|Lists||Hospitals in China|
Fangcang hospital (Chinese :方舱医院; pinyin :fāngcāng yīyuàn; lit. 'square-cabin hospital') refers to a kind of makeshift/mobile field hospitals notably used during the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, Hubei, China.
Such hospitals were intended for large-scale medical isolation and instituted either by establishing rapidly constructed modular/portable buildings, or through the acquisition of indoor space within existing venues and even temporarily renovated gyms and dorms in colleges and universities with enclosed cubicles to assist social distancing.
Chinese literature has mentioned the concept of "medical Fangcang" as early as 1989.China has constructed fangcang hospitals during the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and 2010 Yushu earthquake.
In Wuhan, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in January 2020, general medical institutions and the newly expanded pneumonia specialist hospital were overwhelmed by the sudden surge in hospital bed demands by suspected COVID-19 cases.Many patients with existing conditions were also turned away, leading to deaths which were otherwise preventable. Authorities were criticized by experts and citizens alike. Meanwhile, the large number of low-severity cases — almost all are individuals with suspected or mild symptoms — still needed at least a fortnight of isolation (due to the incubation period of SARS-CoV-2).
Officials decided against home isolation for mild to moderate cases, as home isolation is not always properly complied with and it was difficult to organize medical care and monitoring for those in isolation. Furthermore, home isolation could be psychologically taxing on the patients as the patients know that they are putting their family members at risk of infection.On the other hand, in-hospital isolation will hold up medical resources and increase the risk of nosocomial exposure. Under such circumstances, the principle of centralized low-level care management of non-critical patients was adopted. The Government of the People's Republic of China established 16 fangcang hospitals in Wuhan, providing a total of more than 20,000 beds.
As of March 10, 2020, all patients admitted to the square cabin hospital of Wuhan Wushan Hongshan Stadium were discharged. Thus, all 16 fangcang hospitals in Wuhan completed their missions and their cabins were shut down.
Fangcang (simplified Chinese :方舱; traditional Chinese :方艙; pinyin :fāngcāng), literally meaning "square cabin", is a Chinese term referring to a portable modular building structure formed using a combination of various solid materials, most notably cargotectures. The concept of "Fangcang" was borrowed from military field hospitals, which was initially introduced by the United States military, who has been making makeshift structures since the 1950s.
Outside of the context of the outbreak, makeshift or Fangcang structures can refer to many kinds of modular structures.
The following Fangcang hospitals were in use in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic:
The first comparable makeshift hospital built during Russia's outbreak was built in the suburban of Moscow in March 2020.Similar makeshift hospitals were successively built in countries including Iran, Spain, United Kingdom and the United States.
In Singapore, isolation facilities which were repurposed existing large-scale facilities, like the Singapore Expo, are partially modelled after the Fangcang hospital design.
Wuhan University is a national research university located in Wuhan, Hubei. It is one of the most prestigious and selective universities in China, and was recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Education as a Class A Double First Class University. It was one of the four elite universities in the early Republican period and is also one of the oldest universities in China. Wuhan University is located at Luojia Hill, with palatial buildings blending Chinese and Western styles. It is regarded by many as one of the most beautiful campuses in China.
The Children's Hospital of Fudan University is a national-level tertiary children's hospital in Shanghai, China. It is a university hospital affiliated to Fudan University Shanghai Medical College. The hospital is located in Minhang District with an outpatient clinic located in Xuhui District.
Li Fanghua was a Hong Kong-born Chinese physicist. She was a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, The World Academy of Sciences, and the International Union of Crystallography. She was also the director of Chinese Society of Physics and China Union of Crystallography, and an editor of the Journal of Chinese Electron Microscopy Society, J. Electron Microscopy, Chinese Physics Letter, and Chinese Journal of Physics.
Huoshenshan Hospital is an emergency specialty field hospital, built between 23 January and 2 February 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The facility is located near Zhiyin Lake (知音湖) in the Caidian District, Wuhan, Hubei, China, next to the Wuhan Workers' Sanatorium (武汉职工疗养院), and is designed to treat people with COVID-19. The hospital has run under the jurisdiction and management of the People's Liberation Army since its completion. A second field hospital, Leishenshan Hospital, using the same design, opened on 8 February, A further sixteen other temporary treatment facilities were set up in converted buildings in Wuhan for isolation and treatment of COVID-19 cases. Huoshenshan and Leishenshan hospitals were closed on 15 April after community transmission stopped in China, almost a month after the other temporary facilities had been closed.
Leishenshan Hospital is an emergency specialty field hospital built in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The facility is located at No.3 Parking Lot of the Athletes Village in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei. Stage one of construction was completed on 6 February 2020, and the hospital opened on 8 February 2020. Along with the Huoshenshan Hospital, a further sixteen other temporary treatment facilities were set up for isolation and treatment of COVID-19 cases. Leishenshan and Huoshenshan hospitals were closed and sealed on 15 April 2020, pending possible reopening in the event of a resurgence of cases.
The Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Centre is a hospital campus in Huangzhou District, Huanggang, Hubei, China. Originally constructed as a new campus for the eventual relocation of Huanggang Central Hospital, it was rapidly converted into a quarantine facility as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic which originated in Wuhan.
Wang Chen is a Chinese pulmonologist and physician currently serving as vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) and president of the Peking Union Medical College. He is a member of the Chinese Hospital Association (CHA) and Chinese Medical Doctor Association (CMDA).
Li Wenliang was a Chinese ophthalmologist known for raising awareness of early COVID-19 infections in Wuhan. On 30 December 2019, Wuhan CDC issued emergency warnings to local hospitals about a number of mysterious "pneumonia" cases discovered in the city in the previous week. On the same day, Li, who worked at Wuhan Central Hospital, received an internal diagnostic report of a suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patient from other doctors which he in turn shared with his friends. He was dubbed a whistleblower when that shared report later circulated publicly despite him requesting confidentiality from those with whom he shared the information. Rumours of a deadly SARS outbreak subsequently spread on Chinese social media platforms, and Wuhan police summoned and admonished him on 3 January for "making false comments on the Internet about unconfirmed SARS outbreak."
The Central Hospital of Wuhan is a tertiary hospital located in Jiang'an District in Wuhan, Hubei, China. It was established in 1880 as a clinic under the Hankow's Catholic church. In 1893, it was later expanded and renamed as Catholic Hospital.
The COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei was first manifested by a cluster of mysterious pneumonia in Wuhan, the provincial capital of Hubei, China. A Wuhan hospital notified the local center for disease control and prevention (CDC) and health commissions on December 27, 2019. On December 31, Wuhan CDC admitted that there was a cluster of unknown pneumonia cases related to Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market after the unverified documents appeared on the Internet. The potential disease outbreak soon drew nationwide attention including that of the National Health Commission (NHC) in Beijing which sent experts to Wuhan on the following day. On January 8, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of the pneumonia. The sequence of the virus was soon published on an open-access database. Measures taken by China have been controversial. They were praised by the World Health Organization (WHO) for improvements over SARS-CoV-2 responses, but maligned by many in the international community for being slow to publicly disclose key facts or deceptive about the outbreak and for aggressively censoring information relating to the outbreak and public discontent from citizens online.
Ai Fen is a Chinese doctor and director of the emergency department of Central Hospital of Wuhan. In December 2019, she was one of the first doctors to encounter pneumonia patients infected with the then-unknown virus, SARS-CoV-2. On 30 December 2019, Ai Fen received a diagnostic report of suspected "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome cases". An image of the diagnostic report was shared on WeChat by an ophthalmologist at the hospital, Li Wenliang, and then circulated on the internet, leading Ai Fen to be questioned by hospital superiors. She was given the nickname "The Whistle-Giver" (发哨子的人) in an article in the Chinese Renwu magazine which was censored by the Chinese government but was reposted on the Chinese internet using emojis, Morse code and pinyin to circumvent censorship.
Xie Linka is a Chinese female doctor, known as one of the whistleblowers of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, China.
Liu Wen (刘文) is one of the "whistleblowers" of the COVID-19 pandemic and a doctor working in the neurology department at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital.
The Beijing Xiaotangshan Recovery Hospital, also known as the Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital, is a tertiary-level general hospital in Xiaotangshan Township, Changping District, Beijing, China, occupying approximately 33 hectares of land.
Liang Wudong was a physician at Xinhua Hospital in Hubei who was the first doctor to die from the COVID-19 pandemic due to nosocomial infection.
The Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital is a public hospital located on Jinyintan Avenue in the Jiangjunlu Subdistrict, in the Dongxihu District of Wuhan, Hubei, China, and a unit directly under the Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Committee. Jinyintan Hospital specialises in infectious diseases. Jinyintan Hospital is one of the designated hospitals for emergency medical treatment in Hubei, including Wuhan. The hospital's president is Dr. Zhang Dingyu, a respiratory specialist. Its vice-director is Dr. Huang Chaolin.
Zhang Wenhong is a Chinese doctor, and a member of the Communist Party of China. He is the Director and Secretary of the Party Branch of the Department of Infectious Diseases at Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, the Director of the Internal Medicine Department of the Shanghai Medical College, and also the leader of the Shanghai Medical Treatment Experts Group, deputy director of the Shanghai Institute of Liver Diseases, and standing committee member of the Infectious Disease Branch of the Chinese Medical Association.
Wang Guangfa is a Chinese physician. He is a respiratory expert at Peking University First Hospital.
This article documents the chronology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The first human cases of COVID-19 were identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December.
Zhang Boli is a Chinese physician. He is the president of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Honorary President of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE). Zhang is also a delegate to the 11th, 12th, and 13th National People's Congress.
Early epidemiological evidence in China showed that more than half of all patients with COVID-19 had at least one family member with the disease, and 75–80% of all clustered infections were within families, suggesting high rates of intrafamily transmission.