Fachhochschule

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A Fachhochschule (German: [ˈfaxhoːxʃuːlə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution. Each institution specializes in a particular of applied science or applied arts, such as engineering, technology or business.

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Fachhochschulen were first founded in Germany, and were later adopted in Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Cyprus and Greece. An increasing number of Fachhochschulen are abbreviated as Hochschule , the generic term in Germany for institutions awarding academic degrees in higher education, or expanded as Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften (HAW). Universities of Applied Sciences are primarily designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Swiss law calls Fachhochschulen and Universitäten "separate but equal". [1]

Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award legally equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees. [2] Fachhochschulen generally do not award doctoral degrees themselves. Combined with the rule that they appoint only professors with a professional career of at least three years outside the university system, those are the two major ways in which they differ from traditional universities. However, they may run doctoral programs if the degree itself is awarded by a partner institution. [3]

Impact of the Bologna process

Due to the Bologna process, most German Universitäten and Fachhochschulen have ceased admitting students to programs leading to the traditional German Diplom (FH) , but now apply the new degree standard of Bachelor's and Master's degrees. In line with the Bologna process, bachelor's and master's degrees awarded by both types of universities (Universitäten and Fachhochschulen) are legally equivalent.

With a Master's from either, one can now enter a doctoral degree program at a Universität, but a graduate with a bachelor's degree from either is normally unable to proceed directly to a doctoral degree program in Germany (most US schools only require a bachelor's degree for admission to doctoral programs, but virtually all require additional coursework). Also, with the master's degree of either of the institutions a graduate can enter the höheren Dienst (higher service) career for civil servants. [2] [4]

In Germany

The Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences and Arts is a type of German institution of higher education that emerged from the traditional Engineering Schools and similar professional schools of other disciplines. It differs from the traditional university (Universität) mainly through its more practical orientation. [5] Subjects taught at Fachhochschulen include engineering, computer science, business and management, arts and design, communication studies, social service, and other professional fields.

The traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom (FH). Coursework generally totaled eight semesters (four years) of full-time study, with various options for specialization. In addition, there were one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in real working environments. The program concluded, usually after five years, with the final examination and a thesis (Diplomarbeit) which is usually an extensive project on a current practical or scientific aspect of the profession.

In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the German Diplom degrees were mostly phased out by 2010 and replaced by the European bachelor's and master's degree.

The Fachhochschule represents a close relationship between higher education and the employment system. Their practical orientation makes them very attractive to employers. [6]

Today, Fachhochschulen also conduct research. Research projects are either publicly funded or sponsored by industry. Nevertheless, in Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still generally reserved to Universitäten. [7] In 2016, however, Fulda University of Applied Sciences became the first Fachhochschule to be conferred this right for its graduate center for social sciences. [8] Several Fachhochschulen run doctoral programs where the degree itself is awarded by a partner university in Germany or abroad (similar to the doctoral programs in German research institutes, such as the Fraunhofer Society or the Max Planck Society).

There are a few universities, such as Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt and Bundeswehr University Munich, which run Fachhochschule courses in addition to their normal courses.

In Austria

The Austrian government decided to establish Fachhochschulen (FH) in 1990. In the academic year of 2010/11, there were twenty-one institutions officially considered as Fachhochschulen plus a number of other providers of Fachhochschulstudiengängen with a total of over 27,000 students. About a third of the 136 Fachhochschulstudiengänge are organized as part-time courses of studies.

NameCityProvinceTypeFoundedStudents
2008/09
Students
2009/10
Difference
Fachhochschule Burgenland Wappen der Stadt Eisenstadt.png Eisenstadt Flag of Burgenland.svg Burgenland Fachhochschule19941.4511.453+2
Fachhochschule Kärnten AUT Spittal an der Drau COA.jpg Spittal an der Drau Flag of Carinthia.svg Kärnten Fachhochschule19951.5181.664+146
Fachhochschule Krems AUT Krems an der Donau COA.svg Krems Flag of Niederosterreich.svg Niederösterreich Fachhochschule19941.7791.750-29
Fachhochschule St. Pölten AUT Sankt Poelten COA.svg Sankt Pölten Flag of Niederosterreich.svg Niederösterreich Fachhochschule19941.7151.698-17
Fachhochschule Wiener Neustadt Wappen Wiener Neustadt.jpg Wiener Neustadt Flag of Niederosterreich.svg Niederösterreich Fachhochschule19942.6582.763+105
Theresian Military Academy Wappen Wiener Neustadt.jpg Wiener Neustadt Flag of Niederosterreich.svg Niederösterreich Fachhochschul-Einrichtung1751324314-10
Fachhochschulstudiengang Oberösterreich Wels wappen.jpg Wels Flag of Oberosterreich.svg Oberösterreich Fachhochschul-Einrichtung19944.1544.434+280
FH Gesundheitsberufe Oberösterreich Wappen Linz.svg Linz Flag of Oberosterreich.svg Oberösterreich Fachhochschul-Einrichtung2010
Fachhochschule Salzburg AUT Puch bei Hallein COA.jpg Puch/Urstein Flag of Salzburg.svg Salzburg Fachhochschule19952.1842.267+83
Campus 02 Fachhochschule der Wirtschaft AUT Graz COA.svg Graz Flag of Steiermark.svg Steiermark Fachhochschule19961.0281.106+78
FH Joanneum AUT Graz COA.svg Graz Flag of Steiermark.svg Steiermark Fachhochschule19953.3833.428+45
FH Kufstein Coat of arms Kufstein.svg Kufstein Flag of Tirol.svg Tirol Fachhochschule19971.0301.070+40
FH Gesundheit Tiro AT Innsbruck COA.svg Innsbruck Flag of Tirol.svg Tirol Fachhochschul-Einrichtung2007247413+166
Management Center Innsbruck AT Innsbruck COA.svg Innsbruck Flag of Tirol.svg Tirol Fachhochschul-Einrichtung19951.8832.052+169
Fachhochschule Vorarlberg Wappendornbirn.svg Dornbirn Flag of Vorarlberg.svg Vorarlberg Fachhochschule19891.0051.054+49
Fachhochschule des bfi Wien Wien Wappen.svg Vienna Flag of Vienna.svg Vienna Fachhochschule19961.4311.502+71
Fachhochschule Technikum Wien Wien Wappen.svg Vienna Flag of Vienna.svg Vienna Fachhochschule19942.6542.939+285
Ferdinand Porsche Fern-Fachhochschule Wien Wappen.svg Vienna Flag of Vienna.svg Vienna Fachhochschul-Einrichtung199785305+220
FH Campus Wien Wien Wappen.svg Vienna Flag of Vienna.svg Vienna Fachhochschule20012.4393.215+776
FHWien Wien Wappen.svg Vienna Flag of Vienna.svg Vienna Fachhochschule19941.7792.362+583
Lauder Business School Wien Wappen.svg Vienna Flag of Vienna.svg Vienna Fachhochschul-Einrichtung2003253296+43

In Switzerland

The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences UAS are vocational universities established in Switzerland in 1995 following the model of the German Fachhochschulen. They are called Fachhochschule in German, Haute école specialisée in French and scuola universitaria professionale (SUP) in Italian. The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences offer third level education, continuing education, services businesses and institutions, and produce applied research activities. In 2013 there are seven public UAS approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 1998 and two private UAS approved by the Federal Council in 2005 and 2008. [9] The public UAS are run by one or more cantons. [10]

UAS have the institutional mandate to provide degree programmes (Bachelor’s degrees and Master's degrees), continuing education and training, to conduct applied research and to offer services to companies and institutions. Students with a finished apprenticeship and a Fachmatura (subject Matura) and students with the Matura and a practical year in a company can access further education within the Universities for Applied Science. The UAS and their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are federally accredited.

The Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research (EAER) and is in charge of the accreditation of the UAS which are requested to meet the federal legislative requirements. [1] The UAS are supported by the cantons, the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research (EAER), the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) [9] and by the Rector's Conference of Swiss Universities (swissuniversities). [11]

University of Applied SciencesTypologyEstablishmentRecognitionNote
Berner Fachhochschule (BFH)Public1998
Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW)Public1998
Fachhochschule Ostschweiz (FHO)Public1998
Haute école spécialisée de la Suisse occidentale (HES-SO)Public1998
Hochschule Luzern (HSLU, formerly known as FHZ)Public1998Not to be mismatched with University of Lucerne (unilu)
Scuola universitaria professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI)Public19971998
Zürcher Fachhochschule (ZFH)Public1998
Kalaidos Fachhochschule Private2005
Haute école spécialisée Les Roches-Gruyère Private2008

See also

Related Research Articles

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The German Academic Exchange Service or DAAD is the largest German support organisation in the field of international academic co-operation.

<i>Technische Hochschule</i> Type of university in Germany

A Technische Hochschule is a type of university focusing on engineering sciences in Germany. Previously, it also existed in Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Finland. In the 1970s and the 1980s, the Technische Hochschule emerged into the Technische Universität (German) or Technische Universiteit (Dutch). Since 2009, several German universities of applied sciences were renamed to Technische Hochschulen.

A Master of Engineering is either an academic or professional master's degree in the field of engineering.

An institute of technology is an institution of tertiary education that specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and natural sciences.

A Master of Advanced Studies or Master of Advanced Study is a postgraduate degree awarded in various countries. Master of Advanced Studies programs may be non-consecutive programs tailored for "specific groups of working professionals with well-defined needs for advanced degree work" or advanced research degrees. With the exception of the UK, advanced studies programs tend to be interdisciplinary and tend to be focused toward meeting the needs of professionals rather than academics.

An engineer's degree is an advanced academic degree in engineering that is conferred in Europe, some countries of Latin America, North Africa and a few institutions in the United States. In the United States, the engineer's degree is at a more advanced level than a standard US master's degree. It may include a graduate thesis and dissertation at the level of the doctorates such as the Ph.D.

A Diplom is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine and only for engineers in France, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Brazil.

International University in Geneva university

The International University in Geneva (IUG), founded in 1997, is a private business school registered as a not-for-profit Swiss foundation of higher education and located in Geneva, Switzerland. The business school is located at the International Centre Cointrin in close proximity to Geneva Airport, the United Nations Office at Geneva and the Palexpo Convention Centre.

Hochschule is the generic term in German for institutions of higher education, corresponding to universities and colleges in English. The term Universität is reserved for institutions with the right to confer doctorates. In contrast, Hochschule encompasses Universitäten as well as institutions that are not authorized to confer doctorates.

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The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years. Because of these indicated schedules, the reform is sometimes (erroneously) referred to as "3-5-8". The system applies to the European Higher Education Area.

The FH Aachen – Aachen University of Applied Sciences is one of the biggest Fachhochschulen in Germany with roughly 14,000 students, 250 professors, 470 contract lecturers, and 340 assistants. It is specialized in certain topical areas.

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University of Applied Sciences Kufstein

The University of Applied Sciences Kufstein, is an Austrian Fachhochschule in Kufstein, Tyrol.

Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule Jena education organization in Jena, Germany

University of Applied Sciences Jena - UAS Jena was founded on 1 October 1991 as one of the first institutions of higher education of its kind in the newly founded federal states of Germany. Short periods of studying and a practical orientation complement the education at traditional universities and technical universities. Currently, the nine departments of the UAS Jena offer a lot of Bachelor and Master programs. Since the beginning of summer semester 2012, it bears the name of the entrepreneur Ernst Abbe.

The Rektorenkonferenz der Schweizer Universitäten was an organization that represented universities in Switzerland. It began in 1904 as the Schweizerische Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (SHRK), becoming in 2001 the Rektorenkonferenz der Schweizer Universitäten. On January 1, 2015, the CRUS, along with the Rektorenkonferenz der Fachhochschulen der Schweiz and the Rektorenkonferenz der pädagogischen Hochschulen, merged to form the Rektorenkonferenz der schweizerischen Hochschulen.

FH Münster, based in the Westphalian city of Münster with a second campus in Steinfurt, is a German university. It has a student enrolment of around 15,000, making it one of the largest public universities of applied sciences in Germany. It has twelve faculties and one central scientific unit.

References

  1. 1 2 "Federal Act on Funding and Coordination of the Swiss Higher Education Sector (Higher Education Act, HEdA, SR 414.20) Status of 1 January 2015" (PDF). SERI: Universities of Applied Sciences. Berne, Switzerland: State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation SERI, Swiss Federal Administration. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 2015-04-25.
  2. 1 2 Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany, 10/10/2003, version of 22/09/2005
  3. "Molecular imaging methods for the analysis of gene and protein expression". University of Heidelberg. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
  4. Standing Conference of the Ministers of Internal Affairs of the Länder (IMK) in the Federal Republic of Germany, 07/12/2007.
  5. Claudia Unseld; Gaby Reucher (13 September 2010). "University types: Universities of applied science". Deutsche Welle . Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  6. Studienberatung USA in der Fachhochschule Hannover, an Education USA Student Advising Center for Lower Saxony, affiliated with the U.S. Department of State, Washington, 2006. Adapted from: G. B. Porter, Federal Republic of Germany: a Study of the Educational System of the FRG and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States. (American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, 1986)
  7. "Auszüge aus dem Hochschulrahmengesetz der BRD (citings are outdated)" (PDF). German Rectors Conference. 2003-12-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-18.
  8. "Promotionsrecht: Erste Fachhochschule darf Doktortitel verleihen" (in German). SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 2016-10-11.
  9. 1 2 "Switzerland's Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS)". Berne, Switzerland: State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation SERI, Swiss Federal Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2015-04-25.
  10. "Schweizerischer FH-Rat / Conseil suisse des HES" [Swiss council of UAS] (in German, French, Italian, and Romansh). Berne, Switzerland: Schweizerische Konferenz der Erziehungsdirektoren EDK CDIP CDPE CDEP. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2015-04-25.
  11. "swissuniversities". Berne, Switzerland: swissuniversities. Retrieved 2015-04-25.