Субъекты федерации (Russian)
|Category||Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Populations||41,431 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 13,010,112 (Moscow)|
|Areas||864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)|
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian : субъекты Российской Федерации, romanized: subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian : субъекты федерации, romanized: subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject geographically separated from the rest of the Russian Federation by other countries.
According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993, the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, after being annexed from Ukraine, the Russian government claimed Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea to be the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia, a move that is not recognized internationally. During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, four Ukrainian oblasts were annexed by Russia, though they remain internationally recognized as part of Ukraine and are only partially occupied by Russia.
Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution or charter and legislation, although the authority of these organs differ. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies.The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy; republics are offered more autonomy.
Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and did not change at the time of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian : Федеративный договорFederativny dogovor), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by federal referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on 25 December 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policies of Vladimir Putin and of the ruling United Russia party, the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.
An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation".
Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject".This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, saying in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".
|Rank (as given in constitution and ISO)||Russian||English translations of the constitution||ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))|
|—||субъект Российской Федерации||sub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii||constituent entity of the Russian Federation||subject of the Russian Federation||(not mentioned)|
|город федерального значения||gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya||city of federal significance||city of federal importance||autonomous city|
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный городavtonomnyy gorod)
|5||автономная область||avtonomnaya oblastʹ||autonomous oblast||autonomous region||autonomous region|
|6||автономный округ||avtonomnyy okrug||autonomous okrug||autonomous area||autonomous district|
Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:
|Nominally autonomous, each with its own constitution, language, and legislature, but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Most are designated as the home to a specific ethnic minority as their titular nation or nations.|
Donetsk and Luhansk Oblast are internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, but were partially occupied by Russian and Russian-controlled forces in 2014, and declared annexed by Russia as the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics in 2022. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but was occupied and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea in 2014.
|For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.|
|The most common type, with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.|
Kherson and Zaporizhzhia Oblast are internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, but were partially occupied by Russian forces and declared annexed in 2022.
|Major cities that function as separate regions.|
Sevastopol is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but was occupied and annexed by Russia in 2014.
|An Autonomous Oblast has increased powers compared to traditional oblasts, but not enough to be considered a Republic. The only one remaining is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast; however, Russia previously had 4 other Autonomous Oblasts that were changed into Republics on the 3rd of July 1991.|
|Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area" or "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority designated as its titular nation. With the exception of Chukotka, each of the autonomous okrugs is part of another oblast (Arkhangelsk or Tyumen), as well as functioning as a federal subject by itself.|
|Federal subjects of the Russian Federation|
Administrative centre [a]
|Type||Head of subject||Federal district||Economic region||Area|
|Titular nation||Total||density (km2)|
|01||Adygea||Maykop||republic||Circassians||Murat Kumpilov (UR)||Southern||North Caucasus||7,792||496,934||63.77||1922|
|02||Bashkortostan||Ufa||Bashkirs||Radiy Khabirov (UR)||Volga||Ural||142,947||4,091,423||28.62||1919|
|03||Buryatia||Ulan-Ude||Buryats||Alexey Tsydenov (UR)||Far Eastern||East Siberian||351,334||978,588||2.79||1923|
|04||Altai Republic||Gorno-Altaysk||Altai||Oleg Khorokhordin (Ind.)||Siberian||West Siberian||92,903||210,924||2.27||1922|
|05||Dagestan||Makhachkala||Aghuls, Avars, Azerbaijanis, Chechens, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Tats, Tsakhurs||Sergey Melikov (Ind.)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||50,270||3,182,054||63.30||1921|
|06||Ingushetia|| Magas |
(Largest city: Nazran)
|Ingush||Mahmud-Ali Kalimatov (UR)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||3,628||509,541||163.16||1992|
|07||Kabardino-Balkaria||Nalchik||Balkars, Kabardians||Kazbek Kokov (UR)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||12,470||904,200||72.51||1936|
|08||Kalmykia||Elista||Kalmyks||Batu Khasikov (UR)||Southern||Volga||74,731||267,133||3.57||1957|
|09||Karachay-Cherkessia||Cherkessk||Abazins, Kabardians, Karachays, Nogais||Rashid Temrezov (UR)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||14,277||469,865||32.91||1957|
|10||Karelia||Petrozavodsk||Karelians||Artur Parfenchikov (UR)||Northwestern||Northern||180,520||533,121||2.95||1956|
|11||Komi Republic||Syktyvkar||Komi||Vladimir Uyba (UR)||Northwestern||Northern||416,774||737,853||1.77||1921|
|12||Mari El||Yoshkar-Ola||Mari||Yury Zaitsev (UR, acting)||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||23,375||677,097||28.97||1920|
|13||Mordovia||Saransk||Mordvins||Artyom Zdunov (UR)||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||26,128||783,552||29.99||1930|
|14||Sakha (Yakutia)||Yakutsk||Yakuts||Aysen Nikolayev (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||3,083,523||995,686||0.32||1922|
|15||North Ossetia–Alania||Vladikavkaz||Ossetians||Sergey Menyaylo (UR)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||7,987||687,357||86.06||1924|
|16||Tatarstan||Kazan||Tatars||Rustam Minnikhanov (UR)||Volga||Volga||67,847||4,004,809||59.03||1920|
|17||Tuva||Kyzyl||Tuvans||Vladislav Khovalyg (UR)||Siberian||East Siberian||168,604||336,651||2.00||1944|
|18||Udmurtia||Izhevsk||Udmurts||Aleksandr Brechalov (UR)||Volga||Ural||42,061||1,452,914||34.54||1920|
|19||Khakassia||Abakan||Khakas||Valentin Konovalov (CPRF)||Siberian||East Siberian||61,569||534,795||8.69||1930|
|20 [e]||Chechnya||Grozny||Chechens||Ramzan Kadyrov (UR)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||16,165||1,510,824||93.43||1991|
|21||Chuvashia||Cheboksary||Chuvash||Oleg Nikolayev (SRZP)||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||18,343||1,186,909||64.71||1920|
|22||Altai Krai||Barnaul||krai||Viktor Tomenko (UR)||Siberian||West Siberian||167,996||2,163,693||12.88||1937|
|23||Krasnodar Krai||Krasnodar||Veniamin Kondratyev (UR)||Southern||North Caucasus||75,485||5,838,273||77.34||1937|
|24||Krasnoyarsk Krai||Krasnoyarsk||Aleksandr Uss (UR)||Siberian||East Siberian||2,366,797||2,856,971||1.21||1934|
|25||Primorsky Krai||Vladivostok||Oleg Kozhemyako (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||164,673||1,845,165||11.21||1938|
|26||Stavropol Krai||Stavropol||Vladimir Vladimirov (UR)||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||66,160||2,907,593||43.95||1934|
|27||Khabarovsk Krai||Khabarovsk||Mikhail Degtyarev (LDPR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||787,633||1,292,944||1.64||1938|
|28||Amur Oblast||Blagoveshchensk||oblast||Vasily Orlov (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||361,908||766,912||2.12||1932|
|29||Arkhangelsk Oblast||Arkhangelsk||Alexander Tsybulsky (UR)||Northwestern||Northern||413,103||978,873||2.37||1937|
|30||Astrakhan Oblast||Astrakhan||Igor Babushkin (Ind.)||Southern||Volga||49,024||960,142||19.59||1943|
|31||Belgorod Oblast||Belgorod||Vyacheslav Gladkov (UR)||Central||Central Black Earth||27,134||1,540,486||56.77||1954|
|32||Bryansk Oblast||Bryansk||Alexander Bogomaz (UR)||Central||Central||34,857||1,169,161||33.54||1944|
|33||Vladimir Oblast||Vladimir||Aleksandr Avdeyev (UR, acting)||Central||Central||29,084||1,348,134||46.35||1944|
|34||Volgograd Oblast||Volgograd||Andrey Bocharov (Ind.)||Southern||Volga||112,877||2,500,781||22.15||1937|
|35||Vologda Oblast|| Vologda |
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
|Oleg Kuvshinnikov (UR)||Northwestern||Northern||144,527||1,142,827||7.91||1937|
|36||Voronezh Oblast||Voronezh||Aleksandr Gusev (UR)||Central||Central Black Earth||52,216||2,308,792||44.22||1934|
|37||Ivanovo Oblast||Ivanovo||Stanislav Voskresensky (Ind.)||Central||Central||21,437||927,828||43.28||1936|
|38||Irkutsk Oblast||Irkutsk||Igor Kobzev (Ind.)||Siberian||East Siberian||774,846||2,370,102||3.06||1937|
|39||Kaliningrad Oblast||Kaliningrad||Anton Alikhanov (UR)||Northwestern||Kaliningrad||15,125||1,029,966||68.10||1946|
|40||Kaluga Oblast||Kaluga||Vladislav Shapsha (UR)||Central||Central||29,777||1,069,904||35.93||1944|
|41||Kamchatka Krai||Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky||krai||Vladimir Solodov (Ind.)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||464,275||291,705||0.63||2007|
|42||Kemerovo Oblast||Kemerovo||oblast||Sergey Tsivilyov (UR)||Siberian||West Siberian||95,725||2,600,923||27.17||1943|
|43||Kirov Oblast||Kirov||Aleksandr Sokolov (UR, acting)||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||120,374||1,153,680||9.58||1934|
|44||Kostroma Oblast||Kostroma||Sergey Sitnikov (Ind.)||Central||Central||60,211||580,976||9.65||1944|
|45||Kurgan Oblast||Kurgan||Vadim Shumkov (Ind.)||Ural||Ural||71,488||776,661||10.86||1943|
|46||Kursk Oblast||Kursk||Roman Starovoyt (UR)||Central||Central Black Earth||29,997||1,082,458||36.09||1934|
|47||Leningrad Oblast||Largest city: Gatchina [b]||Aleksandr Drozdenko (UR)||Northwestern||Northwestern||83,908||2,000,997||23.85||1927|
|48||Lipetsk Oblast||Lipetsk||Igor Artamonov (UR)||Central||Central Black Earth||24,047||1,143,224||47.54||1954|
|49||Magadan Oblast||Magadan||Sergey Nosov (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||462,464||136,085||0.29||1953|
|50||Moscow Oblast||Largest city: Balashikha [c]||Andrey Vorobyov (UR)||Central||Central||44,329||8,524,665||192.30||1929|
|51||Murmansk Oblast||Murmansk||Andrey Chibis (UR)||Northwestern||Northern||144,902||667,744||4.61||1938|
|52||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast||Nizhny Novgorod||Gleb Nikitin (UR)||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||76,624||3,119,115||40.71||1936|
|53||Novgorod Oblast||Veliky Novgorod||Andrey Nikitin (UR)||Northwestern||Northwestern||54,501||583,387||10.70||1944|
|54||Novosibirsk Oblast||Novosibirsk||Andrey Travnikov (UR)||Siberian||West Siberian||177,756||2,797,176||15.74||1937|
|55||Omsk Oblast||Omsk||Alexander Burkov (SRZP)||Siberian||West Siberian||141,140||1,858,798||13.17||1934|
|56||Orenburg Oblast||Orenburg||Denis Pasler (UR)||Volga||Ural||123,702||1,862,767||15.06||1934|
|57||Oryol Oblast||Oryol||Andrey Klychkov (CPRF)||Central||Central||24,652||713,374||28.94||1937|
|58||Penza Oblast||Penza||Oleg Melnichenko (UR)||Volga||Volga||43,352||1,266,348||29.21||1939|
|59||Perm Krai||Perm||krai||Dmitry Makhonin (Ind.)||Volga||Ural||160,236||2,532,405||15.80||2005|
|60||Pskov Oblast||Pskov||oblast||Mikhail Vedernikov (UR)||Northwestern||Northwestern||55,399||599,084||10.81||1944|
|61||Rostov Oblast||Rostov-on-Don||Vasily Golubev (UR)||Southern||North Caucasus||100,967||4,200,729||41.60||1937|
|62||Ryazan Oblast||Ryazan||Pavel Malkov (Ind.)||Central||Central||39,605||1,102,810||27.85||1937|
|63||Samara Oblast||Samara||Dmitry Azarov (UR)||Volga||Volga||53,565||3,172,925||59.24||1928|
|64||Saratov Oblast||Saratov||Roman Busargin (UR)||Volga||Volga||101,240||2,442,575||24.13||1936|
|65||Sakhalin Oblast||Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk||Valery Limarenko (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||87,101||466,609||5.36||1947|
|66||Sverdlovsk Oblast||Yekaterinburg||Yevgeny Kuyvashev (UR)||Ural||Ural||194,307||4,268,998||21.97||1935|
|67||Smolensk Oblast||Smolensk||Alexey Ostrovsky (LDPR)||Central||Central||49,779||888,421||17.85||1937|
|68||Tambov Oblast||Tambov||Maksim Yegorov (UR, acting)||Central||Central Black Earth||34,462||982,991||28.52||1937|
|69||Tver Oblast||Tver||Igor Rudenya (UR)||Central||Central||84,201||1,230,171||14.61||1935|
|70||Tomsk Oblast||Tomsk||Vladimir Mazur (UR, acting)||Siberian||West Siberian||314,391||1,062,666||3.38||1944|
|71||Tula Oblast||Tula||Aleksey Dyumin (UR)||Central||Central||25,679||1,501,214||58.46||1937|
|72||Tyumen Oblast||Tyumen||Aleksandr Moor (UR)||Ural||West Siberian||160,122||1,601,940||10.00||1944|
|73||Ulyanovsk Oblast||Ulyanovsk||Aleksey Russkikh (CPRF)||Volga||Volga||37,181||1,196,745||32.19||1943|
|74||Chelyabinsk Oblast||Chelyabinsk||Aleksey Teksler (UR)||Ural||Ural||88,529||3,431,224||38.76||1934|
|75||Zabaykalsky Krai||Chita||krai||Aleksandr Osipov (Ind.)||Far Eastern||East Siberian||431,892||1,004,125||2.32||2008|
|76||Yaroslavl Oblast||Yaroslavl||oblast||Mikhail Yevrayev (Ind.)||Central||Central||36,177||1,209,811||33.44||1936|
|77||Moscow||federal city||Sergey Sobyanin (UR)||Central||Central||2,561||13,010,112||5,080.09||1147|
|78||Saint Petersburg||Alexander Beglov (UR)||Northwestern||Northwestern||1,403||5,601,911||3,992.81||1703|
|79||Jewish Autonomous Oblast||Birobidzhan||autonomous oblast||Jews||Rostislav Goldstein (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||36,271||150,453||4.15||1934|
|80||Nenets Autonomous Okrug||Naryan-Mar||autonomous okrug||Nenets||Yury Bezdudny (UR)||Northwestern||Northern||176,810||41,434||0.23||1929|
|81||Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra|| Khanty-Mansiysk |
(Largest city: Surgut)
|Khanty, Mansi||Natalya Komarova (UR)||Ural||West Siberian||534,801||1,711,480||3.20||1930|
|82||Chukotka Autonomous Okrug||Anadyr||Chukchi||Roman Kopin (UR)||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||721,481||47,490||0.07||1930|
|83||Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug|| Salekhard |
(Largest city: Novy Urengoy)
|Nenets||Dmitry Artyukhov (UR)||Ural||West Siberian||769,250||510,490||0.66||1930|
|Federal subjects in the internationally recognized territory of Ukraine|
|84||Republic of Crimea [d]||Simferopol||republic||Sergey Aksyonov (UR)||Southern||North Caucasus||26,081||1,934,630||74.18||2014|
|85||Sevastopol [d]||federal city||Mikhail Razvozhayev (UR)||Southern||North Caucasus||864||547,820||634.05||2014|
|86||Donetsk People's Republic [d] [f]||Donetsk||republic||Denis Pushilin (UR/ODDR)||26,517 [g]||4,100,280 [g]||154.63 [g]||2022|
|87||Luhansk People's Republic [d] [f]||Luhansk||Leonid Pasechnik (UR/ML)||26,684 [g]||2,121,322 [g]||79.50 [g]||2022|
|88||Zaporizhzhia Oblast [d] [f]|| Melitopol (de facto)|
|oblast||Yevgeny Balitsky (UR)||27,183 [g]||1,666,515 [g]||61.31 [g]||2022|
|89||Kherson Oblast [d] [f]|| Henichesk (de facto)|
(Largest city: Kherson)
|Volodymyr Saldo (Ind.)||28,461 [g]||1,016,707 [g]||35.72 [g]||2022|
a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative centre.
b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Saint Petersburg. However, Saint Petersburg is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.
c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.
e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.
f. ^ Claimed, but only partially controlled by Russia.
g. ^ As Russia only partially controls the region, this is a claimed figure.
Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
|Date of referendum||Date of merger||Original entities||Original codes||New code||Original entities||New entity|
|2003-12-07||2005-12-01||1, 1a||59 (1), 81 (1a)||90||Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a)||Perm Krai|
|2005-04-17||2007-01-01||2, 2a, 2b||24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b)||24||Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b)||Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|2005-10-23||2007-07-01||3, 3a||41 (3), 82 (3a)||91||Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a)||Kamchatka Krai|
|2006-04-16||2008-01-01||4, 4a||38 (4), 85 (4a)||38||Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a)||Irkutsk Oblast|
|2007-03-11||2008-03-01||5, 5a||75 (5), 80 (5a)||92||Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a)||Zabaykalsky Krai|
In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:
With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a Gross Regional Product [GRP] per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.
In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however, they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the federal average.
Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.
In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.
On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population.
Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.
Plesetsk is an urban locality and the administrative center of Plesetsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, situated about 800 kilometers (500 mi) northeast of Moscow and 180 kilometers (110 mi) south of Arkhangelsk. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Plesetskoye Urban Settlement, one of eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 11,037 (2010 Census); 11,300 (2002 Census); 14,027 (1989 Census).
The Southern Federal District is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its territory lies mostly on the Pontic–Caspian steppe of Southern Russia. The Southern Federal District shares borders with Ukraine, the Azov Sea, and the Black Sea in the west, and Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea in the east.
Arkhangelsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO). Including the NAO, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 square kilometres (226,800 sq mi). Its population was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.
The Komi Republic, sometimes simply referred to as Komi, is a republic of Russia located in Eastern Europe. Its capital is the city of Syktyvkar. The population of the republic as of the 2010 Census was 901,189.
Tyumen Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is located in Western Siberia, and is administratively part of the Urals Federal District. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugs: Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen Oblast, including its autonomous okrugs, is the third-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 3,395,755 (2010).
The Nenets Autonomous Okrug is a federal subject of Russia and an autonomous okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Naryan-Mar. It has an area of 176,700 square kilometers (68,200 sq mi) and a population of 42,090 as of the 2010 Census, making it the least populous federal subject.
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra is a federal subject of Russia. It has a population of 1,532,243 as of the 2010 Census.
The Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug or Yamalia is a federal subject of Russia and an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Salekhard, and its largest city is Novy Urengoy. The 2021 Russian Census recorded its population as 510,490.
An okrug is a type of administrative division in some Slavic-speaking states. The word okrug is a loanword in English, alternatively translated as area, district, or region.
In Russia, the oblasts are 46 administrative territories; they are one type of federal subject, the highest-level administrative division of Russian territory.
A krai is a type of federal subject of the Russian Federation. The country is divided into 85 federal subjects, of which nine are krais. Oblasts, another type of federal subject, are legally identical to krais and the difference between a political entity with the name "krai" or "oblast" is purely traditional; both are constituent entities equivalent in legal status in Russia with representation in the Federation Council. During the Soviet era, the autonomous oblasts could be subordinated to republics or krais, but not to oblasts. Outside of political terminology, both words have a very similar general meaning and can often be used interchangeably. When a distinction is desirable, "krai" is sometimes translated into English as "territory", while "oblast" can variously be translated to "province" or "region", but both of these translations are also reasonable interpretations of "krai".
Autonomous okrugs are a type of federal subject of the Russian Federation and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
Russia is divided into twelve economic regions —groups of federal subjects sharing the following characteristics:
A selsoviet is the shortened name for a rural council and for the area governed by such a council (soviet).
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arkhangelsk Oblast is divided into six cities and towns of oblast significance, twenty-one districts, and two island territories. Besides, Mirny is a town under the federal government management.
Russia, the largest country in the world, has international land borders with 14 sovereign states as well as 2 narrow maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan. There are also two breakaway states bordering Russia, namely Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The country has an internationally recognized land border running 22,407 kilometres (13,923 mi) in total, and has the second-longest land border of any country in the world, after China. The borders of the Russian Federation were mostly drawn since 1956, and have remained the same after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 2014, Russia annexed Ukraine's Crimean peninsula in a move that remains internationally unrecognized.
Mezensky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Mezensky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the northeast, Ust-Tsilemsky District of the Komi Republic in the east, Leshukonsky and Pinezhsky Districts in the south, and with Primorsky District in the southwest. From the north, the district borders the White Sea. The area of the district is 34,400 square kilometers (13,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Mezen. Population: 10,330 (2010 Census); 13,124 (2002 Census); 17,796 (1989 Census). The population of Mezen accounts for 34.6% of the total district's population.
The highest official of the subject of the Russian Federation, also known as the holder of the highest office of subject of the Russian Federation or the head of the highest executive body of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation and colloquially and collectively referred to as the title Governor or head of region, is the head and the chief executive of each of the federal subjects of Russia, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the federal subject, all of which are equal constituent entities of Russia.