|Directed by||Oles Yanchuk|
|Produced by||Oleksiy Chernishov|
|Written by|| Serhiy Dyachenko |
|Music by||Viktor Patsukevych|
|Distributed by||Dovzhenko Film Studios|
|1991 (Ukraine, Soviet Union)|
Famine-33 (Ukrainian : Голод-33, Holod-33) is a 1991 drama film by Oles Yanchuk about the Holodomor famine in Ukraine, and based on the novel The Yellow Prince by Vasyl Barka. The film is told through the lives of the Katrannyk family of six.
Ukrainian is an East Slavic language. It is the official state language of Ukraine, one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria, the other two being Romanian and Russian. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic script.
The Holodomor was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians. It is also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and sometimes referred to as the Great Famine or The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33. It was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country. During the Holodomor, millions of inhabitants of Ukraine, the majority of whom were ethnic Ukrainians, died of starvation in a peacetime catastrophe unprecedented in the history of Ukraine. Since 2006, the Holodomor has been recognized by Ukraine and 15 other countries as a genocide of the Ukrainian people carried out by the Soviet government.
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.
"In an early scene, the members of an impoverished farming family solemnly take turns dipping their ladles into the single bowl of watery soup that is their only meal of the day. Later in the film, scores of villagers numb with despair and hunger huddle silently in the pouring rain outside a Government office until a truckload of armed soldiers arrives to disperse them. In the most poignant scene, a little boy who has lost his parents calls for his mother as he wanders, panic-stricken, through a snowy woodland where the trees are outnumbered by crosses marking the dead."
The Undefeated is a 2000 Ukrainian film by Oles Yanchuk, a producer and director previously praised by The New York Times and Time magazine for his 1991 film Famine-33.
The Guide is a 2014 Ukrainian drama film directed by Oles Sanin. It was selected as the Ukrainian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 87th Academy Awards, but was not nominated. There was some controversy over the selection of the film in Ukraine regarding the voting process. There is a special audiodescripted version for blind people.
Bitter Harvest is a 2017 period romantic-drama film set in Soviet Ukraine in the early 1930s during the Holodomor famine Genocide by communist dictator Joseph Stalin using food as a weapon through mass starvation and executions whereas,several millions of Ukrainians died under Stalin's forced collectivization of all farms and businesses owned by Ukrainians. The film stars Max Irons, Samantha Barks, Barry Pepper, Tamer Hassan and Terence Stamp.
James Bezan is a Canadian politician. In 2004, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada to represent the Manitoba riding of Selkirk-Interlake as a Conservative.
Agriculture in the Soviet Union was mostly collectivized, with some limited cultivation of private plots. It is often viewed as one of the more inefficient sectors of the economy of the Soviet Union. A number of food taxes were introduced in the early Soviet period despite the Decree on Land that immediately followed the October Revolution. The forced collectivization and class war against "kulaks" under Stalinism greatly disrupted farm output in the 1920s and 1930s, contributing to the Soviet famine of 1932–33. A system of state and collective farms, known as sovkhozes and kolkhozes respectively, placed the rural population in a system intended to be unprecedentedly productive and fair but which turned out to be chronically inefficient and lacking in fairness. Under the administrations of Nikita Khrushchev, Leonid Brezhnev, and Mikhail Gorbachev, a large number of reforms were enacted as attempts to defray the inefficiencies of the Stalinist agricultural system. However, Marxist–Leninist ideology did not allow for any substantial amount of market mechanism to coexist alongside central planning, so the private plot fraction of Soviet agriculture, which was its most productive, remained confined to a limited role. Throughout its later decades the Soviet Union never stopped using substantial portions of the precious metals mined each year in Siberia to pay for grain imports, which has been taken by various authors as an economic indicator showing that the country's agriculture was never as successful as it ought to have been. The real numbers, however, were treated as state secrets at the time, so accurate analysis of the sector's performance was limited outside the USSR and nearly impossible to assemble within its borders. However, Soviet citizens as consumers were familiar with the fact that foods, especially meats, were often noticeably scarce, to the point that not lack of money so much as lack of things to buy with it was the limiting factor in their standard of living.
Throughout Russian history famines and droughts have been a common feature, often resulting in humanitarian crises traceable to political or economic instability, poor policy, environmental issues and war. Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union tended to occur fairly regularly, with famine occurring every 10–13 years and droughts every five to seven years. Golubev and Dronin distinguish three types of drought according to productive areas vulnerable to droughts: Central, Southern, and Eastern.
Douglas Tottle ) is a Canadian trade union activist and the author of a book about the Ukrainian famine in 1932 and 1933 entitled Fraud, Famine, and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard. Tottle asserts that fraudulent "famine-genocide" propaganda has been spread by former Nazis, anti-communists and Ukrainian Nationalists, sometimes posing as academics in Canadian universities. Tottle's critics regard him as a "Soviet apologist", or a "denunciator" of the famine. Tottle has been defended by the Stalin Society, author Jeff Coplon, the Swedish Communist Party, which insists that his book is a solid piece of historical research that exposed the "myth of the famine-genocide ... once and for all". When published, his book received endorsements from two Canadian University professors.
Gareth Richard Vaughan Jones was a Welsh journalist who first publicized in the Western world the existence of the Soviet famine of 1932–33.
The Dovzhenko Film Studios is a former Soviet film production studio in Ukraine that was named after the Ukrainian film producer, Alexander Dovzhenko, in 1957. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the studio became a property of the government of Ukraine. Since 2000 the film studio was awarded national status.
Pavel Petrovich Postyshev was a Soviet politician. He is considered to be one of the principal architects of the famine of 1932–1933, known in Ukraine as Holodomor.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia. The Holodomor in Ukraine and Kazakh famine of 1932–33 have been seen as genocide committed by Joseph Stalin's government; it is estimated between 3.3 and 7.5 million died in Ukraine and ~2,000,000 died in Kazakhstan.
Denial of the Holodomor is the assertion that the 1932–1933 Holodomor, a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine, did not occur or diminishing the scale and significance of the famine. This denial and suppression of information about the famine was made in official Soviet propaganda from the very beginning until the 1980s. It was supported by some Western journalists and intellectuals. It was echoed at the time of the famine by some prominent Western journalists, including Walter Duranty and Louis Fischer. The denial of the man-made famine was a highly successful and well orchestrated disinformation campaign by the Soviet government. According to Robert Conquest, it was the first major instance of Soviet authorities adopting the Big Lie propaganda technique to sway world opinion, to be followed by similar campaigns over the Moscow Trials and denial of the Gulag labor camp system.
The International Commission of Inquiry Into the 1932–1933 Famine in Ukraine was set up in 1984 and was initiated by the World Congress of Free Ukrainians to study and investigate the 1932-1933 Famine in Ukraine. Members of Commission selected and invited by World Congress of Free Ukrainians. None of them represent own country or country authority/institution and act as individual. Most of them are retired jurists, one of them died before Commission finish their investigations. The Commission was funded by donations from the worldwide Ukrainian diaspora.
The Holodomor genocide question consists of the attempts to determine whether the Holodomor, a 1933 man-made famine that killed about 4 million people in Ukraine, was an ethnic genocide or an unintended result of the "Soviet regime's re-direction of already drought-reduced grain supplies to attain economic and political goals." The event is recognized as a crime against humanity by the European Parliament, and a genocide in Ukraine while the Russian Federation considers it part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33 and corresponding famine relief effort. The debate among historians is ongoing and there is no international consensus among scholars or governments on whether the Soviet policies that caused the famine fall under the legal definition of genocide.
The Holodomor was a man-made famine in the Ukrainian SSR and adjacent Cossack territories between 1932 and 1933 that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians due to starvation. The famine is formally considered by the modern Ukrainian government to be an act of genocide on the part of the Soviet government; others in the international community, as well as the United Nations, also recognize it as such. Some countries recognize the Holodomor famine as an attack on the Ukrainian people, but do not recognize it as a genocide. The Russian Federation denies officially that it was an act of genocide, but rather states that the famine caused suffering among many in the Soviet Union, regardless of nationality.
Wasyl Barka was an American residing Ukrainian poet, writer, literary critic, and translator.
The last major famine to hit the USSR began in July 1946, reached its peak in February–August 1947 and then quickly diminished in intensity, although there were still some famine deaths in 1948. The situation spanned most of the grain-producing regions of the country: Ukraine, Moldova and parts of central Russia. The conditions were caused by drought, the effects of which were exacerbated by the devastation caused by World War II. The grain harvest in 1946 totaled 39.6 million tons - barely 40% of 1940s yield. With the war, there was a significant decrease in the number of able-bodied men in the rural population, retreating to 1931 levels. There was a shortage of agricultural machinery and horses. The Soviet government with its grain reserves provided relief to rural areas and appealed to the United Nations for relief. Assistance also came from the Ukrainian and Russians from eastern Ukraine and from North America, which minimized mortality.
The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-famine is a book by British historian Robert Conquest, published in 1986. It was written with the assistance of historian James Mace, a junior fellow at the Ukrainian Research Institute, who, following the advice of the director of the Institute, started doing research for the book.
The Holodomor Memorial to Victims of the Ukrainian Famine-Genocide of 1932–1933 was opened in Washington, D.C., United States on November 7, 2015. Located at the intersection of North Capitol Street, Massachusetts Avenue, and F Streets N.W., the memorial was built by the National Park Service and the Ukrainian government to honor the victims of the Ukrainian Famine-Genocide of 1932–33 and educate the American public. The memorial is one of three monuments in Washington, D.C. designed or co-designed by women Congress approved creation of the Holodomor Memorial in 2006.
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