Fagundes Varela

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Fagundes Varela
Fagundes Varella.jpg
Fagundes Varela.
BornLuís Nicolau Fagundes Varela
(1841-08-17)17 August 1841
Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Died18 February 1875(1875-02-18) (aged 33)
Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Occupation Poet
Literary movement Romanticism
Notable worksNoturnas, Vozes da América
SpouseAlice Guilhermina Luande,
Maria Belisária de Brito Lambert
ChildrenEmiliano Varela

Luís Nicolau Fagundes Varela (August 17, 1841 – February 18, 1875) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement. He is patron of the 11th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Brazil Federal republic in South America

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.

Romanticism period of artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that started in 18th century Europe

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.

Ultra-Romanticism was a Portuguese literary movement that took place during the second half of the 19th century and later arrived in Brazil. Aesthetically similar to the German- and British-originated Dark Romanticism, it was typified by a tendency to exaggerate, at times to a ridiculous degree, the norms and ideals of Romanticism, namely the value of subjectivity, individualism, amorous idealism, nature and the medieval world. The Ultra-Romantics generated literary works of highly contendable quality, some of them being considered as "romance of knife and earthenware bowl", given the succession of bloody crimes that they invariably described, which realists fiercely denounced.



A drawing of Fagundes Varela. Fagundes Varela.jpg
A drawing of Fagundes Varela.

Luís Nicolau Fagundes Varela was born in Rio Claro in 1841, to Emiliano Fagundes Varela and Emília de Andrade. He spent most of his childhood at the farm where he was born, later moving to innumerous places, among them the city of Catalão, Goiás, where he met Bernardo Guimarães. Returning to Rio, he lived in Angra dos Reis and Petrópolis, where he concluded his primary and secondary studies. In 1859, he goes to São Paulo and, in 1862, enters at the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo, but abandons it to dedicate himself to the literature and to the bohemianism. He published his first poetry book, Noturnas, one year before.

Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro Municipality in Southeast, Brazil

Rio Claro is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Its population was 17,834 (2005) and its area is 841 km².

Catalão Place in Central-West, Brazil

Catalão is a city and municipality located in the south of the state of Goiás, in Brazil. It is a large producer of grains, cattle, and phosphates and has a John Deere and Mitsubishi factory.

Goiás State of Brazil

Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community. The original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso.

He married a circus artist from Sorocaba, Alice Guilhermina Luande. This provoked a scandal in his family and made his financial condition worse. With her he had a son, Emiliano, who died with 3 months old; extremely depressed, Fagundes wrote in the memory of his dead son his most well-known poem, "Cântico do Calvário" (that can be found on the book Cantos e Fantasias). His woman died in 1865 or 1866, while Varela was travelling to Recife. Returning to São Paulo, he matriculated himself once more in the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo in 1867, but would later abandon it once more. He then returns to his house in Rio Claro, living in there until 1870. He marries once again, with his cousin Maria Belisária de Brito Lambert, having with her two daughters and one son.

Sorocaba Municipality in Southeast Brazil, Brazil

Sorocaba is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sorocaba is the eighth-largest city in the state of São Paulo. Outside the Greater São Paulo region, it ranks behind only Campinas, São José dos Campos and Ribeirão Preto. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba. The population is 644,919 in an area of 450.38 km2.

Recife Municipality in Northeast, Brazil

Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. The first slave port in the Americas, Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane. It was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs that are present by the city's shores. The many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.

Having moved to Niterói with his father in 1870, he lives there until dying, on February 18, 1875.

Some of Varela's poems have an unusual theme for the Ultra-Romanticism: the Abolitionism. Because of that, he is considered to be one of the forerunners of the "Condorism", alongside Junqueira Freire, another Ultra-Romantic poet who spoke of the Abolitionism in some of his poems.

Abolitionism movement to end slavery

Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France, who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315. He passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, and it was also vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. The abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanitarian grounds, and arguing against it in Parliament, and eventually encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause. Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More united with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect.

Condorism Brazilian literary movement that lasted from the mid-1860s until the early 1880s

Condorism was a Brazilian literary movement that lasted from the mid-1860s until the early 1880s. It is a subdivision of Brazilian Romanticism, being thus called "the third phase of Brazilian Romanticism", preceded by the Indianism and the Ultra-Romanticism. Condorism was created by the poet Tobias Barreto, who was one of its most significant figures alongside Castro Alves and Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa.

Junqueira Freire Brazilian poet and essayist

Luís José Junqueira Freire was a Brazilian poet and Benedictine monk, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement and author of Inspirações do Claustro. He is the patron of the 25th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.


This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1861.

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1864.

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1865.

Internet Archive US non-profit organization founded in 1996 providing free public access to archives of digital and digitized media and advocating for a free and open Internet

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco-based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of public-domain books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

LibriVox Audiobook library

LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet".

Preceded by
New creation
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 11th chair
Succeeded by
Lúcio de Mendonça (founder)

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