Far-Western Development Region, Nepal

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सुदुर पश्चिमाञ्चल विकास क्षेत्र

Sudur Pashchimānchal
Bikās Kshetra
Subdivisions of Nepal EN.png
Country Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal
Region Far-Western Development Region
Headquarters Dipayal Silgadhi, Doti District, Seti Zone
Area
  Total19,539 km2 (7,544 sq mi)
Population
 (2011 Census)
  Total2,552,517
  Density131/km2 (340/sq mi)
 pop. note
Time zone UTC+5:45 (NPT)

The Far-Western Development Region (Nepali: सुदुर पश्चिमाञ्चल विकास क्षेत्र, Sudur Pashchimānchal Bikās Kshetra) was one of Nepal's five development regions. It was located at the western end of the country and had its headquarters in Dipayal.

Contents

The Far-Western Region covered 19,539 square kilometers. It had nine districts with the regional headquarters at Attariya, Kailali District. The Far-Western Region was remote and developmentally challenged. Some 44% of people in the Far West Hills and 49% in the Himalayan districts lived below the poverty line. The region had limited basic services. The difficult topography complicated development. The region had complex socio-economic structures along with widespread gender- and caste-based discrimination. Traditional systems associated with religion, culture and customs had limited overall development. [1]

It comprised two zones:

The region was sometimes called the Doti region, which some believe originated from 'Dovati' meaning land between two rivers. Others believed it originated from the Hindu god Dev and Aatavi, meaning the place of re-creation. History went back to the 13th century when Niranjan Malldeo founded the Doti Kingdom following the fall of the Katyuri Kings. Dotiyali and Kumauni were spoken there. Deuda, Jhoda, Chhpeli, Chhaliya, Bhada etc. were traditional regional dances and Gaura/Gamara is the biggest festival.

History

Doti was an ancient kingdom of the Far-Western region of Kumaon which was formed after disintegration of the Katyuri kingdom of Kumaon and the Far-Western region during the 13th century. Doti was one of eight princely states formed after the Kurmanchal Kingdom broke up. [2] The others were Baijnath-Katyuri, Dwarahat, Doti, Baramandal, Askot, Sira, Sora and Sui (Kali kumaon). The kingdom broke up because of the invasion of Khas kings Ashoka challa and Krachalla from Karnali Zone (Dullu) of Nepal in 1191 and 1223 respectively. Later on, the land between Ramganga on the west (Uttarakhand) and the Karnali on the east (which divides the Far-Western region from the rest of Nepal) came under Raikas after the origin of Raikas of Katyuris in Doti. "Brahma Dev Mandi" at Kanchanpur District of Mahakali Zone was established by Katyuri king Brahma Dev. [3]

Raikas

Niranjan Malla Dev founded Doti Kingdom around the 13th century after the fall of Katyuris Kingdom. He was the son of Last Katyuris of united Katyuris kingdom. Kings of Doti were known as Raikas (also known as Rainka Maharaj). The Raikas, after the overthrow Khas Malla of Karnali Zone, formed a Raikas Kingdom in the Far-Western Region and Kumaun that was called Doti. So far, the historical evidence for the following Raikas has been discovered:

Niranjan Malla Dev (Founder of Doti Kingdom), Nagi Malla (1238), Ripu Malla (1279), Nirai Pal (1353 may be of Askot and historical evidence of him from 1354 AD has been found in Almoda), Nag Malla (1384), Dhir Malla (1400), Ripu Malla (1410), Anand Malla (1430), Balinarayan Malla (not known), Sansar Malla (1442), Kalyan Malla (1443), Suratan Malla (1478), Kriti Malla (1482), Prithivi Malla (1488), Medini Jay Malla (1512), Ashok Malla (1517), Raj Malla (1539), Arjun Malla/Sahi (not known but he was ruling Sira as Malla and Doti as Shahi), Bhupati Malla/Shahi (1558), Sagaram Shahi (1567), Hari Malla/Shahi (1581 Last Raikas King of Sira and adjoining part of Nepal), Rudra Shahi (1630), Vikram Shahi (1642), Mandhata Shahi (1671), Raghunath Shahi (1690), Hari Shahi (1720), Krishna Shahi (1760), Deep Shahi (1785), Prithivi pati Shahi (1790, 'he had fought against the Nepali Ruler (Gorkhali Ruler) with British in 1814 A.D'). [4]

The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Nepal (Gorkha kingdom) during the period of Gorkha Expansion in 1790, according to the history of Nepal, is Nari-Dang, on the bank of the Seti River. The Dumrakot was the base of Doti Kingdom for fighting against Gorkhali.

Mongol/Mughal invasion

During the period of Akbar, 16th century, Mongols (Mughals) attacked the Raikas. They invaded Ajemeru, capital of the Raikas Kingdom. Ajemeru is now in Dadeldhura District in the Far-Western region. According to Indo-Persian historian Abd-ul-Qadir Bada'uni (c. 1540 – 1615), Army Chief of Akbar, Khan, lured by the wealth and treasury of the Raikas state, attempted to plunder the state, but did not succeed. [5]

Major cities

Dhangadhi is a sub metropolitan city in Far-Western Nepal (Sudurpashchim Pradesh) is located in Kailali District of Seti Zone.

Mahendranagar is the headquarters of the Kanchanpur District in Mahakali Zone. It is located nearby Mahakali River, 6 km north of the India border, and is inhabited by the indigenous Tharu people and other groups.

Tikapur is another biggest city in the Far-Western region. It was popular for tourism and trade as it serves the best transit point for Nepal-India border in the Far-Western region.

Dipayal-Silgadhi Municipality is the headquarters of Doti District and the Far-Western Region. It was within trekking distance of Khaptad National Park. Dipayal was also the name of the valley encompassing the Seti River.

Amargadhi was the headquarters of Dadeldhura District.

Akhand Sudurpaschim

Akhand Sudurpaschim (अखण्ड सुदूरपश्चिम) is a movement orchestrated by the natives of Far Western Region aiming to create a separate state and self-determination rights for the native population. Natives have claimed two districts of Madhesh plain region: Kailali and Kanchanpur, while Madheshi based parties want a separate Madhesh province along with the two districts that geographically lie in the Terai-Madhesh Plains. The Far Western Region, inhabited by a majority of Doteli speaking people as of the 2011 census, shares a border with the Indian district of Uttarakhand and shares a similar ethnicity, language and culture. A movement against the central State “half-blood behavior" began on 26 April 2012, effectively halting state services, and ended upon the dissolution of the constitutional assembly on 28 May 2012.

Related Research Articles

Kumaon division Administrative division of Uttarakhand, India

Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar. It is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and on the west by the Garhwal region. The people of Kumaon are known as Kumaonis and speak the Kumaoni language.

Ghaghara

Ghaghara, also called Karnali is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar. It cuts through the Himalayas in Nepal and joins the Sharda River at Brahmaghat in India. Together they form the Ghaghara River, a major left bank tributary of the Ganges. With a length of 507 kilometres (315 mi) it is the longest river in Nepal. The total length of Ghaghara River up to its confluence with the Ganges at Revelganj in Bihar is 1,080 kilometres (670 mi). It is the largest tributary of the Ganges by volume and the second longest tributary of the Ganges by length after Yamuna.

Mahakali Zone Zone in Nepal

Mahakali was one of the fourteen zones located in the Far-Western Development Region of Nepal, covering an area of 6,205 km2 in the most western part of the country. It stretches along Nepal's far western border with India, marked by the Kali River or Mahakali River.

Baitadi District District in Sudurpashchim Pradesh, Nepal

Baitadi District, historical name “Bairath” (बैराथ), a part of Sudurpashchim Pradesh, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. It is a Hill district. Baitadi, with Dasharathchand as its headquarters, covers an area of 1,519 km2 (586 sq mi) and has a population of 250,898 according to the census (2011). The Baitadi district entails 56 village development councils (VDCs) and two municipality. Baitadi falls into the farthest western regional district of Nepal touching Jhulaghat, India, Nepal's neighboring country, to its border.

Darchula District District in Sudurpashchim Pradesh, Nepal

Darchula District (Nepali: दार्चुला जिल्ला Listen , a part of Sudurpashchim Pradesh, is one of the nine districts of province and one of seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Khalanga as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,322 km2 and has a population of 133,274. Darchula Lies in the west-north corner of the country.

Doti District District in Sudurpashchim Pradesh, Nepal

Doti District, part of Sudurpashchim Pradesh, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. This district, with Silgadhi as its headquarters, covers an area of 2,025 square kilometres (782 sq mi) with a population of 207,066 in 2001 and increasing marginally to 211,746 in 2011.

Kanchanpur District District in Sudurpashchim Pradesh, Nepal

Kanchanpur District, a part of Sudurpashchim Pradesh in the Terai plain, is one of seventy seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Bhimdatta as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,610 square kilometres (620 sq mi) and had a population of 134,868 in 2001 and 171,304 in 2011. It is located in south-western of Nepal. It is bordered by Kailali district in the east, Dadeldhura district in the north and with India in the south and west.

Askot Town in Uttarakhand, India

Askot or Askote is a small Himalayan town in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand in India. It is the part of Kanalichhina development Block and Didihat Tehsil.

Chand kings

The Chand Kings were a Hindu ruling clan of Kumaon, which ruled the region after the decline of Katyuri Kings in 11th century AD.

Doti Region in Nepal

Doti, also known as Doti region, Dotigarh (डोटीगढ़) as used in the Jagar, in the Farwestern region of Nepal, is a region situated between River Kali bordering the Uttarakhand in the west and the Karnali river on the east. Doti was one of eight different princely states of the Katyuri Kingdom.

Development regions of Nepal


Prior to the promulgation of a new constitution in 2015 after earthquake in (andolan) when madheshi were aggressive.then, Nepal was divided into five development regions, 14 administrative zones and 75 districts. The 14 administrative zones were grouped into five development regions. Each district is headed by a Chief District Officer (CDO) responsible for maintaining law and order and coordinating the work of field agencies of the various government ministries.

The Katyuri kings were a medieval ruling clan of present-day Uttarakhand, India. They ruled over the region now known as Kumaon from 700 to 1200 CE.

Dipayal Silgadhi Municipality in Sudurpashchim Pradesh, Nepal

Dipayal Silgadhi is a municipality and the district headquarter of Doti District in Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal. Previously, it also served as the headquarter of the Far-Western Development Region. It lies in the Lesser Himalayas on the bank of Seti River. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 32,941 people living in 7,447 individual households.

Amargadhi Place in Nepal

Amargadhi is a municipality and the district headquarter of Dadeldhura District in Sudurpashchim Pradesh of western Nepal. It was named after Gorkha General Amar Singh Thapa, who fought in the Gurkha War between 1814 and 1816 At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 21,245 people living in 4,778 individual households.

Samant or Sawad were the feudal kings of the Doti region, which was formed after the disintegration of Katyuri kingdom of Uttarakhand and far western region of Nepal during the 13th century.

West Seti Dam Dam in Far-Western Development Region

The West Seti Dam is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Seti River in the Far-Western Development Region of Nepal. The power station would be located approximately 63 kilometres (39 mi) upstream of the Seti River confluence with the Karnali River, with the dam site located a further 19.2 kilometres (11.9 mi) upstream. All project sites, excluding the reservoir area and transmission line corridor, are located in either Doti and/or Dadeldhura Districts. The reservoir area is located in Doti, Dadeldhura, Baitadi and Bajhang Districts. The transmission line corridor is located in Doti, Dadeldhura, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts.

Sudurpashchim Province Province of Nepal

Sudurpashchim Province is one of the seven provinces established by the new constitution of Nepal which was adopted on 20 September 2015. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Karnali Pradesh and Lumbini Pradesh to the east, and the Indian states of Uttarakhand to the west and Uttar Pradesh to the south. The province covers an area of 19,515.52 km2 - about 13.22% of the country's total area Initially known as Province No. 7, the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Sudurpashchim Pradesh as the permanent name for the province in September 2018. As per a 28 September 2018 Assembly voting, the city of Godawari has been declared the capital of the Province. The province is coterminous with the former Far-Western Development Region, Nepal. The three major cities in terms of population and economy are Dhangadhi, Bhimdutta (Mahendranagar) and Tikapur.

Former administrative units of Nepal

Former administrative units of Nepal are administrative divisions during Kingdom of Nepal. In 2008 Nepal was proclaimed a federal republic and old administrative units restricted after adoption of new constitution on 20 September 2015.

Administration in Sudurpashchim Province

Sudurpashchim Pradesh is a province of Nepal located in westernmost part of Nepal. It is surrounded by Tibet of China in Northwest, Uttrakhand of India in West, Uttar Pradesh of India in South, Karnali Pradesh in East and North. Province No. 5 touches it in South. Godawari is the capital city of the province.

References

  1. "An Overview of the Far Western Region of Nepal | Nepal Information Platform". Un.org.np. 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  2. Atkinson, Edwin T. (Edwin Thomas), 1840-1890. (1990). Himalayan Gazetter. Cosmo. OCLC   183008777.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. "History of Dolpa". Topnepal.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  4. "Courthouse in Far-Western Region, Nepal". Mygola.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  5. "Kumaon History". Thekumaonhills.com. 1947-03-29. Retrieved 2015-06-04.

Coordinates: 29°16′N80°56′E / 29.267°N 80.933°E / 29.267; 80.933