February 28 incident

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February 28 incident
228 Incident h.jpg
People gathered in front of the Tobacco Monopoly Bureau on February 28, 1947
Native name 二二八事件
DateFebruary 28, 1947 (1947-02-28)
LocationTaiwan
TypeAnti-government uprising
CauseHigh-handed and frequently corrupt conduct on the part of the Kuomintang
OutcomeBeginning of the White Terror
Deaths5,000–28,000
Armed soldiers as seen in Tainan by Dr. M. Ottsen, who served for the United Nations 228 Massacre01.jpg
Armed soldiers as seen in Tainan by Dr. M. Ottsen, who served for the United Nations
Woodcut The Terrible Inspection by Rong-zan Huang 228 by Li Jun.jpg
Woodcut The Terrible Inspection by Rong-zan Huang

The February 28 incident or the February 28 massacre, also known as the 228 (or 2/28) incident (from Chinese :二二八事件; pinyin :Èr’èrbā shìjiàn), was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan that was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China government, which killed thousands of civilians beginning on February 28, 1947. The number of Taiwanese deaths from the incident and massacre was estimated to be between 5,000 and 28,000. [1] The massacre marked the beginning of the White Terror in which tens of thousands of other Taiwanese went missing, died or were imprisoned. The incident is one of the most important events in Taiwan's modern history and was a critical impetus for the Taiwan independence movement.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Taiwan Country in East Asia

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The island of Taiwan has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. Taipei is the capital and largest metropolitan area. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.5 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated states, and is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations (UN).

Contents

In 1945, following the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, the Allies handed administrative control of Taiwan to the Republic of China (ROC), thus ending 50 years of Japanese colonial rule. Local inhabitants became resentful of what they saw as high-handed and frequently corrupt conduct on the part of the Kuomintang (KMT) authorities, including arbitrary seizure of private property and their economic mismanagement. The flashpoint came on February 27, 1947 in Taipei, when KMT investigators suspected a Taiwanese widow of selling contraband cigarettes, and beat her. The crowd was in uproar, and the investigator shot into the crowd, killing a man. [2] The violence spread, and people on both side of the conflict were accused of indiscriminate killings. The uprising was violently put down by the National Revolutionary Army, and the island was placed under martial law.

Surrender of Japan surrender of the Empire of Japan during the World War II

The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced by Hirohito on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were privately making entreaties to the publicly neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. While maintaining a sufficient level of diplomatic engagement with the Japanese to give them the impression they might be willing to mediate, the Soviets were covertly preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.

The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 2 September 1945, when armed forces of the Empire of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allies. The surrender came almost four months after the surrender of the Axis forces in Europe and brought an end to World War II.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the "United Nations" from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

The subject was officially taboo for decades because those who talked about it were tortured and killed by the KMT. They were silenced for 50 years in an attempt to erase the terror from Taiwanese minds. On the anniversary of the event in 1995, President Lee Teng-hui addressed the subject publicly, a first. The event is now openly discussed and details of the event have become the subject of government and academic investigation. February 28 has been designated Peace Memorial Day (和平紀念日; hépíng jìniànrì), an official public holiday. Every February 28, the president of the ROC gathers with other officials to ring a commemorative bell in memory of the victims. The president bows to family members of 2/28 victims and gives each one a certificate officially exonerating any victims previously blacklisted as enemies of the state. Monuments and memorial parks to the victims of 2/28 have been erected in a number of Taiwanese cities, including Kaohsiung and Taipei. [3] [4] Taipei's former "Taipei New Park" was rededicated as 228 Peace Memorial Park and houses the National 228 Memorial Museum to commemorate the incident. The museum opened on February 28, 1997, and re-opened on February 28, 2011, with new permanent exhibits. [5] [6]

President of the Republic of China head of state of the Republic of China

The President of the Republic of China, commonly known as the President of Taiwan, is the head of state of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Since 1996, the President is directly elected by plurality voting to a four-year term, with at most one re-election. The incumbent, Tsai Ing-wen, succeeded Ma Ying-jeou on 20 May 2016 as the first female president in the state's history. Originally established in Nanking in 1912, the government and its president relocated to Taipei in 1949 after losing the Chinese Civil War.

Lee Teng-hui former President of Republic of China

Lee Teng-hui is a Taiwanese statesman who was the President of the Republic of China and Chairman of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1988 to 2000. He was the first president of the Republic of China to be born in Taiwan. During his presidency, Lee advocated the Taiwanese localization movement and led an ambitious foreign policy to gain allies around the world.

Kaohsiung Special municipality in Southern Taiwan, Republic of China

Kaohsiung is a coastal city in southern Taiwan. It is officially a special municipality with an area of 2,952 km2 (1,140 sq mi) stretching from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range. As of 2018, the municipality has a population of 2.77 million, making it the third most populous administrative division and second largest metropolis in Taiwan.

February 28 incident
Chinese 二二八事件
February 28 Massacre
Traditional Chinese 二二八大屠殺
Simplified Chinese 二二八大屠杀

Naming

The incident is literally called the "two-two-eight incident" in Chinese, which means "2nd month 28th day incident", or precisely "2/28 incident". Most East Asian languages generally use numbers for the months, like "yyyy year, m month, dd day" with all numbers being read out as cardinals without any leading zeroes. Other historical events named using the same convention include Tianamen Square massacre/protests (六四天安門事件 "six-four incident", 1989 China), May 15 incident (五・一五事件 "five-one-five incident", 1932 Japan), March 1st movement (三一運動 "three-one movement", 1919 Korea) or even 9/11 of 2001 in the USA, which uses m/d/y.

1989 Tiananmen Square protests PR Chinas pro-democracy movement in 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident, were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square in Beijing during 1989. The popular national movement inspired by the Beijing protests is sometimes called the '89 Democracy Movement. The protests started on 15 April and were forcibly suppressed on 4 June when the government declared martial law and sent the military to occupy central parts of Beijing. In what became known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, troops with assault rifles and tanks fired at the demonstrators and those trying to block the military's advance into Tiananmen Square. Estimates of the death toll vary from several hundreds to several thousands, with thousands more wounded.

Background

Cover of the first issue of Taiwan Literature Magazine (
Tai Wan Wen Yi ; Taiwan wenyi) printed in 1934, during Japanese rule Taiwan Literature Magazine.jpg
Cover of the first issue of Taiwan Literature Magazine (臺灣文藝; Táiwān wényì) printed in 1934, during Japanese rule

During the 50 years of Japanese rule in Taiwan (1895–1945), Japan developed Taiwan's economy and raised the standard of living for most Taiwanese people, building up Taiwan as a supply base for the Japanese main islands. Consequently, Taiwanese perceptions of the Japanese rule were more favourable than perceptions in other parts of East and Southeast Asia. Taiwanese adopted Japanese names and practiced Shinto, while the schools instilled a sense of "Japanese spirit" in students. By the time World War II began, many Taiwanese were proficient in the Japanese language.

East Asia Subregion of Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.

Southeast Asia Subregion of Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

  1. Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and West Malaysia.
  2. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Shinto Japanese traditional folk religion

Shinto or kami-no-michi is the ethnic religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.

Severe inflation led the Bank of Taiwan to issue of bearer's checks in denominations of 1 million Taiwan Dollars (TW$1,000,000) in 1949. Taiwan-1M-Yuan.jpg
Severe inflation led the Bank of Taiwan to issue of bearer's checks in denominations of 1 million Taiwan Dollars (TW$1,000,000) in 1949.

After World War II, Taiwan was placed under the administrative control of the Republic of China to provide stability until a permanent arrangement could be made. Chen Yi, the Governor-General of Taiwan, arrived on October 24, 1945, and received the last Japanese governor, Ando Rikichi, who signed the document of surrender on the next day. Chen Yi then proclaimed the day as Retrocession Day to make Taiwan part of the Republic of China, although there were questions about the legality of doing so. [7]

Chen Yi (Kuomintang) Chinese politician, Kuomintang

Chen Yi was the chief executive and garrison commander of Taiwan Province after the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Republic of China. He acted on behalf of the Allied Powers to accept the Japanese Instrument of Surrender in Taipei Zhongshan Hall on October 25, 1945. He is considered to have mismanaged the tension between the Taiwanese and China which resulted in the February 28 Incident in 1947, and was dismissed. In June 1948 he was appointed Chairman of Zhejiang Province, but was dismissed and arrested when his plan to surrender to the Chinese Communist Party was discovered. He was sentenced to death and executed in Taipei in 1950.

Retrocession Day day marking the anniversary of the end of Japanese rule over Taiwan on 25 October 1945

Retrocession Day is in dispute.It is an annual observance and unofficial holiday in the Republic of China to commemorate the end of 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan and Penghu, and their claimed handover to the Republic of China on 25 October 1945. However, the idea of "Taiwan retrocession" is in dispute.

The Kuomintang (KMT) troops from Mainland China were initially welcomed by local inhabitants, but their harsh behaviour and the KMT maladministration led to Taiwanese discontent during the immediate postwar period. As Governor-General, Chen Yi took over and sustained the Japanese system of state monopolies in tobacco, sugar, camphor, tea, paper, chemicals, petroleum refining, mining and cement, just the way the Nationalists treated people in other former Japanese-controlled areas (people nicknamed him robber "劫收"). [8] He confiscated some 500 Japanese-owned factories and mines, and homes of former Japanese residents. Economic mismanagement led to a large black market, runaway inflation and food shortages. Many commodities were compulsorily bought cheaply by the KMT administration and shipped to Mainland China to meet the Civil War shortages where they were sold at very high profit furthering the general shortage of goods in Taiwan. The price of rice rose to 100 times its original value between the time the Nationalists took over to the spring of 1946, increasing to nearly 4 times the price in Shanghai. It inflated further to 400 times the original price by January 1947. [9] Carpetbaggers from Mainland China dominated nearly all industry, as well as political and judicial offices, displacing the Taiwanese who were formerly employed. Many of the ROC garrison troops were highly undisciplined, looting, stealing and contributing to the overall breakdown of infrastructure and public services. [10] Because the Taiwanese elites had met with some success with self-government under Japanese rule, they had expected the same system from the incoming ruling Chinese Nationalist Government. However, the Chinese Nationalists opted for a different route, aiming for the centralization of government powers and a reduction in local authority. The KMT's nation-building efforts followed this ideology because of unpleasant experiences with the centrifugal forces during the Warlord Era in 1916–1928 that had torn the government in China. Mainland Communists were even preparing to bring down the government like the Ili Rebellion. [11] The different goals of the Nationalists and the Taiwanese, coupled with cultural and language misunderstandings served to further inflame tensions on both sides.

Uprising and crackdown

Today's 228 Memorial Museum in Taipei is housed in a broadcast station that played a role in the incident. Taipei 228 Memorial Museum 20050629.jpg
Today's 228 Memorial Museum in Taipei is housed in a broadcast station that played a role in the incident.
"Terror In Formosa", a news article from The Daily News of Perth, reported the status in March. Terror In Formosa (The Daily News, Perth, 1947).jpg
"Terror In Formosa", a news article from The Daily News of Perth, reported the status in March.
Angry residents storm the Yidingmu police station in Taipei on February 28, 1947 228 Incident g.jpg
Angry residents storm the Yidingmu police station in Taipei on February 28, 1947
Painter and Professor Chen Cheng-po was killed in Chiayi Chen Chengpo nd.jpg
Painter and Professor Chen Cheng-po was killed in Chiayi
Medical doctor and Taipei City Councilor Huang Chao-sheng lost and murdered in Taipei Er Er Ba Shi Jian Hou Zao Guo Min Dang Zheng Fu Sha Hai De Tai Bei Shi Can Yi Hui Yi Yuan Huang Zhao Sheng Yi Shi Taiwanese Doctor & Taipei City Councilor Huang Chao-sheng who murdered by the KMT government in the 1947 228 Incident.jpg
Medical doctor and Taipei City Councilor Huang Chao-sheng lost and murdered in Taipei

On the evening of February 27, 1947, a Tobacco Monopoly Bureau enforcement team in Taipei went to the district of Taiheichō  [ zh ](太平町), Twatutia (present-day Nanjing West Road), where they confiscated contraband cigarettes from a 40-year-old widow named Lin Jiang-mai (林江邁) at the Tianma Tea House. When she demanded their return, one of the men holding a gun hit Lin's head with a pistol, prompting the surrounding Taiwanese crowd to challenge the Tobacco Monopoly agents. As they fled, one agent shot his gun into the crowd, killing one bystander. The crowd, which had already been harboring many feelings of frustration from unemployment, inflation and corruption of the Nationalist government, reached its breaking point. The crowd protested to both the police and the gendarmes, but was mostly ignored. [12]

Violence flared the following morning on February 28. Security forces at the Governor-General's Office tried to disperse the crowd. Some fired on the protesters who were calling for the arrest and trial of the agents involved in the previous day's shooting, resulting in several deaths. [13] Formosans took over the administration of the town and military bases on March 4 and forced their way into local radio station to protest. [14] [15] By evening, martial law had been declared and curfews were enforced by the arrest or shooting of anyone who violated curfew.

For several weeks after the February 28 incident, the Taiwanese civilians controlled much of Taiwan. The initial riots were spontaneous and somewhat violent. Within a few days the Taiwanese were generally coordinated and organized, and public order in Taiwanese-held areas was upheld by volunteer civilians organized by students, and unemployed former Japanese army soldiers. Local leaders formed a Settlement Committee, which presented the government with a list of 32 Demands for reform of the provincial administration. They demanded, among other things, greater autonomy, free elections, surrender of the ROC Army to the Settlement Committee, and an end to governmental corruption. [15] Motivations among the various Taiwanese groups varied; some demanded greater autonomy within the ROC, while others wanted UN trusteeship or full independence. [16] The Taiwanese also demanded representation in the forthcoming peace treaty negotiations with Japan, hoping to secure a plebiscite to determine the island's political future.

Outside of Taipei, it was less peaceful. Mainland Chinese received revenge attacks of violence. Public places like banks and post offices were looted. Some had to flee for Military Police protection. A few smaller groups formed, including the "27 Brigade". They looted 3 machine guns, 300 rifles, and hand grenades from military arsenals in Taichung and Pingtung. [17] The armed Taiwanese shot or injured around 200 Nationalist Army soldiers which quickly precipitated the house arrest or execution of those who participated in the rebellion.

The Nationalist Government, under Chen Yi, stalled for time while it reassembled the retreating ROC armies when the armies' reached Fujian. Upon its arrival on March 8, the ROC troops launched a crackdown. The New York Times reported, "An American who had just arrived in China from Taihoku said that troops from the mainland China arrived there on March 7 and indulged in three days of indiscriminate killing and looting. For a time everyone seen on the streets was shot at, homes were broken into and occupants killed. In the poorer sections the streets were said to have been littered with dead. There were instances of beheadings and mutilation of bodies, and women were raped, the American said." [1]

By the end of March, Chen Yi had ordered the imprisonment or execution of the leading Taiwanese organizers he could identify. His troops reportedly executed, according to a Taiwanese delegation in Nanjing, between 3,000 and 4,000 people throughout the island. The exact number is still undetermined, as only 300 Taiwanese families applied for another compensation as recently as 1990. [18] Detailed records kept by the KMT have been reported as "lost". Some of the killings were random, while others were systematic. Taiwanese elites were among those targeted, and many of the Taiwanese who had formed self-governing groups during the reign of the Japanese were also victims of the 228 incident. A disproportionate number of the victims were Taiwanese high school students. Many had recently served in the Imperial Japanese Army, having volunteered to serve to maintain order. Mainland Chinese civilians who fled were often beaten by Taiwanese. [15]

Some Taiwan political organizations participated in the uprising, for example Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League, was announced "communist" and illegal. Many members were arrested and executed. Some of these organizations had to move to Hong Kong. [19]

The initial 228 purge was followed by discovery of communist infiltrators from communist mainland China under one-party rule, in what was termed "White Terror," which lasted until the end of 1987. Thousands of people, including both mainland Chinese and Taiwanese, were imprisoned or executed for their dissent, leaving the Taiwanese with a deep-seated bitterness towards what they term the Nationalist regime and, by extension, all Chinese not born in Taiwan or anyone supporting the KMT or CCP. Disappearances were common, and the people feared being captured and executed. [ citation needed ]

Legacy

Today, a memorial plaque marks the exact location where the first shot was fired The-Flash-Point-of-the-February-28-Incident stele 20040402.jpg
Today, a memorial plaque marks the exact location where the first shot was fired
228 Memorial Day, 2008 in Liberty Square Tai Wan Xiang Qian Xing atZi You Guang Chang 2-28 Memorial Day, 2008 in front of the Square for Freedom in TAIWAN.jpg
228 Memorial Day, 2008 in Liberty Square
228 Memorial Park in Taichung Tai Wan Tai Zhong Xian Da Li Er Er Ba Ji Nian Bei 228 Memorial Park in Taichung, TAIWAN.jpg
228 Memorial Park in Taichung
President Ma Ying-jeou addresses the families of the victims during the 228 Incident Ma Ying-jeou with 228 (2).jpg
President Ma Ying-jeou addresses the families of the victims during the 228 Incident
Former Vice President Annette Lu, once a political prisoner, gave a speech at the 228 Memorial Taiwan Vice-President Annette Lu (Lu Xiu Lian Fu Zong Tong ) gives a speech at the 228 Memorial in Taipei.jpg
Former Vice President Annette Lu, once a political prisoner, gave a speech at the 228 Memorial

For several decades, it was taboo to openly criticize the 228 massacre incident. The government hoped that the execution of Governor Chen Yi and financial compensation for the victims had quelled resentment. In the 1970s the 228 Justice and Peace Movement was initiated by several citizens' groups to ask for a reversal of this policy, and, in 1992, the Executive Yuan promulgated the "February 28 Incident Research Report." [20] Then-President and KMT-chairman Lee Teng-hui, who had participated in the incident and was arrested as an instigator and a Communist sympathizer made a formal apology on behalf of the government in 1995 and declared February 28 a day to commemorate the victims. [21] Among other memorials erected, Taipei New Park was renamed 228 Memorial Park.

Since the lifting of martial law in 1987, the government has set up the 228 Incident Memorial Foundation, a civilian reparations fund supported by public donations for the victims and their families. Many descendants of victims remain unaware that their family members were victims, while many of the families of victims from Mainland China did not know the details of their relatives' mistreatment during the riot.[ citation needed ] Those who have received compensation more than two times are demanding trials of the still-living soldiers and officials who were responsible for the summary executions and deaths of their loved ones.

Prior to the 228 massacre, many Taiwanese hoped for a greater autonomy from China. The failure of conclusive dialogue with the ROC administration in early March, combined with the feelings of betrayal felt towards the government and China in general are widely believed to have catalyzed today's Taiwan independence movement and subsequently the Taiwan Name Rectification Campaign after democratization. [15]

On February 28, 2004, thousands of Taiwanese participated in the 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally. They formed a 500-kilometer (310 mi) long human chain, from Taiwan's northernmost city to its southern tip, to commemorate the 228 incident, to call for peace, and to protest the People's Republic of China's deployment of missiles aimed at Taiwan along the coast of Taiwan Strait.

In 2006, the Research Report on Responsibility for the 228 Massacre was released after several years of research. The 2006 report was not intended to overlap with the prior (1992) 228 Massacre Research Report commissioned by the Executive Yuan. Chiang Kai-shek is specifically named as bearing the largest responsibility in the 2006 report. [22] However, some hardline academics have tried to confuse these conclusions, stating the departing Japanese colonial government was responsible by creating food shortages and causing inflation. [23]

Art

A number of artists in Taiwan have addressed the subject of the 2–28 incident since the taboo was lifted on the subject in the early 1990s. [24] The incident has been the subject of music by Fan-Long Ko and Tyzen Hsiao and a number of literary works.

Film

Hou Hsiao-hsien's A City of Sadness , the first movie dealing with the events, won the Golden Lion at the 1989 Venice Film Festival. [25] The 2009 thriller Formosa Betrayed also relates the incident as part of the motivation behind Taiwan independence activist characters.

Literature

Shawna Yang Ryan's novel, Green Island (2016) (Knopf) tells the story of the incident as it affects three generations of a Taiwanese family. [26]

Julie Wu's novel, The Third Son (2013) (Algonquin) describes the event and its aftermath from the viewpoint of a Taiwanese boy. [27]

Jennifer Chow's novel, The 228 Legacy (2013) (Martin Sisters Publishing), brings to light the emotional ramifications for those who lived through the events yet suppressed their knowledge out of fear. It focuses on how there was such an impact that it permeated throughout multiple generations within the same family. [28]

Game

In 2017, Taiwanese game developer Red Candle Games launched Detention, a survival horror video game created and developed for Steam. It is a 2D atmospheric horror side-scroller set in 1960s Taiwan under martial law following the 228 incident. The game also incorporates religious elements based on Taiwanese culture and mythology. The game has received favourable reviews from critics. Rely On Horror gave the game a 9 out of 10, saying that "every facet of Detention moves in one harmonious lockstep towards an unavoidable tragedy, drowning out the world around you." [29]

Music

Taiwanese metal band Chthonic's album Mirror of Retribution also makes several lyrical references to the 228 massacre.

See also

Notes

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    In Taiwan, the White Terror was the suppression of political dissidents following the February 28 Incident.

    Republic of China (1912–1949) 1912–1949 country in Asia, when the Republic of China governed mainland China

    The Republic of China (ROC) was a sovereign country that existed between 1912 and 1949 in what is now the People's Republic of China. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army. Sun's party, the Kuomintang (KMT), then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. However, Song was assassinated on Yuan's orders shortly after; and the Beiyang Army, led by Yuan, maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai was the self-proclaimed Emperor of China before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan's death in 1916, the authority of the Beiyang government was further weakened by a brief restoration of the Qing dynasty. Cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed individual autonomy and clashed with each other during the ensuing Warlord Era.

    Huang Rong-can

    Huang Rong-can is the artist who created the print The Horrifying Inspection (恐怖的檢查) in the aftermath of the 228 Incident in Taiwan. He was born in Chongqing, Sichuan, and was a printmaker in Taiwan. He is recognised as Taiwan’s first Chinese left-wing woodcut printmaker.

    Juan Mei-shu or Ng Bi-chu was a Taiwanese activist, musician, and researcher. Her father was a victim of the 228 Incident, an anti-government uprising that occurred in 1947 when she was eighteen. She spent much of her life studying the event and the subsequent White Terror period.

    Republic of China retreat to Taiwan Republic of Chinas retreat from Mainland China to the Island of Taiwan

    The Republic of China's retreat to Taiwan, also known as the Kuomintang retreat to Taiwan or "The Great Retreat" refers to the exodus of the remnants of the Kuomintang-ruled government of the Republic of China to the island of Taiwan in December 1949 at the end of the Chinese Civil War. The Kuomintang, its officers and approximately 2 million troops took part in the retreat; in addition to many civilians and refugees, fleeing from the advances of the Communist People's Liberation Army.

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