Субъекты федерации (Russian)
|Category||Federal dominant-party semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Populations||41,546 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 10,382,754 (Moscow)|
|Areas||864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)|
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian : субъекты Российской Федерации, romanized: subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian : субъекты федерации, romanized: subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally consists of 85 federal subjects. The two located on the Crimean Peninsula, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea, are not internationally recognized as part of Russia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject separated by other countries.
According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89
Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies.The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).
Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and did not change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian : Федеративный договорFederativny dogovor), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR.[ citation needed ] The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world.[ citation needed ] In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.
An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."
Another translation of the Constitution of Russia gives for article 65: "The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation:".
How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject".This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".
|Rank (as given in constitution and ISO)||Russian||English translations of the constitution||ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))|
|N/A||субъект Российской Федерации||sub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii||constituent entity of the Russian Federation||subject of the Russian Federation||(not mentioned)|
|4||город федерального значения||gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya||city of federal significance||city of federal importance||autonomous city|
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный городavtonomnyy gorod)
|5||автономная область||avtonomnaya oblastʹ||autonomous oblast||autonomous region||autonomous region|
|6||автономный округ||avtonomnyy okrug||autonomous okrug||autonomous area||autonomous district|
Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:
|The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.|
|Nominally autonomous, each with its own constitution, language, and legislature but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Each is home to a specific ethnic minority.|
|For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.|
|Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.|
|Major cities that function as separate regions.|
1 autonomous oblast
|The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.|
|Code||Name||Capital/Administrative centre [a]||Flag||Coat|
|Type||Federal district||Economic region||Area|
|01||Adygea, Republic of||Maykop||republic||Southern||North Caucasus||7,600||447,109||1922|
|02||Bashkortostan, Republic of||Ufa||republic||Volga||Ural||143,600||4,104,336||1919|
|03||Buryatia, Republic of||Ulan-Ude||republic||Far Eastern||East Siberian||351,300||981,238||1923|
|04||Altai Republic||Gorno-Altaysk||republic||Siberian||West Siberian||92,600||202,947||1922|
|05||Dagestan, Republic of||Makhachkala||republic||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||50,300||2,576,531||1921|
|06||Ingushetia, Republic of|| Magas |
(Largest city: Nazran)
|republic||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||4,000||467,294||1992|
|07||Kabardino-Balkar Republic||Nalchik||republic||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||12,500||901,494||1936|
|08||Kalmykia, Republic of||Elista||republic||Southern||Volga||76,100||292,410||1957|
|09||Karachay-Cherkess Republic||Cherkessk||republic||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||14,100||439,470||1957|
|10||Karelia, Republic of||Petrozavodsk||republic||Northwestern||Northern||172,400||716,281||1956|
|12||Mari El Republic||Yoshkar-Ola||republic||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||23,200||727,979||1920|
|13||Mordovia, Republic of||Saransk||republic||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||26,200||888,766||1930|
|14||Sakha (Yakutia) Republic||Yakutsk||republic||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||3,103,200||949,280||1922|
|15||North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of||Vladikavkaz||republic||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||8,000||710,275||1924|
|16||Tatarstan, Republic of||Kazan||republic||Volga||Volga||68,000||3,779,265||1920|
|17||Tuva Republic||Kyzyl||republic||Siberian||East Siberian||170,500||305,510||1944|
|19||Khakassia, Republic of||Abakan||republic||Siberian||East Siberian||61,900||546,072||1930|
|20||Chechen Republic||Grozny||republic||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||15,300||1,103,686||1991|
|22||Altai Krai||Barnaul||krai||Siberian||West Siberian||169,100||2,607,426||1937|
|23||Krasnodar Krai||Krasnodar||krai||Southern||North Caucasus||76,000||5,125,221||1937|
|24||Krasnoyarsk Krai||Krasnoyarsk||krai||Siberian||East Siberian||2,339,700||2,966,042||1934|
|25||Primorsky Krai||Vladivostok||krai||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||165,900||2,071,210||1938|
|26||Stavropol Krai||Stavropol||krai||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||66,500||2,735,139||1934|
|27||Khabarovsk Krai||Khabarovsk||krai||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||788,600||1,436,570||1938|
|28||Amur Oblast||Blagoveshchensk||oblast||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||363,700||902,844||1932|
|31||Belgorod Oblast||Belgorod||oblast||Central||Central Black Earth||27,100||1,511,620||1954|
|35||Vologda Oblast|| Vologda |
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
|36||Voronezh Oblast||Voronezh||oblast||Central||Central Black Earth||52,400||2,378,803||1934|
|38||Irkutsk Oblast||Irkutsk||oblast||Siberian||East Siberian||767,900||2,581,705||1937|
|41||Kamchatka Krai||Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky||krai||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||472,300||358,801||2007|
|42||Kemerovo Oblast||Kemerovo||oblast||Siberian||West Siberian||95,500||2,899,142||1943|
|46||Kursk Oblast||Kursk||oblast||Central||Central Black Earth||29,800||1,235,091||1934|
|47||Leningrad Oblast||Largest city: Gatchina [b]||oblast||Northwestern||Northwestern||84,500||1,669,205||1927|
|48||Lipetsk Oblast||Lipetsk||oblast||Central||Central Black Earth||24,100||1,213,499||1954|
|49||Magadan Oblast||Magadan||oblast||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||461,400||182,726||1953|
|50||Moscow Oblast||Largest city: Balashikha [c]||oblast||Central||Central||44,300||6,618,538||1929|
|52||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast||Nizhny Novgorod||oblast||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||76,900||3,524,028||1936|
|53||Novgorod Oblast||Veliky Novgorod||oblast||Northwestern||Northwestern||55,300||694,355||1944|
|54||Novosibirsk Oblast||Novosibirsk||oblast||Siberian||West Siberian||178,200||2,692,251||1937|
|55||Omsk Oblast||Omsk||oblast||Siberian||West Siberian||139,700||2,079,220||1934|
|61||Rostov Oblast||Rostov-on-Don||oblast||Southern||North Caucasus||100,800||4,404,013||1937|
|65||Sakhalin Oblast||Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk||oblast||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||87,100||546,695||1947|
|68||Tambov Oblast||Tambov||oblast||Central||Central Black Earth||34,300||1,178,443||1937|
|70||Tomsk Oblast||Tomsk||oblast||Siberian||West Siberian||316,900||1,046,039||1944|
|72||Tyumen Oblast||Tyumen||oblast||Ural||West Siberian||143,520||3,264,841||1944|
|75||Zabaykalsky Krai||Chita||krai||Far Eastern||East Siberian||431,500||1,155,346||2008|
|78||Saint Petersburg||—||federal city||Northwestern||Northwestern||1,439||4,662,547||1703|
|79||Jewish Autonomous Oblast||Birobidzhan||autonomous oblast||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||36,000||190,915||1934|
|80||Nenets Autonomous Okrug||Naryan-Mar||autonomous okrug||Northwestern||Northern||176,700||41,546||1929|
|81||Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra|| Khanty-Mansiysk |
(Largest city: Surgut)
|autonomous okrug||Ural||West Siberian||523,100||1,432,817||1930|
|82||Chukotka Autonomous Okrug||Anadyr||autonomous okrug||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||737,700||53,824||1930|
|83||Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug|| Salekhard |
(Largest city: Noyabrsk)
|autonomous okrug||Ural||West Siberian||750,300||507,006||1930|
|84||Republic of Crimea [d]||Simferopol||republic||Southern||North Caucasus||26,964||1,966,801||2014|
|85||Sevastopol [d]||—||federal city||Southern||North Caucasus||864||379,200||2014|
a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative center.
b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.
c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.
e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.
Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
|Date of referendum||Date of merger||Original entities||Original codes||New code||Original entities||New entity|
|2003-12-07||2005-12-01||1, 1a||59 (1), 81 (1a)||90||Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a)||Perm Krai|
|2005-04-17||2007-01-01||2, 2a, 2b||24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b)||24||Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b)||Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|2005-10-23||2007-07-01||3, 3a||41 (3), 82 (3a)||91||Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a)||Kamchatka Krai|
|2006-04-16||2008-01-01||4, 4a||38 (4), 85 (4a)||38||Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a)||Irkutsk Oblast|
|2007-03-11||2008-03-01||5, 5a||75 (5), 80 (5a)||92||Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a)||Zabaykalsky Krai|
In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:
With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a GRP per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.
In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the national average.
Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.
In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.
On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population.
Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.
Plesetsk is an urban locality and the administrative center of Plesetsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, situated about 800 kilometers (500 mi) northeast of Moscow and 180 kilometers (110 mi) south of Arkhangelsk. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Plesetskoye Urban Settlement, one of eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 11,037 (2010 Census); 11,300 (2002 Census); 14,027 (1989 Census).
Arkhangelsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO). Including the NAO, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.
The Komi Republic, or Komi is a federal subject of Russia. Its capital is the city of Syktyvkar. The population of the republic, as of the 2010 Census was 901,189.
The Karachay-Cherkess Republic or Karachay-Cherkessia is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region of Southern Russia and is administratively part of the North Caucasian Federal District. Karachay-Cherkessia has a population of 477,859.
Tyumen Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Western Siberia region of Siberia, and is administratively part of the Urals Federal District. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugs: Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen Oblast including its autonomous okrugs is the third-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 3,395,755 (2010).
Nenets Autonomous Okrug is a federal subject of Russia and part of Arkhangelsk Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Naryan-Mar. It has an area of 176,700 square kilometers (68,200 sq mi) and a population of 42,090 as of the 2010 Census.
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra or Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug–Yugra is a federal subject of Russia. It has a population of 1,532,243 as of the 2010 Census.
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the town of Salekhard, and its largest city is Noyabrsk. Its population was counted to be 522,904 in the 2010 Census.
Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, or Taymyria, was a federal subject of Russia, the northernmost in Siberian Russia. It was named after the Taymyr Peninsula. It was also called Dolgan-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, by the name of the indigenous people, Dolgans and Nenetses.
Okrug is an administrative division of some Slavic states. The word "okrug" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "district", or "region".
Autonomous okrug, occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.
A city of federal importance or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject. There are three federal cities: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol. Two of them are the largest cities in the country: Moscow is the national capital and Saint Petersburg is a previous Russian capital and important port on the Baltic Sea. Sevastopol is the newest federal city, located in the disputed region of Crimea, which was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014 but is recognised as Ukrainian territory by most of the international community.
Russia is divided into twelve economic regions —groups of federal subjects sharing the following characteristics:
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arkhangelsk Oblast is divided into six cities and towns of oblast significance, twenty-one districts, and two island territories. Besides, Mirny is a town under the federal government management.
Russia, the largest country in the world, has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan, as well as the borders with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The country has a land border running 20,241 kilometres (12,577 mi) in total, and has the second-longest land border of any country in the world, after China. The present borders of the Russia have been drawn since 1956, and had remained the same after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; until in 2014, when Crimea was annexed by Russia from Ukraine.
Mezensky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Mezensky Municipal District. It is located in the northeast of the oblast and borders with Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the northeast, Ust-Tsilemsky District of the Komi Republic in the east, Leshukonsky and Pinezhsky Districts in the south, and with Primorsky District in the southwest. From the north, the district borders the White Sea. The area of the district is 34,400 square kilometers (13,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Mezen. Population: 10,330 (2010 Census); 13,124 (2002 Census); 17,796 (1989 Census). The population of Mezen accounts for 34.6% of the total district's population.
The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject (republic) of Russia located on the disputed Crimean Peninsula, which was annexed by Russia from Ukraine in 2014, but is still internationally recognized as being part of Ukraine. The capital city and largest city within the republic is Simferopol, which is also the second-largest city of the peninsula, behind the federal city of Sevastopol. At the last census, the republic had a population of 1,891,465 .
Perevalivka is a village in the Sudak Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
The highest official of the subject of the Russian Federation, also known as the holder of the highest office of subject of the Russian Federation or the head of the highest executive body of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation and colloquially and collectively referred to as the title Governor or head of region, is the head and the chief executive of each of the federal subjects of Russia, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the federal subject, all of which are equal constituent entities of Russia.