Fènza / Fẽza (Romagnol)
|Città di Faenza|
The Church of Santa Maria ad Nives at Night
Faenza within the Province of Ravenna
|Frazioni||Albereto, Borgo Tuliero, Castel Raniero, Celle, Cosina, Errano, Granarolo, Mezzeno, Oriolo dei Fichi, Pieve Cesato, Pieve Ponte, Prada, Reda, San Biagio, Sant'Andrea, Santa Lucia,|
|• Mayor||Giovanni Malpezzi|
|• Total||215.72 km2 (83.29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||34 m (112 ft)|
|• Density||270/km2 (710/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||Madonna of the Graces|
|Saint day||June 17|
Faenza ( UK: // , US: // , Italian: [faˈɛntsa] ; Romagnol : Fènza or Fẽza; Latin : Faventia) is an Italian city and comune , in the province of Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, situated 50 kilometres (31 miles) southeast of Bologna.
Faenza is home to a historical manufacture of majolica-ware glazed earthenware pottery, known from the name of the town as faience .
Faenza, at the foot of the first Subapennine hills, is surrounded by an agricultural region including vineyards in the hills, and cultivated land with traces of the ancient Roman land-division system, and fertile market gardens in the plains. In the nearby green valleys of the rivers Samoggia and Lamone there are great number of 18th and 19th century stately homes, set in extensive grounds or preceded by long cypress-lined driveways.
According to mythology, the name of the first settlement, Faoentia, had Etruscan and Celtic roots, meaning in Latin "Splendeo inter deos" or "I shine among the gods," in modern English. The very name, coming from the Romans who developed this center under the name of Faventia, has become synonymous with ceramics (majolica) in various languages, including French (faïence) and English (faience).
Here Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius defeated populares army of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo in 82 BC.
From the second half of the 1st century AD the city flourished considerably as a result of its agricultural propensities and the development of industrial activities such as the production of everyday pottery and brickwork objects and linen textiles.
Here Totila and an Ostrogothic army defeated the Byzantine army in Italy in the Battle of Faventia in 542 CE.
After a period of decadence from the 2nd century to the early Middle Ages it regained prosperity from the 8th century on. Around the year 1000 with the government of the Bishops and subsequently in the age of the Comune the city began a long period of richness and building expansion which reached its peak with the rule of the Manfredi family. The first consuls were elected in 1141 and in 1155 a podestà was in charge of government of the city. In the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines that began in the following years Faenza was at first loyal to the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1178, however, it changed side and entered the Lombard League. The inner disputes anyway favoured acquisition of power by Maghinardo Pagano, who remained podestà and capitano del popolo for several years.
At the beginning of the 14th century the Guelph Manfredi began a rule over Faenza that was to last for almost two centuries. The peak of splendour was reached under Carlo II Manfredi, in the second half of the century, when the city centre was renewed. In 1488 Galeotto Manfredi was assassinated by his wife: his son Astorre III succeeded him, but was in turn killed in Rome as a prisoner of Cesare Borgia, who had captured Faenza in 1501.
After a brief period of Venetian domination Faenza became part of the Papal States until 1797.
Faenza lost 1,322 of its citizens during World War II. After months of bombings and a bloody battle was finally liberated by the New Zealand Army (2nd New Zealand Division) on 17 December 1944.
Faenza's architectural attractions are concentrated in the two contiguous main squares: Piazza del Popolo, lined by two double order porticoed wings, and Piazza della Libertà.
Among the other monuments of the historic centre are Palazzo Milzetti, the richest and most significant Neoclassical building in the region, and the Teatro Masini (1780–1787). In the nearby, the Villa Case Grandi dei Ferniani has a collection of 18th and 19th century Faenza ceramics.
Grotta Tanaccia Karstic Park and the Carnè Natural Park, a vast green area with a visitor’s centre and refreshments, are also of great interest, characterized by a typical landscape of dolinas, ravines and swallow holes.
Faenza is home to the International Museum of Ceramics. The museum houses pieces from all over the world and from every epoch, from classical amphoras to the works of Chagall and Picasso, and there is a rich section dedicated to Faenza pottery in the golden age of the Renaissance. Other interesting art collections are located in the Municipal Art Gallery, the Diocese Museum, the Bendandi Museum and the Manfredi Library. The historic production of Faenza majolica is recognized worldwide as one of the highest moments of artistic creativity expressed through pottery. The tradition was born from a convergence of favourable conditions: a territory rich in clay, a centuries-old history of political and commercial relations with nearby Tuscany (especially with Florence).
As a testament to the popularity of the city's majolica through the ages, on 18 August 2006, Quebec Premier Jean Charest announced that Canadian archaeologists had discovered the precise location of Canada's lost first colony of Charlesbourg-Royal,and that a fragment of a decorative Istoriato plate manufactured in Faenza between 1540 and 1550 was found there that could only have belonged to a member of the French aristocracy in the colony.
In September and October international contemporary and classical ceramic art events draw majolica amateurs, collectors and artists to Faenza from all over the world. In June the Palio del Niballo, a tournament between five horsemen from the districts of the town, re-evokes the magnificence and struggles of Faenza in the Manfredi epoch.
Faenza also houses the annual Mexi-talian Convention, in which Mexican and Italian food and drinks are served alike at the local market; this event usually occurs in May, as part of a Cinco de Mayo celebration.
Typical regional dishes include home-made tagliatelle, cappelletti, lasagna and strozzapreti with the Romagna meat sauce. Two of the best restaurants in Faenza are Spaghetti Notte and Casa Spadoni.
The Botanical Gardens, next to the Civic Natural Science Museum with its collections, houses more than 170 species of plants indigenous to Romagna. There is about 1 square kilometre (0.39 sq mi) of public urban green area. The Bucci Park, created in 1968, has an area of about 80,000 square metres (20 acres) of undulating land, green meadows and fish-rich waters, with species of birds including wild duck, storks and swans.
The Florence –Faenza 100-kilometre (62 mi) marathon, a demanding long-distance race held during the last weekend in May, attracts athletes of all nationalities.
Faenza is home to the Formula One racing team Scuderia AlphaTauri, formerly Scuderia Toro Rosso, formerly Minardi. Minardi was one of the last small, independent constructors in Formula One, and was bought by Red Bull in 2005, continuing to be based in Faenza.
Faenza railway station, at Piazza Cesare Battisti, forms part of the Bologna–Ancona railway. It is also a terminus of two secondary railways, linking Faenza with Ravenna and Florence, respectively. Opened in 1893, it replaced an earlier station, which had been opened in 1861 at a location to the east of the present station, near what is now Via Caldesi.
Faenza is twinned with:
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Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a buff earthenware body, at least when there is no more usual English name for the type concerned. The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. A kiln capable of producing temperatures exceeding 1,000 °C (1,830 °F) was required to achieve this result, the result of millennia of refined pottery-making traditions. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles.
The Bargello, also known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo, is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy.
Maiolica is tin-glazed pottery decorated in colours on a white background. Italian maiolica dating from the Renaissance period is the most renowned. When depicting historical and mythical scenes, these works were known as istoriato wares. By the late 15th century, several places, mainly small cities in northern and central Italy, were producing sophisticated pieces for a luxury market in Italy and beyond. In France maiolica developed as faience, in the Netherlands and England as delftware, and in Mexico as talavera. In English the spelling was anglicised to majolica but the pronunciation remained usually the same with the long i as in kite.
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Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide which is white, shiny and opaque ; usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery, but very little used in East Asia. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is usually applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide, copper oxide, iron oxide, manganese dioxide and antimony oxide. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings.
Compignano is a village in Italy. It has 175 inhabitants according to the 2001 ISTAT data, who are known as compignanesi. Though a more recent estimate puts the population closer to 177. It is a frazione of the comune of Marsciano, a larger town 12 km away, along strada statale 317 then provinciale 340 to Spina. Compignano is on top of a low (262m) hill, overlooking the valley of the river Nestore, which runs in a wide horseshoe-shaped curve at the foot of the hill.
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Tommaso Minardi was an Italian painter and author on art theory, active in Faenza, Rome, Perugia, and other towns. He painted in styles that transitioned from Neoclassicism to Romanticism.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia . London and New York: Frederick Warne.
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