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François Félix Tisserand
|Died||20 October 1896 51)(aged|
|Known for||Traité de mécanique céleste|
|Institutions|| Paris Observatory |
|Thesis||Exposition, d'après les principes de Jacobi, de la méthode suivie par M. Delaunay dans sa Théorie du mouvement de la Lune autour de la Terre (1868)|
François Félix Tisserand (13 January 1845 – 20 October 1896) was a French astronomer.
Tisserand was born at Nuits-Saint-Georges, Côte-d'Or. In 1863 he entered the École Normale Supérieure, and on leaving he went for a month as professor at the lycée at Metz. Urbain Le Verrier offered him a post in the Paris Observatory, which he entered as astronome adjoint in September 1866. In 1868 he took his doctor's degree with a thesis on Delaunay's Method, which he showed to be of much wider scope than had been contemplated by its inventor. Shortly afterwards he went out to Kra Isthmus to observe the 1868 solar eclipse. He was part of a French expedition together with the Édouard Stephan and Georges Rayet. The French astronomers were accompanied by Mongkut, the King of Siam who had calculated the location and the date of the eclipse by himself two years before and prepared a comfortable watching place for the scientists.
In 1873 he was appointed director of the observatory at Toulouse, where he published his Recueil d'exercices sur le calcul infinitesimal, and in 1874 became corresponding member of the Académie des Sciences. He took part in the French expeditions of 1874, accompanied by Jules Janssen, to Japan,and in 1882, accompanied by Guillaume Bigourdan, to Martinique to observe the transits of Venus. In 1878 he was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in succession to Le Verrier, and became a member of the Bureau des Longitudes. In the same year he was appointed professeur suppliant to Liouville, and in 1883 he succeeded Puiseux in the chair of celestial mechanics at the Sorbonne.
Tisserand always found time to continue his important researches in mathematical astronomy, and the pages of the Comptes rendus bear witness to his activity. His writings relate to almost every branch of celestial mechanics, and are always distinguished by rigour and simplicity in the solution of the most difficult problems. He treated in a masterly manner (Bulletin astronomique, 1889) the theory of the capture of comets by the larger planets, and in this connection published his valuable Criterion for establishing the identity of a periodic comet, whatever may have been the perturbations brought about in its orbit, between successive appearances, by the action of a planet.
His principal work, Traité de mécanique céleste,is the most lasting monument to his memory, and is worthy to stand beside the Mécanique céleste of his fellow-countryman Laplace. In this treatise, published in four quarto volumes, the last of which appeared only a few months before his death, he fused into one harmonious whole the researches of Laplace and those of other workers in the same field since his time. It furnishes a faithful and complete résumé of the state of knowledge in that department of astronomy at the end, as Laplace's great work did for the beginning, of the 19th century.
In 1892 he succeeded Mouchez as director of the Paris Observatory, and as president of the committee of the photographic chart of the heavens he contributed largely to the success of that great project. Under his direction the revision of Lalande's catalogue was brought almost to completion, and four volumes of the Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris exhibit the progress made in this important undertaking. He was also editor of the Bulletin astronomique from the beginning, and contributed many important articles to its pages. He died suddenly, in the fullness of his power, of congestion of the brain.
He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1892. In 1894 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Tisserand served as President of the Société Astronomique de France (SAF), the French astronomical society, from 1893-1895.
The crater Tisserand on the Moon is named after him, as is the asteroid 3663 Tisserand.
Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier FRS (FOR) HFRSE was a French astronomer and mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics. The calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranus's orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. Le Verrier sent the coordinates to Johann Gottfried Galle in Berlin, asking him to verify. Galle found Neptune in the same night he received Le Verrier's letter, within 1° of the predicted position. The discovery of Neptune is widely regarded as a dramatic validation of celestial mechanics, and is one of the most remarkable moments of 19th-century science.
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace was a French scholar and polymath whose work was important to the development of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physics, astronomy, and philosophy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique céleste (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace.
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The Bureau des Longitudes is a French scientific institution, founded by decree of 25 June 1795 and charged with the improvement of nautical navigation, standardisation of time-keeping, geodesy and astronomical observation. During the 19th century, it was responsible for synchronizing clocks across the world. It was headed during this time by François Arago and Henri Poincaré. The Bureau now functions as an academy and still meets monthly to discuss topics related to astronomy.
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Traité de mécanique céleste is a five-volume treatise on celestial mechanics written by Pierre-Simon Laplace and published from 1798 to 1825 with a second edition in 1829. In 1842, the government of Louis Philippe gave a grant of 40,000 francs for a 7-volume national edition of the Oeuvres de Laplace (1843–1847); the Traité de mécanique céleste with its four supplements occupies the first 5 volumes.
Newton laid the foundations of Celestial Mechanics, at the close of the seventeenth century, by the discovery of the principle of universal gravitation. Even in his own hands, this discovery led to important consequences, but it has required a century and a half, and a regular succession of intellects the most powerful, to fill up the outline sketched by him. Of these, Laplace himself was the last, and, perhaps after Newton, the greatest; and the task commenced in the Principia of the former, is completed in the Mécanique Celéste of the latter. In this last named work, the illustrious author has proposed to himself his object, to unite all the theories scattered throughout the various channels of publication, employed by his predecessors, to reduce them to one common method, and present them all in the same point of view.
If one were asked to name the two most important works in the progress of mathematics and physics, the answer would undoubtedly be, the Principia of Newton and the Mécanique Céleste of Laplace. In their historical and philosophical aspects these works easily outrank all others, and furnish thus the standard by which all others must be measured. The distinguishing feature of the Principia is its clear and exhaustive enunciation of fundamental principles. The Mécanique Céleste, on the other hand, is conspicuous for the development of principles and for the profound generality of its methods. The Principia gives the plans and specifications of the foundations; the Mécanique Céleste affords the key to the vast and complex superstructure.
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