Fed Cup

Last updated
Fed Cup
Current season, competition or edition:
Tennisball current event.svg 2019 Fed Cup
Fed Cup logo.svg
Sport Tennis
Founded1963;56 years ago (1963)
No. of teams8 (World Group)
99 (total 2016) [1]
Countries ITF member nations
Most recent
champion(s)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic (11th title)
Most titlesFlag of the United States.svg  United States (18 titles)
Official website fedcup.com

Fed Cup is the premier international team competition in women's tennis, launched in 1963 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the International Tennis Federation (ITF). The competition was known as the Federation Cup until 1995. The Fed Cup is the world's largest annual women's international team sports competition in terms of the number of nations that compete. [2] [3] The current Fed Cup Chairperson is Katrina Adams. [4]

Tennis ball sport with racket and net

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.

The 1963 Federation Cup was the first edition of what is now known as the Fed Cup. The tournament was created provide a team competition for women, similar to the Davis Cup men's competition. 16 nations participated in the first event, which was held at the Queen's Club in London, United Kingdom, from 17–20 June. United States won the first title, defeating Australia in the final.

International Tennis Federation governing body of world tennis

The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, and as of 2016, is affiliated with 211 national tennis associations and six regional associations.

Contents

The men's equivalent of the Fed Cup is the Davis Cup. Australia, Czech Republic and the United States are the only countries that have held both the Fed Cup and Davis Cup at the same time.

Davis Cup annual international team competition in mens tennis

The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format. It is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", and the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between Great Britain and the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition. The most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Czech Republic republic in Central Europe

The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

History

Dating back to 1919, Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman came up with the idea for a women's team tennis competition. Although rejected, she went ahead and presented a trophy at the 1923 annual contest between the United States and Great Britain, named the Wightman Cup.

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman US tennis and badminton player

Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman, CBE was an American tennis player and founder of the Wightman Cup, an annual team competition for British and American women. She dominated American women's tennis before World War I, and won 45 U.S. titles during her life.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Great Britain island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe

Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.

Nell Hopman, wife of the legendary Australian Davis Cup Captain Harry Hopman, later took up Mrs. Wightman's original idea. however it was in 1962, when a British resident of the United States, Mary Hardwick Hare, presented a dossier proving that support for such an event was overwhelming, persuading the ITF that it was a 'good idea' to have a team championship played over one week in a different venue each year. 40 years after Wightman's idea of a women's Davis Cup, it become a reality. In 1963, the ITF launched the Federation Cup to celebrate its 35th anniversary. Open to all nations the competition became a resounding success.

Nell Hall Hopman Australian tennis player

Eleanor "Nell" Mary Hall Hopman was one of the female tennis players that dominated Australian tennis from 1930 through the early 1960s. She was the first wife of Harry Hopman, the coach and captain of 22 Australian Davis Cup teams.

The Australian Davis Cup team is the second most successful team ever to compete in the Davis Cup, winning the coveted title on 28 separate occasions, second behind the United States with 32.

Harry Hopman Australian tennis player

Henry Christian "Harry" Hopman CBE was a world-acclaimed Australian tennis player and coach.

The inaugural event attracted 16 countries. The competition was supported by the top players right from the start. Held at the Queen's Club, in London, the first contest was between Australia and the United States. Grand Slam champions Darlene Hard, Billie Jean King, Margaret Smith and Lesley Turner all proudly representing their country on court. The United States would emerged the champion nation in the opening year, however it was to be Australia in the early years, winning seven of the next eleven championships. Around 1980 the United States was able to establish some significant mark on the competition setting in future years a very high standard for others to compete against.

Queens Club private sporting club in West Kensington, London, England

The Queen's Club is a private sporting club in West Kensington, London, England. The club hosts the prestigious annual Queen's Club Championships grass court men's lawn tennis tournament. It has 28 outdoor courts and eight indoor. With two courts, it is also the national headquarters of real tennis, hosting the British Open every year. The Queen's Club also has rackets and squash courts; it has now become the headquarters for both these sports due to the Prince's Club closure in 1940.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

The Australia Fed Cup team represents Australia in international women's tennis and is directed by Tennis Australia. The team played in the first ever tournament in 1963, and is one of four teams that has taken part in every single edition since.

Petra Kvitová with the trophy for the Fed Cup winners, 2011, Moscow Petra Kvitova Fed Cup 2011 Winner.jpg
Petra Kvitová with the trophy for the Fed Cup winners, 2011, Moscow

The first Federation Cup had attracted 16 entry teams, despite no prize money and teams having to meet their own expenses. When sponsorship became available, the number of teams expanded dramatically, first by the Colgate Group in 1976, and, from 1981 to 1994 by the Japanese communications and computer giant NEC. In 1994, there were 73 nations competing, with the host nation of a Federation Cup week was now being required to build a special tennis complex, giving rise to what became known as the Federation Cup "legacy." The additional costs of each event could be offset with the host nations viewing their involvement as providing an opportunity to boost their national game.

Colgate-Palmolive American multinational consumer products company

Colgate-Palmolive Company is an American worldwide consumer products company focused on the production, distribution and provision of household, health care and personal care products. Under its "Hill's Pet Nutrition" brand, it is also a manufacturer of veterinary products. The company's corporate offices are on Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

NEC Japanese technology corporation

NEC Corporation is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It provides IT and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and to government agencies, and has also been the biggest PC vendor in Japan since the 1980s. The company was known as the Nippon Electric Company, Limited, before rebranding in 1983 as NEC.

Regional qualifying competitions emerged in time for the 1992 and, in 1995, the Federation Cup used a new format and shortened its name to the Fed Cup. The home-and-away format trialled by the Davis Cup was adopted for the Fed Cup so that women could play for their country in their own country. There have been a number of smaller changes to the format since 1995, the current format, introduced in 2005, incorporates an eight Nation World Group I and eight nation World Group II both playing home-and-away over three weekends throughout the year. Three regional groups compete and there are promotions and demotions based on results.

Format

Tournament

While many nations enter the Fed Cup each year, only 16 countries qualify for the elite World Group and World Group II each year (eight in World Group and eight in World Group II). [5]

They reach World Group and World Group II as follows:

(a) World Group - the four nations that win their World Group first round tie remain in the World Group for the following year. First round losers contest the World Group Play-offs against the four winning nations from World Group II to determine relegation/promotion for the following year's competition. (The four nations that win World Group Play-offs will be in the World Group the following year, while the four losers will start the following year in World Group II.)
(b) World Group II - the four nations that win their World Group II ties will compete in the World Group I Play-Offs to determine relegation/promotion for the following year, as described above. Similarly the four nations that lose their World Group II ties will face winning nations from Group I Zonal competitions, in the World Group II Play-offs, to determine relegation/promotion. (The four nations that win their World Group II Play-offs will be in World Group II the following year, while the four losers will begin the next year in Group I Zonal events.)

Once in the World Group or World Group II, four nations will be seeded in each. The decision as to which nations will be seeded is made by the Fed Cup Committee, according to the ITF Fed Cup Nations Ranking.

At the levels below the World Group and World Group II, the Fed Cup nations compete in Zonal Competition events, which are split into three zones: The Americas Zone, the Asia/Oceania Zone and the Europe/Africa Zone. In each zone there are two groups, Group I being the higher and Group II the lower, except for the Europe/Africa Zone, which also has a Group III.

Within the Group zonal regions, teams are split into pools and play against each other in a round robin format. The exact format of each Group event, and promotion and relegation between them, varies according to the number of participating teams. Two teams are always promoted from Europe/Africa Group I to that year's World Group II Play-Offs, while one team each go to the World Group II Play-Offs from Americas Group I and Asia/Oceania Zone Group I.

Current structure

This structure has been implemented since 2016. [5] [6]

LevelGroup(s)
1World Group I

8 countries

World Group I Playoff

4 countries from World Group I + 4 countries from World Group II

2World Group II

8 countries

World Group II Playoff

4 countries from World Group II + 2 countries from Group One Euro/African Zone
+ 1 country from Group One Americas Zone + 1 country from Group One Asia/Oceania Zone

3Group One American Zone

8 countries

Group One Euro/African Zone

14 countries

Group One Asia/Oceania Zone

8 countries

4Group Two American Zone

10 countries

Group Two Euro/African Zone

8 countries

Group Two Asia/Oceania Zone

13 countries

5Group Three Euro/African Zone

22 countries

Ties

In World Group and World Group II, and World Group and World Group II Play-Off ties, each tie is contested in a best of five matches format, and is played across two days. On the first day there are two singles matches, and then the reverse singles matches take place on the following day. The final match is a doubles.

In Zonal Groups I, II and III, ties are played over the best of three matches (two singles and a doubles).

The First Round Ties in the World Group and World Group II are played on a home and away knock-out basis, and take place over a weekend in the early part of the year.

World Group Semifinals and Final are played over on a home and away knock-out basis, and take place over a weekend in July (Semifinals) and September (Final).

Play-Off ties for World Group and World Group II will also be played on a home and away knock-out basis taking place in July.

The choice of ground for First Round, Semifinals and Play-Off ties is decided by lot or goes automatically to one of the competing nations.

As Groups I, II and III are played in a round robin format in all three zones, each event takes place at a single venue over one week. These are held in the first half of the year (to allow promotion of teams to the World Group II Play-Off ties in second half of the year), and dates and venues are decided by the Fed Cup Committee.

Records and statistics

Performance by team

CountryWinning Years [7] Runner-up Years [7]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States + 1963, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2017 (18) 1964, 1965, 1974, 1985, 1987, 1991, 1994, 1995, 2003, 2009, 2010, 2018 (12)
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia/
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic +
1975, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018 (11) 1986 (1)
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia + 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974 (7) 1963, 1969, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1984, 1993 (10)
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1998 (5) 1989, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2008 (6)
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union/
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia +
2004, 2005, 2007, 2008 (4) 1988, 1990, 1999, 2001, 2011, 2013, 2015 (7)
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy + 2006, 2009, 2010, 2013 (4) 2007 (1)
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany/
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany +
1987, 1992 (2) 1966, 1970, 1982, 1983, 2014 (5)
Flag of France.svg  France + 1997, 2003 (2) 2004, 2005, 2016 (3)
Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg  South Africa + 1972 (1) 1973 (1)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium + 2001 (1) 2006 (1)
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 2002 (1)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 1967, 1971, 1972, 1981 (4)
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands + 1968, 1997 (2)
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1998 (1)
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2012 (1)
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus + 2017 (1)

+ — also won Junior Fed Cup title

Team records

Fed Cup Champions Fed cup winners.png
Fed Cup Champions

Individual records

1Players must now be aged 14 and over

Heart Award

The Heart Award is ITF's annual "MVP" award related to Fed Cup, which aims to recognise players who have represented their country with distinction, shown exceptional courage on court and demonstrated outstanding commitment to the team. [10] The award was inaugurated in 2009.

YearWinner
2009 Flag of the United States.svg Melanie Oudin
World Group SFWG / WG II play-offsWG / WG II R1Americas ZG IAsia/Oceania ZG IEurope/Africa ZG I
2010 Flag of Italy.svg Francesca Schiavone Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Yanina Wickmayer Flag of Serbia.svg Jelena Janković Flag of Brazil.svg Maria Fernanda Alves Flag of Japan.svg Kimiko Date-Krumm Flag of Slovenia.svg Katarina Srebotnik
2011 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Petra Kvitová Flag of Germany.svg Andrea Petkovic Flag of Serbia.svg Bojana Jovanovski Flag of Peru.svg Bianca Botto Flag of Japan.svg Ayumi Morita Flag of Belarus.svg Victoria Azarenka
2012 Flag of Serbia.svg Jelena Janković Flag of Slovakia.svg Daniela Hantuchová Flag of Colombia.svg Catalina Castaño Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Li Na Flag of Sweden.svg Sofia Arvidsson
2013 Flag of Italy.svg Sara Errani Flag of Slovakia.svg Daniela Hantuchová Flag of Brazil.svg Paula Cristina Gonçalves Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Galina Voskoboeva Flag of Poland.svg Agnieszka Radwańska
2014 Flag of Germany.svg Andrea Petkovic Flag of Poland.svg Agnieszka Radwańska Flag of Brazil.svg Teliana Pereira Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Sabina Sharipova Flag of Romania.svg Simona Halep
2015 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Lucie Šafářová Flag of Italy.svg Flavia Pennetta Flag of Romania.svg Irina-Camelia Begu Flag of Paraguay.svg Verónica Cepede Royg Flag of Thailand.svg Tamarine Tanasugarn Flag of Turkey.svg Çağla Büyükakçay
2016 Flag of France.svg Caroline Garcia Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg Hsu Ching-Wen Flag of Belarus.svg Aliaksandra Sasnovich Flag of Argentina.svg Nadia Podoroska Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg Hsieh Su-wei Flag of Ukraine.svg Kateryna Bondarenko
2017 Flag of Belarus.svg Aliaksandra Sasnovich Flag of Germany.svg Julia Görges Flag of Belarus.svg Aryna Sabalenka Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Bianca Andreescu Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Galina Voskoboeva Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Heather Watson
2018 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Petra Kvitová Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Eugenie Bouchard Flag of France.svg Kristina Mladenovic Flag of Paraguay.svg Montserrat González Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Yulia Putintseva Flag of Serbia.svg Olga Danilović

Current rankings

For more information, see ITF Rankings

ITF Fed Cup Nations Ranking, as of 12 November 2018 [11]
#NationPointsMove
1Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 31,362.50Steady2.svg
2Flag of the United States.svg  United States 23,642.50Steady2.svg
3Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 14,770.00Steady2.svg
4Flag of France.svg  France 12,995.00Steady2.svg
5Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 8,912.50Increase2.svg3
6Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 8,792.50Increase2.svg3
7Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 5,785.00Decrease2.svg2
8Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 5,395.00Decrease2.svg2
9Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 5,272.50Decrease2.svg2
10Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 4,477.50Increase2.svg4
11Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 4,175.00Increase2.svg6
12Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 4,070.00Increase2.svg3
13Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 3,525.00Decrease2.svg2
14Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 3,157.50Decrease2.svg4
15Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain 2,935.00Increase2.svg3
16Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 2,887.50Decrease2.svg4
17Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 2,630.00Decrease2.svg4
18Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2,547.50Decrease2.svg2
19Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 2,482.50Increase2.svg3
20Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2,310.00Increase2.svg1

Change since previous ranking update

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "Fed Cup Number of Nations Participating per Year". www.fedcup.com. ITF . Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  2. Glenday, Craig, ed. (2008). Guinness World Records 2008. Bantam Books. p. 497. ISBN   9780553589955.
  3. "About Fed Cup by BNP Paribas". itftennis.com. ITF . Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  4. "FED CUP COMMITTEE". Fed Cup. Retrieved 26 Jan 2018.
  5. 1 2 "Fed Cup Format". www.fedcup.com. ITF . Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  6. "Fed Cup Rules & Regulations". www.fedcup.com. ITF. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  7. 1 2 "Fed Cup Champions". www.fedcup.com. ITF . Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  8. Erik Gudris (6 February 2016). "Hogenkamp Wins Longest Ever Fed Cup Match Over Kuznetsova". Tennisnow.com. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  9. Strength in Depth the Key for Five-Star Czech Republic, WTA official website, 14 November 2016
  10. "Fed Cup Heart Award". www.fedcup.com. ITF . Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  11. "Nations Ranking". fedcup.com. International Tennis Federation.