Félix Tisserand

Last updated
François Félix Tisserand
F tisserand.jpg
Born(1845-01-13)13 January 1845
Died20 October 1896(1896-10-20) (aged 51)
NationalityFrance
Known forTraité de mécanique céleste
Scientific career
Fields Astronomy
Institutions Paris Observatory
Toulouse Observatory
Thesis Exposition, d'après les principes de Jacobi, de la méthode suivie par M. Delaunay dans sa Théorie du mouvement de la Lune autour de la Terre  (1868)

François Félix Tisserand (13 January 1845 – 20 October 1896) was a French astronomer.

Contents

Life

Tisserand was born at Nuits-Saint-Georges, Côte-d'Or. In 1863 he entered the École Normale Supérieure, and on leaving he went for a month as professor at the lycée at Metz. Urbain Le Verrier offered him a post in the Paris Observatory, which he entered as astronome adjoint in September 1866. In 1868 he took his doctor's degree with a thesis on Delaunay's Method, which he showed to be of much wider scope than had been contemplated by its inventor. Shortly afterwards he went out to Kra Isthmus to observe the 1868 solar eclipse. He was part of a French expedition together with the Édouard Stephan and Georges Rayet. The French astronomers were accompanied by Mongkut, the King of Siam who had calculated the location and the date of the eclipse by himself two years before and prepared a comfortable watching place for the scientists. [1]

In 1873 he was appointed director of the observatory at Toulouse, where he published his Recueil d'exercices sur le calcul infinitesimal, and in 1874 became corresponding member of the Académie des Sciences. He took part in the French expeditions of 1874, accompanied by Jules Janssen, to Japan, [2] and in 1882, accompanied by Guillaume Bigourdan, to Martinique [3] to observe the transits of Venus. In 1878 he was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in succession to Le Verrier, and became a member of the Bureau des Longitudes. In the same year he was appointed professeur suppliant to Liouville, and in 1883 he succeeded Puiseux in the chair of celestial mechanics at the Sorbonne. [1]

Tisserand always found time to continue his important researches in mathematical astronomy, and the pages of the Comptes rendus bear witness to his activity. His writings relate to almost every branch of celestial mechanics, and are always distinguished by rigour and simplicity in the solution of the most difficult problems. He treated in a masterly manner (Bulletin astronomique, 1889) the theory of the capture of comets by the larger planets, and in this connection published his valuable Criterion for establishing the identity of a periodic comet, whatever may have been the perturbations brought about in its orbit, between successive appearances, by the action of a planet. [1]

His principal work, Traité de mécanique céleste, [4] is the most lasting monument to his memory, and is worthy to stand beside the Mécanique céleste of his fellow-countryman Laplace. In this treatise, published in four quarto volumes, the last of which appeared only a few months before his death, he fused into one harmonious whole the researches of Laplace and those of other workers in the same field since his time. It furnishes a faithful and complete résumé of the state of knowledge in that department of astronomy at the end, as Laplace's great work did for the beginning, of the 19th century. [1]

In 1892 he succeeded Mouchez as director of the Paris Observatory, and as president of the committee of the photographic chart of the heavens he contributed largely to the success of that great project. Under his direction the revision of Lalande's catalogue was brought almost to completion, and four volumes of the Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris exhibit the progress made in this important undertaking. He was also editor of the Bulletin astronomique from the beginning, and contributed many important articles to its pages. He died suddenly, in the fullness of his power, of congestion of the brain. [1]

He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1892. In 1894 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. [5]

Tisserand served as President of the Société Astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, from 1893-1895. [6]

The crater Tisserand on the Moon is named after him, as is the asteroid 3663 Tisserand.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Chisholm 1911.
  2. 1874 December 9, Venustransit, by Steven van Roode Archived 2012-06-25 at the Wayback Machine
  3. 1882 December 6, Venustransit, by Steven van Roode Archived 2014-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV
  5. "F.F. Tisserand (1845 - 1896)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences . Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  6. Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France, 1911, vol. 25, pp. 581-586

Related Research Articles

Urbain Le Verrier French astronomer and mathematician

Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier FRS (FOR) HFRSE was a French astronomer and mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranus's orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. Le Verrier sent the coordinates to Johann Gottfried Galle in Berlin, asking him to verify. Galle found Neptune in the same night he received Le Verrier's letter, within 1° of the predicted position. The discovery of Neptune is widely regarded as a dramatic validation of celestial mechanics, and is one of the most remarkable moments of 19th-century science.

John Couch Adams British mathematician and astronomer

John Couch Adams was a British mathematician and astronomer. He was born in Laneast, near Launceston, Cornwall, and died in Cambridge.

Pierre-Simon Laplace French mathematician and astronomer

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace was a French scholar and polymath whose work was important to the development of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physics, astronomy, and philosophy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace.

Paris Observatory Foremost astronomical observatory of France

The Paris Observatory, a research institution of PSL University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world. Its historic building is on the Left Bank of the Seine in central Paris, but most of the staff work on a satellite campus in Meudon, a suburb southwest of Paris.

Henri-Alexandre Deslandres French astronomer

Henri Alexandre Deslandres was a French astronomer, director of the Meudon and Paris Observatories, who carried out intensive studies on the behaviour of the atmosphere of the Sun.

The Bureau des Longitudes is a French scientific institution, founded by decree of 25 June 1795 and charged with the improvement of nautical navigation, standardisation of time-keeping, geodesy and astronomical observation. During the 19th century, it was responsible for synchronizing clocks across the world. It was headed during this time by François Arago and Henri Poincaré. The Bureau now functions as an academy and still meets monthly to discuss topics related to astronomy.

Benjamin Baillaud French astronomer

Édouard Benjamin Baillaud was a French astronomer.

Pierre Janssen French astronomer

Pierre Jules César Janssen, also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.

E. M. Antoniadi Greek astronomer

Eugène Michel Antoniadi was a Greek astronomer.

Jean Picard French astronomer

Jean-Félix Picard was a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand. He died in Paris, France.

Marseille Observatory astronomical observatory located in Marseille, France

Marseille Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in Marseille, France, with a history that goes back to the early 18th century. In its incarnation in 1877, it was the discovery site of a group of galaxies known as Stephan's Quintet, discovered by its director Édouard Stephan. Marseille Observatory is now run as a joint research unit by Aix-Marseille University and the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS).

Neuchâtel Observatory observatory

The Neuchâtel Observatory is an astronomical observatory funded by the Public Economy Department of the canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. It is located in the city of Neuchâtel and was founded in 1858. The first director was the 71 year old German astronomer Adolphe Hirsche.

Stéphane Javelle French astronomer

Stéphane Javelle was a French astronomer. Since 1888 he worked assisting Henri Perrotin at the Nice Observatory, and observed 1431 objects published in the Index Catalogue. He initially worked as an accountant before his employer's friend, Louis Thollon recommended him to Perrotin. He was awarded the Valz Prize in 1910 by the French Academy of Sciences.

Toulouse Observatory

The Toulouse Observatory is located in Toulouse, France and was established in 1733.

The Société astronomique de France, the French astronomical society, is a non-profit association in the public interest organized under French law. Founded by astronomer Camille Flammarion in 1887, its purpose is to promote the development and practice of astronomy.

Marie Henri Andoyer was a French astronomer and mathematician.

A fundamental ephemeris of the Solar System is a model of the objects of the system in space, with all of their positions and motions accurately represented. It is intended to be a high-precision primary reference for prediction and observation of those positions and motions, and which provides a basis for further refinement of the model. It is generally not intended to cover the entire life of the Solar System; usually a short-duration time span, perhaps a few centuries, is represented to high accuracy. Some long ephemerides cover several millennia to medium accuracy.

Camille Flammarion Observatory

The observatory was established in Juvisy-sur-Orge in 1883 by the French astronomer and author Camille Flammarion. In March 2010, the structure was classified as a historical monument by the French Ministry of Culture. The observatory belongs to the Société astronomique de France.

Observatory of the rue Serpente

The Observatory of the rue Serpente was an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Société Astronomique de France in the historic Latin Quarter of Paris. It operated between 1890 until 1968, when it was transferred to a new location at the nearby Astronomy Tower of the Sorbonne.

References