|Born||Luís Nicolau Fagundes Varela|
17 August 1841
Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Died||18 February 1875 33) (aged|
Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Notable works||Noturnas, Vozes da América|
|Spouse||Alice Guilhermina Luande, |
Maria Belisária de Brito Lambert
Luís Nicolau Fagundes Varela (August 17, 1841 – February 18, 1875) was a Brazilian Romantic poet, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement. He is patron of the 11th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.
Ultra-Romanticism was a Portuguese literary movement that took place during the second half of the 19th century and later arrived in Brazil. Aesthetically similar to the German- and British-originated Dark Romanticism, it was typified by a tendency to exaggerate, at times to a ridiculous degree, the norms and ideals of Romanticism, namely the value of subjectivity, individualism, amorous idealism, nature and the medieval world. The Ultra-Romantics generated literary works of highly contendable quality, some of them being considered as "romance of knife and earthenware bowl", given the succession of bloody crimes that they invariably described, which realists fiercely denounced.
Luís Nicolau Fagundes Varela was born in Rio Claro in 1841, to Emiliano Fagundes Varela and Emília de Andrade. He spent most of his childhood at the farm where he was born, later moving to innumerous places, among them the city of Catalão, Goiás, where he met Bernardo Guimarães. Returning to Rio, he lived in Angra dos Reis and Petrópolis, where he concluded his primary and secondary studies. In 1859, he goes to São Paulo and, in 1862, enters at the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo, but abandons it to dedicate himself to the literature and to the bohemianism. He published his first poetry book, Noturnas, one year before.
Rio Claro is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Its population was 17,834 (2005) and its area is 841 km².
Catalão is a city and municipality located in the south of the state of Goiás, in Brazil. It is a large producer of grains, cattle, and phosphates and has a John Deere and Mitsubishi factory.
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community. The original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso.
He married a circus artist from Sorocaba, Alice Guilhermina Luande. This provoked a scandal in his family and made his financial condition worse. With her he had a son, Emiliano, who died with 3 months old; extremely depressed, Fagundes wrote in the memory of his dead son his most well-known poem, "Cântico do Calvário" (that can be found on the book Cantos e Fantasias). His woman died in 1865 or 1866, while Varela was travelling to Recife. Returning to São Paulo, he matriculated himself once more in the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo in 1867, but would later abandon it once more. He then returns to his house in Rio Claro, living in there until 1870. He marries once again, with his cousin Maria Belisária de Brito Lambert, having with her two daughters and one son.
Sorocaba is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Sorocaba is the eighth-largest city in the state of São Paulo. Outside the Greater São Paulo region, it ranks behind only Campinas, São José dos Campos and Ribeirão Preto. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba. The population is 644,919 in an area of 450.38 km2.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. The first slave port in the Americas, Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane. It was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs that are present by the city's shores. The many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.
Having moved to Niterói with his father in 1870, he lives there until dying, on February 18, 1875.
Some of Varela's poems have an unusual theme for the Ultra-Romanticism: the Abolitionism. Because of that, he is considered to be one of the forerunners of the "Condorism", alongside Junqueira Freire, another Ultra-Romantic poet who spoke of the Abolitionism in some of his poems.
Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. This term can be used both formally and informally. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. King Charles I of Spain, usually known as Emperor Charles V, was following the example of Louis X of France, who had abolished slavery within the Kingdom of France in 1315. He passed a law which would have abolished colonial slavery in 1542, although this law was not passed in the largest colonial states, and it was not enforced as a result. In the late 17th century, the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned the slave trade in response to a plea by Lourenço da Silva de Mendouça, and it was also vehemently condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. The abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality of slavery. James Oglethorpe was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery, banning it in the Province of Georgia on humanitarian grounds, and arguing against it in Parliament, and eventually encouraging his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause. Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More united with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect.
Condorism was a Brazilian literary movement that lasted from the mid-1860s until the early 1880s. It is a subdivision of Brazilian Romanticism, being thus called "the third phase of Brazilian Romanticism", preceded by the Indianism and the Ultra-Romanticism. Condorism was created by the poet Tobias Barreto, who was one of its most significant figures alongside Castro Alves and Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa.
Luís José Junqueira Freire was a Brazilian poet and Benedictine monk, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement and author of Inspirações do Claustro. He is the patron of the 25th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1861.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1864.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1865.
|Portuguese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco-based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of public-domain books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.
LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet".
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 11th chair
Lúcio de Mendonça (founder)
José Martiniano de Alencar was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist. He is considered to be one of the most famous and influential Brazilian Romantic novelists of the 19th century, and a major exponent of the literary tradition known as "Indianism". Sometimes he signed his works with the pen name Erasmo.
Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves was a Brazilian poet and playwright, famous for his abolitionist and republican poems. One of the most famous poets of the "Condorism", he won the epithet of "O Poeta dos Escravos".
Joaquim Osório Duque-Estrada was a Brazilian poet, essayist, journalist, literary critic and professor. He is famous for writing in 1909 a poem that would become the lyrics of the Brazilian National Anthem in 1922.
Bernardo Joaquim da Silva Guimarães was a Brazilian poet and novelist. He is the author of the famous romances A Escrava Isaura and O Seminarista. He also introduced to Brazilian poetry the verso bestialógico, also referred to as pantagruélico — poems whose verses are very nonsensical, although very metrical. Under the verso bestialógico, he wrote polemical erotic verses, such as "O Elixir do Pajé" and "A Origem do Mênstruo". A non-erotic poem written in verso bestialógico is "Eu Vi dos Polos o Gigante Alado".
Júlio César Ribeiro Vaughan was a Brazilian Naturalist novelist, philologist, journalist and grammarian. He is famous for his controversial romance A Carne and for designing the flag of the State of São Paulo, which he wanted to be the flag of Brazil.
The Law School, University of São Paulo is an institution of higher education and research in the field of Law located in São Paulo, Brazil. It joined the University of São Paulo (USP) in 1934, when the latter was established.
Sílvio Vasconcelos da Silveira Ramos Romero was a Brazilian "Condorist" poet, essayist, literary critic, professor, journalist, historian and politician.
Aureliano José Lessa (1828–1861) was a Brazilian poet, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement. Born in Minas Gerais in 1828, he moved to São Paulo in 1847 to study Law, but received his bacharel degree at the Faculdade de Direito de Olinda, in Pernambuco, in 1851. He worked as attorney general in the city of Ouro Preto, and also as a lawyer in the cities of Diamantina and Serro.
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva was a French-born Brazilian poet, teacher and senator. He is known as "the Younger" to distinguish him from his grand-uncle, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, "the Elder" or "the Patriarch", a famous statesman who was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence.
Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa was a Brazilian poet, politician, orator and lawyer, adept of the "Condorist" movement. He is the patron of the 31st chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Teófilo Odorico Dias de Mesquita was a Brazilian poet, journalist and lawyer, nephew of the famous Romantic author Gonçalves Dias.
Pedro Luziense de Bittencourt Calasans was a Brazilian poet, playwright and journalist, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement.
João Carlos de Medeiros Pardal Mallet was a Brazilian journalist and novelist. He is the patron of the 30th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
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João Cardoso de Meneses e Sousa, Baron of Paranapiacaba was a Brazilian poet, translator, journalist, lawyer and politician.
Luís Gonzaga Pinto da Gama was a Brazilian Romantic poet, journalist, lawyer, Republican and a prominent abolitionist.
Francisco Otaviano de Almeida Rosa was a Brazilian poet, lawyer, diplomat, journalist and politician. He is famous for translating into Portuguese works by famous writers such as Horace, Catullus, Lord Byron, William Shakespeare, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Victor Hugo and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mostly of them for the first time.
Carlos Magalhães de Azeredo was a Brazilian poet, short story writer, diplomat and journalist. He founded and occupied the 9th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, from 1897 until his death in 1963, thus being the academic that occupied his chair for the longest time and the youngest founder of the Academy.
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