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Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
|Turkish Foreign Minister|
25 November 1957 –27 May 1960
|Preceded by||Mehmet Fuat Köprülü|
|Succeeded by||Selim Sarper|
|Turkish Deputy Prime Minister|
17 May 1954 –29 July 1955
|Preceded by||Samet Ağaoğlu|
|Succeeded by||Mehmet Fuat Köprülü|
|Born||April 20, 1910|
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
|Died||September 16, 1961 51) (aged|
|Cause of death||Execution by hanging|
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu (April 20, 1910 – September 16, 1961) was a Turkish diplomat and politician. He was executed by hanging after the coup d'état in 1960 along with two other politicians.
He was born on April 20, 1910 in Istanbul to a family originating from the village of Zor, Artvin in northeastern Turkey. After finishing high school at Galatasaray High School, Zorlu was educated in political science at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris, France and in Law at the University of Geneva, Switzerland.
Returning to Turkey, Zorlu began his career as a diplomat in 1932 in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 1938 on, he served at various posts in embassies and consulates in Bern (Switzerland), Paris (France), Moscow (USSR), Beirut (Lebanon) and at the ministry in Ankara as well. Following Turkey’s joining of NATO on February 18, 1952, he was appointed ambassador to NATO at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in Paris.
In 1954, Zorlu entered politics and was elected into the Turkish Grand National Assembly as the deputy of Çanakkale for the Democratic Party. He served as Deputy Prime Minister between 1954 and 1955, as Minister of State in 1955 and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1957 until the Turkish Armed Forces staged a coup on May 27, 1960 and ousted the government of Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. In 1959 he participated along with Adnan Menderes in the Bilderberg meeting in Yesilkoy, Turkey. It is rumoured that the coup might have something to do with that meeting.
He was arrested along with some other party members, charged with violating the constitution, and put on trial on the island of Yassıada. The 1961 Yassıada trials after the 1960 coup d'état accused Menderes and Foreign Minister Zorlu of planning the Istanbul Pogrom. Though both of them rejected the claims, it is believed by scholars that Menderes assented to the organization of protests in İstanbul against the Greeks, but the extent of knowledge of Zorlu, who had been in London for the conference, is unclear. According to Zorlu's lawyer at the Yassiada trial, a mob of 300,000 was marshaled in a radius of 40 miles (60 km) around the city for the attacks.
He was sentenced to death and executed by hanging on the island of İmralı on September 16, 1961 along with Adnan Menderes and Hasan Polatkan. He approached the death penalty calm, helped the hangman to lay the noose around his neck.Many years after his death his grave was moved to a mausoleum in İstanbul on September 17, 1990 along with the graves of the two other cabinet members hanged.
Cemal Gürsel was a Turkish army general who became the fourth President of Turkey after a coup.
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Adnan Menderes was a Turkish politician. He was the Turkish prime minister between 1950 and 1960. He was one of the founders of the Democrat Party (DP) in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was tried and hanged under the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet members, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Hasan Polatkan. One of the accusations brought against him was of him ordering the Istanbul pogrom against citizens of Greek ethnicity. He was the last Turkish political leader to be executed after a military coup and is also one of the four political leaders of the Turkish Republic to have had a mausoleum built in his honour.
The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events, comprises organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955. The pogrom was orchestrated by the governing Democratic Party in Turkey in cooperation with various security organizations. The events were triggered by the fake news that the day before, Greeks had bombed the Turkish consulate in Thessaloniki, Macedonia — the house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk had been born in 1881. A bomb planted by a Turkish usher at the consulate, who was later arrested and confessed, incited the events. The Turkish press, conveying the news in Turkey, was silent about the arrest and instead insinuated that Greeks had set off the bomb.
Democracy and Freedom Island, also known as Yassıada is one of the Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara, to the southeast of Istanbul. The island was named Yassıada until 2013, when it was renamed “Democracy and Freedom Island” in order to remember the 1960 military coup, the first in the history of the republic. In the past, the island was named Plati . The island, which has an area of 183000 m², is officially a neighbourhood in the Adalar district of Istanbul Province, Turkey.
The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey. It was soon closed by the Republican People's Party government, however, when Atatürk found the party to be too influenced by Islamist-rooted reactionary elements.
Hasan Polatkan was a Turkish politician and Minister of Labor and Finance, who was executed by hanging after the coup d'état in 1960 along with two other cabinet members.
The 1960 Turkish coup d'état was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey. It took place on May 27, 1960. The coup was staged by a group of 38 young Turkish military officers, acting outside the military chain of command. The officers were de facto led by Cemal Madanoğlu until the actual coup date. After a threat by Ragıp Gümüşpala that he would move to quell the coup unless it is led by someone with a higher military rank than himself, the officers brought in General Cemal Gürsel as their leader. The coup was carried out against the democratically elected government of the Democrat Party, and ultimately resulted in the execution of its prime minister, Adnan Menderes, alongside two of his ministers, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Hasan Polatkan.
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Zorlu is a Turkish surname. Notable people with the surname include:
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Events in the year 1961 in Turkey.
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İmralı prison is an F-Type high security prison on the island of İmralı in the Sea of Marmara in Turkey. It is currently used as a prison for a few prisoners from the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and one prisoner of the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist (CKP/ML). The prison facility is guarded by the military and is also monitored over satellite imagery from space.
The Yassıada Trials were a series of criminal cases in Turkey brought by the military regime against politicians of the formerly ruling Democrat Party. Following the coup which removed the Democrats from power on May 27, 1960, the military junta known as the National Unity Committee (MBK) established a special court to try the politicians who had been removed. These trials were held in the prison on the Island of Democracy and Freedom. The trials began on 14 October 1960 and ended on 15 September 1961. They resulted in the execution of the former prime minister Adnan Menderes and two of his ministers.