FDI World Dental Federation notation is a dental notation widely used by dentists internationally to associate information to a specific tooth.
Dental professionals, in writing or speech, use several different dental notation systems for associating information with a specific tooth. The three most common systems are the ISO System, Universal Numbering System, and Palmer notation method. The ISO system is used worldwide, and the Universal is used widely in the United States. The ISO System can be easily adapted to computerized charting.
Developed by the FDI World Dental Federation, World Dental Federation notation is also known as ISO 3950notation.
FDI World Dental Federation was established in Paris in 1900 as the Fédération Dentaire Internationale and is the world's leading organization representing the dental profession. It serves as the principal representative body for over one million dentists worldwide, developing health policy and continuing education programmes, speaking as a unified voice for dentistry in international advocacy, and supporting member associations in oral health promotion activities worldwide. FDI’s membership includes over 200 national member associations and specialist groups in some 130 countries.
Orientation of the chart is traditionally "dentist's view", i.e. patient's right corresponds to notation chart left. The designations "left" and "right" on the chart below correspond to the patient's left and right.
|patient's upper right||patient's upper left|
|patient's lower right||patient's lower left|
|Deciduous teeth (baby teeth)|
|upper right||upper left|
|lower right||lower left|
Codes, names, and usual number of roots: (see chart of teeth at Wikipedia entry: Universal Numbering System)
The maxillary central incisor is a human tooth in the front upper jaw, or maxilla, and is usually the most visible of all teeth in the mouth. It is located mesial to the maxillary lateral incisor. As with all incisors, their function is for shearing or cutting food during mastication (chewing). There is typically a single cusp on each tooth, called an incisal ridge or incisal edge. Formation of these teeth begins at 14 weeks in utero for the deciduous (baby) set and 3–4 months of age for the permanent set.
The mandibular central incisor is the tooth located on the jaw, adjacent to the midline of the face. It is mesial from both mandibular lateral incisors. As with all incisors, its function includes shearing or cutting food during mastication, commonly known as chewing. There are no cusps on the tooth. Instead, the surface area of the tooth used in eating is called an incisal ridge or incisal edge. Though the two are similar, there are some minor differences between the deciduous (baby) mandibular central incisor and that of the permanent mandibular central incisor. The mandibular central incisors are usually the first teeth to appear in the mouth, typically around the age of 6-8 months.
The maxillary lateral incisors are a pair of upper (maxillary) teeth that are located laterally from both maxillary central incisors of the mouth and medially from both maxillary canines. As with all incisors, their function is for shearing or cutting food during mastication, commonly known as chewing. There are generally no cusps on the teeth, but the rare condition known as talon cusps are most prevalent on the maxillary lateral incisors. The surface area of the tooth used in eating is called an incisal ridge or incisal edge. Though relatively the same, there are some minor differences between the deciduous (baby) maxillary lateral incisor and that of the permanent maxillary lateral incisor. The maxillary lateral incisors occlude in opposition to the mandibular lateral incisors.
Syntax: <quadrant code><tooth code>
Sometimes a dot is inserted between quadrant code and tooth code in order to avoid ambiguity with other numbering systems.
Palmer notation is a dental notation used by dentists to associate information to a specific tooth. Also known as the Military System. Although supposedly superseded by the FDI World Dental Federation notation, it overwhelmingly continues to be the preferred method used by orthodontists, dental students and practitioners in the United Kingdom.
The human teeth function to mechanically break down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digesting. Humans have four types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, which each have a specific function. The incisors cut the food, the canines tear the food and the molars and premolars crush the food. The roots of teeth are embedded in the maxilla or the mandible and are covered by gums. Teeth are made of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. However, they can appear more flattened, causing them to resemble incisors and leading them to be called incisiform. They developed and are used primarily for firmly holding food in order to tear it apart, and occasionally as weapons. They are often the largest teeth in a mammal's mouth. Individuals of most species that develop them normally have four, two in the upper jaw and two in the lower, separated within each jaw by incisors; humans and dogs are examples. In most species, canines are the anterior-most teeth in the maxillary bone.
Incisors are the front teeth present in most mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and on the mandible below. Humans have a total of eight. Opossums have 18, whereas armadillos have none.
a Maxillary canine is the third on the row
The maxillary first premolar is one of two teeth located in the upper jaw, laterally from both the maxillary canines of the mouth but mesial from both maxillary second premolars. The function of this premolar is similar to that of canines in regard to tearing being the principal action during mastication, commonly known as chewing. There are two cusps on maxillary first premolars, and the buccal cusp is sharp enough to resemble the prehensile teeth found in carnivorous animals. There are no deciduous maxillary premolars. Around 10-11 years of age, the primary molars are shed and the permanent premolars erupt in their place. It takes about 3 years for the adult premolar and its root to fully calcify.
Permanent teeth or adult teeth are the second set of teeth formed in diphyodont mammals. In humans and old world simians, there are thirty-two permanent teeth, consisting of six maxillary and six mandibular molars, four maxillary and four mandibular premolars, two maxillary and two mandibular canines, four maxillary and four mandibular incisors.
The maxillary second premolar is one of two teeth located in the upper jaw, laterally from both the maxillary first premolars of the mouth but mesial from both maxillary first molars. The function of this premolar is similar to that of first molars in regard to grinding being the principal action during mastication, commonly known as chewing. There are two cusps on maxillary second premolars, but both of them are less sharp then those of the maxillary first premolars. There are no deciduous (baby) maxillary premolars. Instead, the teeth that precede the permanent maxillary premolars are the deciduous maxillary molars.
The maxillary first molar is the human tooth located laterally from both the maxillary second premolars of the mouth but mesial from both maxillary second molars.
The mandibular lateral incisor is the tooth located distally from both mandibular central incisors of the mouth and mesially from both mandibular canines. As with all incisors, their function is for shearing or cutting food during mastication, commonly known as chewing. There are no cusps on the teeth. Instead, the surface area of the tooth used in eating is called an incisal ridge or incisal edge. Though relatively the same, there are some minor differences between the deciduous (baby) mandibular lateral incisor and that of the permanent mandibular lateral incisor.
The mandibular canine is the tooth located distally from both mandibular lateral incisors of the mouth but mesially from both mandibular first premolars. Both the maxillary and mandibular canines are called the "cornerstone" of the mouth because they are all located three teeth away from the midline, and separate the premolars from the incisors. The location of the canines reflect their dual function as they complement both the premolars and incisors during mastication, commonly known as chewing. Nonetheless, the most common action of the canines is tearing of food. The canine teeth are able to withstand the tremendous lateral pressures from chewing. There is a single cusp on canines, and they resemble the prehensile teeth found in carnivorous animals. Though relatively the same, there are some minor differences between the deciduous (baby) mandibular canine and that of the permanent mandibular canine.
The mandibular first premolar is the tooth located laterally from both the mandibular canines of the mouth but mesial from both mandibular second premolars. The function of this premolar is similar to that of canines in regard to tearing being the principal action during mastication, commonly known as chewing. Mandibular first premolars have two cusps. The one large and sharp is located on the buccal side of the tooth. Since the lingual cusp is small and nonfunctional, the mandibular first premolar resembles a small canine. There are no deciduous (baby) mandibular premolars. Instead, the teeth that precede the permanent mandibular premolars are the deciduous mandibular molars.
The mandibular first molar or six-year molar is the tooth located distally from both the mandibular second premolars of the mouth but mesial from both mandibular second molars. It is located on the mandibular (lower) arch of the mouth, and generally opposes the maxillary (upper) first molars and the maxillary 2nd premolar in normal class I occlusion. The function of this molar is similar to that of all molars in regard to grinding being the principal action during mastication, commonly known as chewing. There are usually five well-developed cusps on mandibular first molars: two on the buccal, two lingual, and one distal. The shape of the developmental and supplementary grooves, on the occlusal surface, are describes as being 'M' shaped. There are great differences between the deciduous (baby) mandibular molars and those of the permanent mandibular molars, even though their function are similar. The permanent mandibular molars are not considered to have any teeth that precede it. Despite being named molars, the deciduous molars are followed by permanent premolars.
The Universal Numbering System also called the "American System", is a dental notation system for associating information to a specific tooth used in the United States. See video for detailshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5Ihx2aV7VA&t=51s
The dental arches are the two arches of teeth, one on each jaw, that together constitute the dentition. In humans and many other species, the superior dental arch is slightly larger than the inferior arch, so that in the normal condition the teeth in the maxilla slightly overlap those of the mandible both in front and at the sides. The way that the jaws, and thus the dental arches, approach each other when the mouth closes, which is called the occlusion, determines the occlusal relationship of opposing teeth, and it is subject to malocclusion if facial or dental development was imperfect.
Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of human tooth structures. The development, appearance, and classification of teeth fall within its purview. Tooth formation begins before birth, and the teeth's eventual morphology is dictated during this time. Dental anatomy is also a taxonomical science: it is concerned with the naming of teeth and the structures of which they are made, this information serving a practical purpose in dental treatment.
Occlusion, in a dental context, means simply the contact between teeth. More technically, it is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest.
Serial extraction is the planned extraction of certain deciduous teeth and specific permanent teeth in an orderly sequence and predetermined pattern to guide the erupting permanent teeth into a more favorable position.