Federal subjects of Russia

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Federal Subjects
Субъекты федерации  (Russian)
Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014).svg
  Oblasts (provinces)
  Republics
  Krais (territories)
  Autonomous Okrugs (with a substantial ethnic minority)
  Federal cities
  Autonomous Oblast
Category Federal dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republic
Location Russia
Number85
Populations41,546 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 10,382,754 (Moscow)
Areas864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)
Government
Subdivisions

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian : субъекты Российской Федерации, romanized: subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian : субъекты федерации, romanized: subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. [1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. [2] The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject separated by other countries.

Contents

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. [3] Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia. [4] [5]

Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. [6] [7] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and did not change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian : Федеративный договорFederativny dogovor), [8] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.[ citation needed ] The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world.[ citation needed ] In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

Terminology

An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation." [9]

Another translation of the Constitution of Russia gives for article 65: "The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation:". [10]

How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject". [11] This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)". [12]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO)RussianEnglish translations of the constitution ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
(Cyrillic)(Latin)Official [13] Unofficial [10]
N/Aсубъект Российской Федерацииsub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsiiconstituent entity of the Russian Federationsubject of the Russian Federation(not mentioned)
1республикаrespublikarepublicrepublicrepublic
2крайkraykrayterritoryadministrative territory
3областьoblastʹoblastregionadministrative region
4город федерального значенияgorod federalʹnogo znacheniyacity of federal significancecity of federal importanceautonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный городavtonomnyy gorod)
5автономная областьavtonomnaya oblastʹautonomous oblastautonomous regionautonomous region
6автономный округavtonomnyy okrugautonomous okrugautonomous areaautonomous district

Types

Federal subjects of Russia. Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014).svg
Federal subjects of Russia.

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

LegendDescription
  46  oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
  22  republics
Nominally autonomous, [14] [15] each with its own constitution, language, and legislature but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Each is home to a specific ethnic minority.
  9  krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions.
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.

List

CodeNameCapital/Administrative centre [a] FlagCoat
of arms
Type Federal district Economic region Area
(km2) [16]
Population
[17]
Year
established
01 Adygea, Republic of Maykop Flag of Adygea.svg Coat of arms of Adygea.svg republic Southern North Caucasus 7,600447,1091922
02 Bashkortostan, Republic of Ufa Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan.svg republic Volga Ural 143,6004,104,3361919
03 Buryatia, Republic of Ulan-Ude Flag of Buryatia.svg Coat of Arms of Buryatiya.svg republic Far Eastern East Siberian 351,300981,2381923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk Flag of Altai Republic.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg republic Siberian West Siberian 92,600202,9471922
05 Dagestan, Republic of Makhachkala Flag of Dagestan.svg Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,3002,576,5311921
06 Ingushetia, Republic of Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Flag of Ingushetia.svg Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 4,000467,2941992
07 Kabardino-Balkar Republic Nalchik Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,500901,4941936
08 Kalmykia, Republic of Elista Flag of Kalmykia.svg Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg republic Southern Volga 76,100292,4101957
09 Karachay-Cherkess Republic Cherkessk Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,100439,4701957
10 Karelia, Republic of Petrozavodsk Flag of Karelia.svg Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg republic Northwestern Northern 172,400716,2811956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar Flag of Komi.svg Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg republic Northwestern Northern 415,9001,018,6741921
12 Mari El Republic Yoshkar-Ola Flag of Mari El.svg Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,200727,9791920
13 Mordovia, Republic of Saransk Flag of Mordovia.svg Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,200888,7661930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk Flag of Sakha.svg Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg republic Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,103,200949,2801922
15 North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Vladikavkaz Flag of North Ossetia.svg Wapen Ossetien.svg republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 8,000710,2751924
16 Tatarstan, Republic of Kazan Flag of Tatarstan.svg Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg republic Volga Volga 68,0003,779,2651920
17 Tuva Republic Kyzyl Flag of Tuva.svg Coat of arms of Tuva.svg republic Siberian East Siberian 170,500305,5101944
18 Udmurt Republic Izhevsk Flag of Udmurtia.svg Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg republic Volga Ural 42,1001,570,3161920
19 Khakassia, Republic of Abakan Flag of Khakassia.svg Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg republic Siberian East Siberian 61,900546,0721930
20 Chechen Republic Grozny Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg republic North Caucasian North Caucasus 15,3001,103,6861991
21 Chuvash Republic Cheboksary Flag of Chuvashia.svg Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg republic Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,3001,313,7541920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul Flag of Altai Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Krai.svg krai Siberian West Siberian 169,1002,607,4261937
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Krasnodar Kray.svg krai Southern North Caucasus 76,0005,125,2211937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk Flag of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg krai Siberian East Siberian 2,339,7002,966,0421934
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 165,9002,071,2101938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg Coat of arms of Stavropol Krai.svg krai North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,5002,735,1391934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Khabarovsky kray (N2).png krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 788,6001,436,5701938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk Flag of Amur Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Amur oblast.png oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 363,700902,8441932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast.svg oblast Northwestern Northern 587,4001,336,5391937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast.svg oblast Southern Volga 44,1001,005,2761943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg New Coat of Arms of Belgorod Oblast.svg oblast Central Central Black Earth 27,1001,511,6201954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Bryansk Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 34,9001,378,9411944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 29,0001,523,9901944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast.svg oblast Southern Volga 113,9002,699,2231937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Flag of Vologda oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vologda oblast.svg oblast Northwestern Northern 145,7001,269,5681937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Voronezh Oblast.svg oblast Central Central Black Earth 52,4002,378,8031934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Ivanovo Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 21,8001,148,3291936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg Gerb Irkutskoi oblasti.svg oblast Siberian East Siberian 767,9002,581,7051937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad Oblast Coat of Arms 2006.svg oblast Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,100955,2811946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kaluga Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 29,9001,041,6411944
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg krai Far Eastern Far Eastern 472,300358,8012007
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast.svg oblast Siberian West Siberian 95,5002,899,1421943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov Flag of Kirov Region.svg Coat of arms of Kirov Region.svg oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,8001,503,5291934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kostroma Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 60,100736,6411944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kurgan Oblast.svg oblast Ural Ural 71,0001,019,5321943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast.svg oblast Central Central Black Earth 29,8001,235,0911934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina [b] Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg oblast Northwestern Northwestern 84,5001,669,2051927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast.svg oblast Central Central Black Earth 24,1001,213,4991954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast.svg oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 461,400182,7261953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha [c] Flag of Moscow oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow oblast.svg oblast Central Central 44,300 [18] 6,618,5381929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg Gerb Murmanskoi oblasti.svg oblast Northwestern Northern 144,900892,5341938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg oblast Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,9003,524,0281936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novgorod Oblast.svg oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300694,3551944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novosibirsk oblast.svg oblast Siberian West Siberian 178,2002,692,2511937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Omsk Oblast.svg oblast Siberian West Siberian 139,7002,079,2201934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Flag of Orenburg Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast.svg oblast Volga Ural 124,0002,179,5511934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast (small).svg oblast Central Central 24,700860,2621937
58 Penza Oblast Penza Flag of Penza Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Penza Oblast.svg oblast Volga Volga 43,2001,452,9411939
59 Perm Krai Perm Flag of Perm Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Perm Krai.svg krai Volga Ural 160,6002,819,4212005
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov Flag of Pskov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Pskov Oblast.svg oblast Northwestern Northwestern 55,300760,8101944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Rostov Oblast.svg oblast Southern North Caucasus 100,8004,404,0131937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Flag of Ryazan Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Ryazan Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 39,6001,227,9101937
63 Samara Oblast Samara Flag of Samara Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Samara oblast.png oblast Volga Volga 53,6003,239,7371928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov Flag of Saratov Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast.svg oblast Volga Volga 100,2002,668,3101936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms.svg oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,100546,6951947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast.svg oblast Ural Ural 194,8004,486,2141935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Smolensk oblast.svg oblast Central Central 49,8001,049,5741937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tambov Oblast.svg oblast Central Central Black Earth 34,3001,178,4431937
69 Tver Oblast Tver Flag of Tver Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tver oblast.svg oblast Central Central 84,1001,471,4591935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk Flag of Tomsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast, Russia.svg oblast Siberian West Siberian 316,9001,046,0391944
71 Tula Oblast Tula Flag of Tula Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tula oblast.png oblast Central Central 25,7001,675,7581937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tyumen Oblast.svg oblast Ural West Siberian 143,5203,264,8411944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Flag Ul'ianovskoi oblasti (2013).svg Coat of Arms of Ulyanovsk Oblast.png oblast Volga Volga 37,3001,382,8111943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg oblast Ural Ural 87,9003,603,3391934
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg krai Far Eastern East Siberian 431,5001,155,3462008
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg oblast Central Central 36,4001,367,3981936
77 Moscow Flag of Moscow.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow.svg federal city Central Central 2,51110,382,7541147
78 Saint Petersburg Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).svg federal city Northwestern Northwestern 1,4394,662,5471703
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg autonomous oblast Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,000190,9151934
80 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of arms of Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg autonomous okrug Northwestern Northern 176,70041,5461929
81 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Flag of Yugra.svg Coat of Arms of Yugra.svg autonomous okrug Ural West Siberian 523,1001,432,8171930
82 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr Flag of Chukotka.svg Coat of Arms of Chukotka.svg autonomous okrug Far Eastern Far Eastern 737,70053,8241930
83 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Noyabrsk)
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia.svg autonomous okrug Ural West Siberian 750,300507,0061930
84 Republic of Crimea [d] Simferopol Flag of Crimea.svg Emblem of Crimea.svg republic Southern [19] [20] North Caucasus 26,964 [21] 1,966,801 [22] 2014
85 Sevastopol [d] Flag of Sevastopol.svg COA of Sevastopol.svg federal city Southern [19] [20] North Caucasus 864 [23] 379,200 [23] 2014

a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative center.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.

d. ^ Not recognized internationally as a part of Russia.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

Statistics of federal subjects

Mergers, splits and internal territorial changes

Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange) Russian Subjects merged.png
Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Date of referendumDate of mergerOriginal entitiesOriginal codesNew codeOriginal entitiesNew entity
2003-12-072005-12-011, 1a59 (1), 81 (1a)90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-172007-01-012, 2a, 2b24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b)24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-232007-07-013, 3a41 (3), 82 (3a)91 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-162008-01-014, 4a38 (4), 85 (4a)38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-112008-03-015, 5a75 (5), 80 (5a)92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:

With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a GRP per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.

In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the national average. [24] [25]

Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.

In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. [26] [27] The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population. [28]

See also

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Taymyr Autonomous Okrug Autonomous Okrug in Siberian, Russia

Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, or Taymyria, was a federal subject of Russia, the northernmost in Siberian Russia. It was named after the Taymyr Peninsula. It was also called Dolgan-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, by the name of the indigenous people, Dolgans and Nenetses.

Okrug is an administrative division of some Slavic states. The word "okrug" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "district", or "region".

Autonomous okrugs of Russia

Autonomous okrug, occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.

Federal cities of Russia

A city of federal importance or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject. There are three federal cities: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol. Two of them are the largest cities in the country: Moscow is the national capital and Saint Petersburg is a previous Russian capital and important port on the Baltic Sea. Sevastopol is the newest federal city, located in the disputed region of Crimea, which was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014 but is recognised as Ukrainian territory by most of the international community.

Economic regions of Russia subnational divisions

Russia is divided into twelve economic regions —groups of federal subjects sharing the following characteristics:

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arkhangelsk Oblast is divided into six cities and towns of oblast significance, twenty-one districts, and two island territories. Besides, Mirny is a town under the federal government management.

Russia, the largest country in the world, has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan, as well as the borders with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The country has a land border running 20,241 kilometres (12,577 mi) in total, and has the second-longest land border of any country in the world, after China. The present borders of the Russia have been drawn since 1956, and had remained the same after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; until in 2014, when Crimea was annexed by Russia from Ukraine.

Mezensky District District in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Mezensky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Mezensky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the northeast, Ust-Tsilemsky District of the Komi Republic in the east, Leshukonsky and Pinezhsky Districts in the south, and with Primorsky District in the southwest. From the north, the district borders the White Sea. The area of the district is 34,400 square kilometers (13,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Mezen. Population: 10,330 (2010 Census); 13,124 (2002 Census); 17,796 (1989 Census). The population of Mezen accounts for 34.6% of the total district's population.

Republic of Crimea First-level administrative division of Russia, annexed territory of Ukraine

The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject (republic) of Russia located on the disputed Crimean Peninsula, which was annexed by Russia from Ukraine in 2014, but is still internationally recognized as being part of Ukraine. The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol, which is also the second-largest city of the peninsula, behind the federal city of Sevastopol. At the last census, the republic had a population of 1,891,465 .

Perevalivka Village in Crimea, disputed between Russia and Ukraine

Perevalivka is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.

Governor (Russia)

The highest official of the subject of the Russian Federation, also known as the holder of the highest office of subject of the Russian Federation or the head of the highest executive body of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation and colloquially and collectively referred to as the title Governor or head of region, is the head and the chief executive of each of the federal subjects of Russia, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the federal subject, all of which are equal constituent entities of Russia.

References

Notes

  1. "The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Chapter 3, The Federal Structure" . Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  2. "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Russian Presidential Executive Office. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  3. "Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System – The Constitution of the Russian Federation" . Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  4. Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (in Russian)
  5. Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  6. "Конституция Российской Федерации" . Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  7. Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System | The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Constitution.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  8. This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions:
  9. http://archive.government.ru/eng/gov/base/54.html (accessed="2014-10-17")
  10. 1 2 "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure – The Constitution of the Russian Federation" . Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  11. SlavFile Archive | Slavic Languages Division Archived August 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine . Ata-divisions.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  12. https://eulita.eu/wp/wp-content/uploads/files/Tammy_presentation.pdf
  13. "Official Website of the Government of the Russian Federation / The Russian Government" . Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  14. Publications, E. (2012). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2012. Taylor & Francis. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-135-09584-0 . Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  15. Saunders, R.A. (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 232. ISBN   978-1-5381-2048-4 . Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  16. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
  17. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  18. "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  19. 1 2 "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia" . Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  20. 1 2 "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  21. "Autonomous Republic of Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
  22. "Population as of February 1, 2014. Average annual populations January 2014". ukrstat.gov.ua. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
  23. 1 2 "A General data of the region". Sevastopol City State Administration. Archived from the original on February 11, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  24. Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  25. "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  26. Antonova, Elizaveta (July 2, 2020). "The head of the Nenets Autonomous District declared refusal to unite with the Arkhangelsk region". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved July 6, 2020.

Sources