santo Estello, held in a different town in the Pays d'Oc. The traditional banquet is ended with the ritual of the Copa Santa .
There are also other Fêtes Félibréennes:
In 1950 Sceaux, Hauts-de-Seine (one of the Parisien banlieue) was named Cité Félibréenne. A memorial garden for this event was created around the tomb of Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian, a French poet and romancier, well known for his fables and a noted Félibrigist (perhaps because his mother was Castilian). The garden displays eleven busts in all.
The garden is located behind the church of Saint Jean-Baptiste (Saint John the Baptist ) in Sceaux. The entry, signed: Parc de Sceaux, Jardin des Félibres is located on Avenue du Président Franklin Roosevelt in Sceaux.
The Félibrige is presided over by a capoulié .
Provençal is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in Southern France, mostly in Provence. Historically, the term Provençal has been used to refer to the whole of the Occitan language, but today it is considered more technically appropriate to refer only to the variety of Occitan spoken in Provence.
Occitan literature is a body of texts written in Occitan, mostly in the south of France. It was the first literature in a Romance language and inspired the rise of vernacular literature throughout medieval Europe. Occitan literature's Golden Age was in the 12th century, when a rich and complex body of lyrical poetry was produced by troubadours writing in Old Occitan, which still survives to this day. Although Catalan is considered by some a variety of Occitan, this article will not deal with Catalan literature, which started diverging from its Southern French counterpart in the late 13th century.
The Gulf of Lion is a wide embayment of the Mediterranean coastline of Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence in France, reaching from the border with Catalonia in the west to Toulon.
Joseph Roumanille was a Provençal poet. He was born at Saint-Rémy-de-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône), and is commonly known in southern France as the father of the Félibrige, for he first conceived the idea of raising his regional language to the dignity of a literary language.
Félix Gras was a Provençal poet and novelist.
Frédéric Mistral was a French writer of Occitan literature and lexicographer of the Provençal form of the language. Mistral received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist". He was a founding member of the Félibrige and a member of l'Académie de Marseille.
La Coupo Santo, in full La Cansoun de la Coupo in original modern norm Provençal is the anthem of Provence. It is sung in Provençal, one of six Occitan dialects.
Captain William Charles Bonaparte-Wyse was an Irish soldier and poet.
A gibassier is a French pastry from Provence, a galette made with fruited olive oil. It is generally spiced with anise, candied orange peel, and orange flower water, and dusted with baker's sugar.
The Mistralian norm is a linguistic norm for the Occitan language. It was first used in a published work by Joseph Roumanille in 1853, and then by Frédéric Mistral in 1854. Its aim is to make Provençal Occitan orthography more logical, relying on a mix of traditional spelling and French spelling conventions.
Jean-Baptiste Gaut (1819–1891) was a French Provençal poet and playwright from Aix-en-Provence. He was a chief advocate of the Provençal language and the Félibrige movement. He was known as "Félibre Gaut."
Joseph Desanat (1796-1873) was a French Provençal poet and journal editor.
Anselme Mathieu was a French Provençal poet.
Jean Brunet was a French Provençal poet.
François Vidal was a French Provençal poet and activist.
Émile Ripert (1882–1948) was a French academic, poet, novelist and playwright. He served as the inaugural Chair of Provençal Language and Literature at Aix-Marseille University. He was the author of three novels, four poetry collections, three plays and five non-fiction books about Provençal culture.
Frédéric Mistral (1893–1968) was a French lawyer and linguist. He was a practising lawyer in Avignon. He served as the capouliér (president) of the Félibrige from 1941 to 1956. He promoted Provençal language and literature in France and abroad.
Jean Barnabé Amy was a French sculptor who mainly specialized in bas relief. He was close to members of the Félibrige, a society that promoted Provençal culture, and often made statues, busts or reliefs of members of this society.
Alexandrine Élisabeth Brémond, known as Brémonde de Tarascon, was a well known poet from the south of France who wrote in the Occitan language. She was a member of the Félibrige, a society that tried to preserve the language and its literature.
Nicolas Saboly was a French poet, composer and choirmaster. He composed many Christmas carols in the Provençal dialect which form one of the monuments of poetry in that language and have been repeatedly republished until the present day.
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