Falun

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Falun
Falun fran Radiohuset.jpg
Falun seen from the Sveriges Radio building
Falun vapen.svg
Coat of arms
Sweden Dalarna location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Falun
Sweden location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Falun
Coordinates: 60°36′26″N15°37′52″E / 60.60722°N 15.63111°E / 60.60722; 15.63111 Coordinates: 60°36′26″N15°37′52″E / 60.60722°N 15.63111°E / 60.60722; 15.63111
Country Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Province Dalarna
County Dalarna County
Municipality Falun Municipality
Charter 1641
Area
[1]
  City27.1716 km2 (10.4910 sq mi)
  Metro
2,052.65 km2 (792.53 sq mi)
Elevation
110 m (360 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2010) [1]
  City37,291
  Density1,372/km2 (3,550/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
791 xx
Area code(s) (+46) 23
Climate Dfb
Website www.falun.se

Falun (Swedish pronunciation:  [²fɑːlɵn] ) is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010. [1] It is also the capital of Dalarna County. Falun forms, together with Borlänge, a metropolitan area with close to 100,000 inhabitants.

Falun Municipality Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden

Falun Municipality is a municipality in Dalarna County in central Sweden. Its seat is located in the city of Falun. Falun is the second biggest city and provincial capital of Dalarna County. Falun was originally famous for its copper mine.

Dalarna County County (län) of Sweden

Dalarna County is a county or län in middle Sweden (Svealand). It borders the counties of Uppsala, Jämtland, Gävleborg, Västmanland, Örebro and Värmland. It is also bordered by the Norwegian counties of Hedmark and Trøndelag in the west.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund Strait. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. The capital city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.3 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi) and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.

Contents

Falun was originally famous for its copper mine, and is today an important service and industrial city even though the mine is closed (since 1992).

Falun Mine mining community

Falun Mine was a mine in Falun, Sweden, that operated for a millennium from the 10th century to 1992. It produced as much as two thirds of Europe's copper needs and helped fund many of Sweden's wars in the 17th century. Technological developments at the mine had a profound influence on mining globally for two centuries. The mine is now a museum and in 2001 was designated a UNESCO world heritage site.

Industrial city or industrial town refers to the kind of city in which the municipal economy and development are concentrated around industrial production and characterized by a large amount of factories. Industrial city is at some stage during industrialization. Industrial cities might have had gone through the period featuring pollution.

Faluån is a river, flowing through the city, separating it into two sides. Falu copper mine is located on one of the sides which during many centuries was one of Sweden's main business. This side of the river was usually called "the mining side", where not many plants grew due to the toxic smoke which contaminated the soil. On the other side of the river, where the smoke did not reach, sets a large number of large villas, which made this side to be called "the delightful side". The centre of Falun consists of classical pedestrian streets with small shops. in 1998, the city reclaimed the award of "the city centre of the year" in Sweden.

The year 2001, the city, the copper mine and mining areas of Falun were added to the list of world heritage sites by the United Nations, which means that the city is worth preserving, as it is considered to be of interest for all of humanity. Dalarna University, with its 18 000 students, has a campus located in Falun - close to the national ski stadium where the ski world championship has taken place a number of times, including the last one in 2015.

The name of Falun has influenced the names of some Swedish items associated with the town, such as Falu red, Falu rågrut (A snack), Falu ättika (a type of vinegar) and Falukorv.

Falu red Color of dye

Falu red or falun red is a dye that is used in a deep red paint, well known for its use on wooden cottages and barns.

Falukorv Swedish sausage

Falukorv, Swedish pronunciation: [²fɑːlɵˌkɔrv] is a Swedish sausage made of a grated mixture of smoked pork and beef or veal with potato starch flour, onion, salt and mild spices. Falukorv is a cooked sausage, so it can be eaten without any further preparation. Some Swedes use it as a sandwich ingredient, much like ham or turkey.

History

The town of Falun is known to have existed in the 14th century as a market place for the surrounding lands. Mining for copper had been a local business since the mid-13th century, or possibly as early as 1000, [2] and the organisation for the extracting of copper and gold from Stora Kopparberget is believed to be the oldest still-existing enterprise in the world, proved active since 1347, when its charter was granted by King Magnus IV of Sweden. The first share in the company is dated as early as 1288.

Magnus IV of Sweden king of Sweden including Finland, King of Norway including Iceland and Greenland, and also ruled Scania

Magnus IV was King of Sweden from 1319 to 1364, King of Norway as Magnus VII from 1319 to 1355, and ruler of Scania from 1332 to 1360. By adversaries he has been called Magnus Smek.

However, an enterprise at that time was nothing more than a cooperative among the owners, each contributing with a share of money for construction, tools, etc., necessary to run the organisation. Depending on their contributions they could use the facilities and share the profits in proportion to the relative sizes of their individual contributions.

The city of Falun received its privileges in 1641. By then Falun was already one of the largest cities in Sweden, with about 6000 inhabitants. Soon, however, the importance of the copper mine began to decrease. In 1687, parts of the mine collapsed in a landslide, creating a 100 m deep pit. [3] Even though the mine remained in use for the next 300 years, the production gradually diminished, until it closed down in 1992.

Landslide type of natural disaster, geological phenomenon

The term landslide or less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows, and debris flows. Landslides occur in a variety of environments, characterized by either steep or gentle slope gradients, from mountain ranges to coastal cliffs or even underwater, in which case they are called submarine landslides. Gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, but there are other factors affecting slope stability that produce specific conditions that make a slope prone to failure. In many cases, the landslide is triggered by a specific event, although this is not always identifiable.

The mining area of the Great Copper Mountain has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which also was the name of the mining company of Falun, is today a part of Stora Enso.

During World War II, Falun was the place where the authorities "interned" British and American airmen who happened to land in Sweden, or reached the country after landing in German-controlled territories. Unlike civilian refugees from Germany, who were kept in internment camps throughout the country, British and American airmen were placed in hotels and bed and breakfast establishments in the Falun area, and enjoyed relative freedom. [4]

Climate

Falun has a humid continental climate.

Winter is the longest season lasting approximately from mid-November until the end of March, although March daytime temperatures tend to be mild. [5] With an average high temperature of 23 °C (73.4 °F), July is the warmest month. However, the all-time heat record was set on August 4, 2014 when 35.1 °C (95.2 °F) was measured. This was in turn the highest measured temperature of the intense heat wave that summer that affected most of Scandinavia. [6] The climate of Falun is more continental than most of Sweden since it is relatively far from large bodies of waters moderating temperatures. As a result, the highs of July in Falun are normally warmer than many areas much further south in the country. Winters, however, are cold but also highly variable due to the proximity to some maritime influence that often brings mild temperatures above freezing, moderating average temperatures. The most precipitation occurs during the summer months of July and August. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Falun is −40.0 °C (−40.0 °F). [7] The weather station has however, not recorded below −37.2 °C (−35.0 °F) according to the open data.

Climate data for Falun (2002–2018 averages; sunshine in Borlänge; extremes since 1901)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)12.2
(54.0)
12.0
(53.6)
17.9
(64.2)
26.4
(79.5)
29.8
(85.6)
33.2
(91.8)
33.3
(91.9)
35.1
(95.2)
27.0
(80.6)
21.8
(71.2)
15.3
(59.5)
12.2
(54.0)
35.1
(95.2)
Mean maximum °C (°F)5.0
(41.0)
6.3
(43.3)
13.3
(55.9)
19.3
(66.7)
25.2
(77.4)
27.8
(82.0)
29.8
(85.6)
27.8
(82.0)
22.0
(71.6)
15.6
(60.1)
10.4
(50.7)
6.2
(43.2)
30.9
(87.6)
Average high °C (°F)−1.9
(28.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
4.5
(40.1)
11.2
(52.2)
17.0
(62.6)
20.9
(69.6)
23.6
(74.5)
21.3
(70.3)
16.3
(61.3)
8.7
(47.7)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
10.4
(50.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−4.9
(23.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.5
(41.9)
11.1
(52.0)
15.1
(59.2)
17.9
(64.2)
16.2
(61.2)
11.8
(53.2)
5.3
(41.5)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.9
(26.8)
6.0
(42.8)
Average low °C (°F)−7.9
(17.8)
−7.4
(18.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
5.1
(41.2)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
11.0
(51.8)
7.2
(45.0)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
−5.7
(21.7)
1.6
(34.8)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−20.1
(−4.2)
−17.8
(0.0)
−13.5
(7.7)
−6.1
(21.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.4
(38.1)
6.6
(43.9)
4.6
(40.3)
0.3
(32.5)
−5.7
(21.7)
−10.4
(13.3)
−16.2
(2.8)
−22.4
(−8.3)
Record low °C (°F)−35.6
(−32.1)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.6
(−19.5)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−10.0
(14.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.5
(36.5)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−14.0
(6.8)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−35.6
(−32.1)
−37.2
(−35.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)41.0
(1.61)
28.7
(1.13)
24.9
(0.98)
26.5
(1.04)
52.4
(2.06)
68.6
(2.70)
77.0
(3.03)
79.1
(3.11)
43.5
(1.71)
58.0
(2.28)
46.8
(1.84)
37.8
(1.49)
584.3
(22.98)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47.774.8164.0213.8238.5257.7256.8210.9157.8107.354.447.01,830.7
Source #1: SMHI Open Data [8]
Source #2: SMHI average data 2002–2018 [9]
Falun
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
41
 
 
−2
−8
 
 
29
 
 
−1
−7
 
 
25
 
 
5
−5
 
 
27
 
 
11
0
 
 
52
 
 
17
5
 
 
69
 
 
21
9
 
 
77
 
 
24
12
 
 
79
 
 
21
11
 
 
44
 
 
16
7
 
 
58
 
 
9
2
 
 
47
 
 
3
−2
 
 
38
 
 
0
−6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Architectural history

Stora Gruvstugan was designed by Eric Geisler and built between 1771-1785 in a Rococo Style, also referred to as Late Baroque. The building is situated by Falun Copper Mine and used to be the main office to the copper mine. in 1882 the building was rebuilt into Berslagets museum. In the beginning of 1920, the mining came close to the structure which made it fragile and extensive repairs was made to the building.

Västra Skolan was built in 1915, based on a design by the city architect in Falun, Klas Boman. The building functioned as a school up until 2010. The tower was a replica of Kristine Kyrka from which one could view the entire low built city.

Egnellska Huset was built in 1903 and was designed by Falun's first city architect, Klas Boman. The building functioned as a modern residential building. The building was initially a light yellow color and then later recolored in a more bright yellow color. After two separate fires in 2007 and 2008, the building was restored to its original appearance.

Falugatan is a street in Falun and has since the 15th century functioned as a connection between eastern and western Falun. Thanks to its location by the river, this site became an important commerce site for city. When Falun, officially became a city, in 1641, it was this street that named the city to Falun. The street kept it appearance up until the 1960s when Falun was modernized architectural. During the 1960', four of the five 18th century buildings were demolished and today, the Körsnerska Huset is the only one remaining in its original appearance.

Centralpalatset is a building located on Stora Torget in Falun and is a monumental building, decorated in Art Nouveau. It was built between 1895-1896 and was designed by the local architect Ferdinand Boberg. The author Selma Lagerlöf lived in the building, and it was here she wrote The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. In 1947, the initial balconies were removed and in 1955 the whole building was facing a renovation where the facade was redesigned and the whole house scaled down, making it shorter and flatter

Wiklunds Glas was a building on Åsgatan in Falun and was designed in a combination between Art Nouveau and Renaissance in the Low Countries. The building was designed by the Architect J.Wernfeldt and functioned as a location for a glass company. The building was demolished in 1971 when Falun was modernized.

Geislerska Huset was built sometime between 1765 and 1768 by Eric Geisler. The building was built by a technique which later became referred to as Eric Geisler Technique. It was the oldest building in the world built with copper slag stone. The building was demolished in 1977 and on the site today is an office building.

Rådhuset (Town Hall) is located on Stora Torget in Falun. Was built between 1649 and 1653, initially as a one floor building, but in the 1960s a second floor was added onto the building. In 1761, the building was destroyed in a fire, but was quickly rebuilt and is still, today, standing on the same site.

Varmbadhuset a community swimming pool facility in Falun. It was designed in a National Romantic Style by the city architect Klas Boman and built in 1911. In the 1960s a sport center was planned out for Falun and Varmbadhuset lost its importance and faced demolition in 1974, despite strong protests from the residents in Falun. On the site today is the police station.

In 1961, an architectural competition was organized in Falun. The neighborhood (Falan) between the western side of Stora Torget and Faluån was to be modernized. The competition was won by Uhlin och Malms Arkitektkontor in Stockholm. The final design was built in 1968 with two buildings along the western side of the Plaza. Since 1968, the buildings have been rebuilt many times. [10] [11]

Education

There is a number of elementary schools in Falun, as well as a number of gymnasiums.

For education, the city holds part of the University College of Dalarna (Högskolan Dalarna).

Today

In sports, Falun hosts the annual Swedish Ski Games at its skiing arena Lugnet, Falun. The city's most successful sport team is the bandy team Falu BS which has played in the Swedish top division for many years. Also, IBF Falun, the floorball male and female teams have been very successful. Falu FK play in Division 2 Norra Svealand.

Lugnet, Falun Stadium has also hosted the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships four times: 1954, 1974, 1993 and most recently in 2015.

The city lost out to Calgary, Alberta, Canada, in 1981 for the 1988 Winter Olympics. Again, Falun applied for the 1992 Winter Olympics but lost out to Albertville, France, in 1986. The city lost despite the best efforts of one of ABBA's singers who recorded a single in support of the bid.

Falun is the hometown of 'The Battle', one of the world's most famous snowboard competitions.[ citation needed ]

Lake Runn is visited both during the winter, for ice skating, and summer for its wide variety of watersports. The lake itself is over 60 sq kilometres of water and has over 50 islands. The sailing and fishing opportunities in particular are tremendous. Framby Udde Resort offers many of these in partnership with other small businesses. See for example www.runnsailing.com for sailing dinghy hire.

Iron and Copper byproducts from the mine are still used as a paint ingredient, in the production of the nationally well known and culturally important Falu Red paint, particularly used on wooden houses.

Notable residents and former residents

The short story "Die Bergwerke zu Falun" ("The Mines of Falun") was published by E. T. A. Hoffmann in 1819, based on what happened to Fet-Mats Israelsson.

See also

Sports

The bandy team of Falu BS executing a corner Falu BS BK vs Kalix Bandy 2013-01-27 01.jpg
The bandy team of Falu BS executing a corner

The following sports clubs are located in Falun:

Annual music festival

Starting in 2008 Falun has been the home of a rock and metal festival called Sabaton Open Air: Rockstad Falun

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2008-12-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. "History of Falun Mine" . Retrieved 28 December 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  4. Jöran Granberg, [Memories of the Framby Internment Camp in Falun Sweden, 1942-1944], 2008
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-04-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. "August Monthly Weather (Swedish)". SMHI. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  7. http://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/vintern-2010-2011-vinterns-lagsta-temperaturer-1.15196
  8. "Open Data" (in Swedish). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
  9. "Monthly Data". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. 23 April 2019.
  10. Falun Staden Som Försvann. 2011.
  11. http://www.falun.se/www/falun/org/gamlafalun.nsf/doc/46829F0F9EF941A6C125793400467272%5B%5D

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