Federal republicanism is an ideology, prevalent mainly in the 19th century Spain, which incorporates republicanism and advocates local associations of citizens and promotes citizen participation in public affairs. An important part being the concept of federalism, looking for the devolution or distribution and management to smaller administrative units to prevent governments with a strong central concentration of power. It was the prelude to cantonalism in the Glorious Revolution (Spain).
Francisco Pi y Margall was claimed by the Spanish anarchists of his time. It was speculated that he drew his conception of federalism from the work Principle of Federation of the anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, although some experts argue that the ideas of Pi Margall were already outlined in his earlier writings prior to Proudhon's work.