Federal subjects of Russia

Last updated

Federal subjects
Субъекты федерации (Russian)
Map of federal subjects of Russia (2022), disputed Crimea and Donbass.svg
Crimea, Donbas, Kherson, and Zaporizhzhia, internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, shown with diagonal stripes.
   Republics
   Krais (territories)
   Oblasts (regions)
   Autonomous oblast
(autonomous region)
   Autonomous okrugs
(autonomous areas with a
substantial ethnic minority)
Category Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
LocationFlag of Russia.svg  Russian Federation
Created
  • 12 December 1993
Number 83
Populations41,431 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 13,010,112 (Moscow)
Areas864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)
Government
Subdivisions

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian : субъекты Российской Федерации, romanized: subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian : субъекты федерации, romanized: subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. [1] Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject geographically separated from the rest of the Russian Federation by other countries.

Contents

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. [1] Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993, the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, after being annexed from Ukraine, the Russian government claimed Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea to be the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia, a move that is not recognized internationally. [2] [3] During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, four Ukrainian oblasts were annexed by Russia, though they remain internationally recognized as part of Ukraine and are only partially occupied by Russia. [4]

Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution or charter and legislation, although the authority of these organs differ. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. [1] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy; republics are offered more autonomy.

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and did not change at the time of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian : Федеративный договорFederativny dogovor), [5] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by federal referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on 25 December 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policies of Vladimir Putin and of the ruling United Russia party, the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

Terminology

An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation." [1] A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation". [6]

Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject". [7] This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, saying in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)". [8]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO)RussianEnglish translations of the constitution ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
(Cyrillic)(Latin)Official [1] Unofficial [6]
субъект Российской Федерацииsub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsiiconstituent entity of the Russian Federationsubject of the Russian Federation(not mentioned)
1республикаrespublika
republic
2край
kray
territoryadministrative territory
3областьoblastʹoblastregionadministrative region
город федерального значенияgorod federalʹnogo znacheniyacity of federal significancecity of federal importanceautonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный городavtonomnyy gorod)
5автономная областьavtonomnaya oblastʹautonomous oblastautonomous regionautonomous region
6автономный округavtonomnyy okrugautonomous okrugautonomous areaautonomous district

Types

Federal subjects of Russia. Map of federal subjects of Russia (2022), disputed Crimea and Donbass.svg
Federal subjects of Russia.

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

Legend [9] Description
  21 republics
  3 unrecognized
Nominally autonomous, [10] [11] each with its own constitution, language, and legislature, but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Most are designated as the home to a specific ethnic minority as their titular nation or nations.
Donetsk and Luhansk Oblast are internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, but were partially occupied by Russian and Russian-controlled forces in 2014, and declared annexed by Russia as the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics in 2022. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but was occupied and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea in 2014.
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
  46 oblasts
  2 unrecognized
The most common type, with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
Kherson and Zaporizhzhia Oblast are internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, but were partially occupied by Russian forces and declared annexed in 2022.
  1 unrecognized
Major cities that function as separate regions.
Sevastopol is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but was occupied and annexed by Russia in 2014.
An Autonomous Oblast has increased powers compared to traditional oblasts, but not enough to be considered a Republic. The only one remaining is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast; however, Russia previously had 4 other Autonomous Oblasts that were changed into Republics on the 3rd of July 1991.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area" or "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority designated as its titular nation. With the exception of Chukotka, each of the autonomous okrugs is part of another oblast (Arkhangelsk or Tyumen), as well as functioning as a federal subject by itself.

List

Federal subjects of the Russian Federation
CodeNameCapital/
Administrative centre [a]
FlagCoat
of arms
TypeHead of subject Federal district Economic region Area
(km2) [12]
Population [13] Est.
Titular nationTotaldensity (km2)
01 Adygea Maykop Flag of Adygea.svg Coat of arms of Adygea.svg republic Circassians Murat Kumpilov (UR) Southern North Caucasus 7,792496,93463.771922
02 Bashkortostan Ufa Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan (Better Colors).png Bashkirs Radiy Khabirov (UR) Volga Ural 142,9474,091,42328.621919
03 Buryatia Ulan-Ude Flag of Buryatia.svg Coat of Arms of Buryatiya.svg Buryats Alexey Tsydenov (UR) Far Eastern East Siberian 351,334978,5882.791923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk Flag of Altai Republic.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg Altai Oleg Khorokhordin (Ind.) Siberian West Siberian 92,903210,9242.271922
05 Dagestan Makhachkala Flag of Dagestan.svg Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg Aghuls, Avars, Azerbaijanis, Chechens, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Tats, Tsakhurs Sergey Melikov (Ind.) North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,2703,182,05463.301921
06 Ingushetia Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Flag of Ingushetia.svg Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg Ingush Mahmud-Ali Kalimatov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 3,628509,541163.161992
07 Kabardino-Balkaria Nalchik Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Balkars, Kabardians Kazbek Kokov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,470904,20072.511936
08 Kalmykia Elista Flag of Kalmykia.svg Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg Kalmyks Batu Khasikov (UR) Southern Volga 74,731267,1333.571957
09 Karachay-Cherkessia Cherkessk Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Abazins, Kabardians, Karachays, Nogais Rashid Temrezov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,277469,86532.911957
10 Karelia Petrozavodsk Flag of Karelia.svg Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg Karelians Artur Parfenchikov (UR) Northwestern Northern 180,520533,1212.951956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar Flag of Komi.svg Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg Komi Vladimir Uyba (UR) Northwestern Northern 416,774737,8531.771921
12 Mari El Yoshkar-Ola Flag of Mari El.svg Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg Mari Yury Zaitsev (UR, acting) Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,375677,09728.971920
13 Mordovia Saransk Flag of Mordovia.svg Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg Mordvins Artyom Zdunov (UR) Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,128783,55229.991930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Yakutsk Flag of Sakha.svg Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg Yakuts Aysen Nikolayev (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,083,523995,6860.321922
15 North Ossetia–Alania Vladikavkaz Flag of North Ossetia.svg Wapen Ossetien.svg Ossetians Sergey Menyaylo (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 7,987687,35786.061924
16 Tatarstan Kazan Flag of Tatarstan.svg Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg Tatars Rustam Minnikhanov (UR) Volga Volga 67,8474,004,80959.031920
17 Tuva Kyzyl Flag of Tuva.svg Coat of arms of Tuva.svg Tuvans Vladislav Khovalyg (UR) Siberian East Siberian 168,604336,6512.001944
18 Udmurtia Izhevsk Flag of Udmurtia.svg Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg Udmurts Aleksandr Brechalov (UR) Volga Ural 42,0611,452,91434.541920
19 Khakassia Abakan Flag of Khakassia.svg Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg Khakas Valentin Konovalov (CPRF) Siberian East Siberian 61,569534,7958.691930
20 [e] Chechnya Grozny Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg Chechens Ramzan Kadyrov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 16,1651,510,82493.431991
21 Chuvashia Cheboksary Flag of Chuvashia.svg Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg Chuvash Oleg Nikolayev (SRZP) Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,3431,186,90964.711920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul Flag of Altai Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Krai.svg krai Viktor Tomenko (UR) Siberian West Siberian 167,9962,163,69312.881937
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Krasnodar Kray.svg Veniamin Kondratyev (UR) Southern North Caucasus 75,4855,838,27377.341937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk Flag of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Aleksandr Uss (UR) Siberian East Siberian 2,366,7972,856,9711.211934
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg Oleg Kozhemyako (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 164,6731,845,16511.211938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg Coat of arms of Stavropol Krai.svg Vladimir Vladimirov (UR) North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,1602,907,59343.951934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Coat of arms of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Mikhail Degtyarev (LDPR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 787,6331,292,9441.641938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk Flag of Amur Oblast.svg Amurskaja obl coa 2008.png oblast Vasily Orlov (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 361,908766,9122.121932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast.svg Alexander Tsybulsky (UR) Northwestern Northern 413,103978,8732.371937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Igor Babushkin (Ind.) Southern Volga 49,024960,14219.591943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod New Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg New Coat of Arms of Belgorod Oblast.svg Vyacheslav Gladkov (UR) Central Central Black Earth 27,1341,540,48656.771954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Bryansk Oblast.svg Alexander Bogomaz (UR) Central Central 34,8571,169,16133.541944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast.svg Aleksandr Avdeyev (UR, acting) Central Central 29,0841,348,13446.351944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast.svg Andrey Bocharov (Ind.) Southern Volga 112,8772,500,78122.151937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Flag of Vologda oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vologda oblast.svg Oleg Kuvshinnikov (UR) Northwestern Northern 144,5271,142,8277.911937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Voronezh Oblast.svg Aleksandr Gusev (UR) Central Central Black Earth 52,2162,308,79244.221934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Stanislav Voskresensky (Ind.) Central Central 21,437927,82843.281936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Irkutsk Oblast.svg Igor Kobzev (Ind.) Siberian East Siberian 774,8462,370,1023.061937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Anton Alikhanov (UR) Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,1251,029,96668.101946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kaluga Oblast.svg Vladislav Shapsha (UR) Central Central 29,7771,069,90435.931944
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg krai Vladimir Solodov (Ind.) Far Eastern Far Eastern 464,275291,7050.632007
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast.svg oblast Sergey Tsivilyov (UR) Siberian West Siberian 95,7252,600,92327.171943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov Flag of Kirov Region.svg Coat of arms of Kirov Region.svg Aleksandr Sokolov (UR, acting) Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,3741,153,6809.581934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kostroma Oblast.svg Sergey Sitnikov (Ind.) Central Central 60,211580,9769.651944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kurgan Oblast.svg Vadim Shumkov (Ind.) Ural Ural 71,488776,66110.861943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast.svg Roman Starovoyt (UR) Central Central Black Earth 29,9971,082,45836.091934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina [b] Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg Aleksandr Drozdenko (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 83,9082,000,99723.851927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast.svg Igor Artamonov (UR) Central Central Black Earth 24,0471,143,22447.541954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast.svg Sergey Nosov (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 462,464136,0850.291953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha [c] Flag of Moscow oblast.svg Coat of arms of Moscow Oblast (large).svg Andrey Vorobyov (UR) Central Central 44,3298,524,665192.301929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg Gerb Murmanskoi oblasti.svg Andrey Chibis (UR) Northwestern Northern 144,902667,7444.611938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Gleb Nikitin (UR) Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,6243,119,11540.711936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novgorod Oblast.png Andrey Nikitin (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 54,501583,38710.701944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Andrey Travnikov (UR) Siberian West Siberian 177,7562,797,17615.741937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Omsk Oblast.svg Alexander Burkov (SRZP) Siberian West Siberian 141,1401,858,79813.171934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Flag of Orenburg Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast.svg Denis Pasler (UR) Volga Ural 123,7021,862,76715.061934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast (small).svg Andrey Klychkov (CPRF) Central Central 24,652713,37428.941937
58 Penza Oblast Penza Flag of Penza Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Penza Oblast.svg Oleg Melnichenko (UR) Volga Volga 43,3521,266,34829.211939
59 Perm Krai Perm Flag of Perm Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Perm Krai.svg krai Dmitry Makhonin (Ind.) Volga Ural 160,2362,532,40515.802005
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov Flag of Pskov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Pskov Oblast.svg oblast Mikhail Vedernikov (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 55,399599,08410.811944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Rostov Oblast.svg Vasily Golubev (UR) Southern North Caucasus 100,9674,200,72941.601937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Flag of Ryazan Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Ryazan Oblast.svg Pavel Malkov (Ind.) Central Central 39,6051,102,81027.851937
63 Samara Oblast Samara Flag of Samara Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Samara Oblast.svg Dmitry Azarov (UR) Volga Volga 53,5653,172,92559.241928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov Flag of Saratov Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast.svg Roman Busargin (UR) Volga Volga 101,2402,442,57524.131936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms.svg Valery Limarenko (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,101466,6095.361947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast.svg Yevgeny Kuyvashev (UR) Ural Ural 194,3074,268,99821.971935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Smolensk oblast.svg Alexey Ostrovsky (LDPR) Central Central 49,779888,42117.851937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tambov Oblast.svg Maksim Yegorov (UR, acting) Central Central Black Earth 34,462982,99128.521937
69 Tver Oblast Tver Flag of Tver Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tver oblast.svg Igor Rudenya (UR) Central Central 84,2011,230,17114.611935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk Flag of Tomsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast, Russia.svg Vladimir Mazur (UR, acting) Siberian West Siberian 314,3911,062,6663.381944
71 Tula Oblast Tula Flag of Tula Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tula oblast.png Aleksey Dyumin (UR) Central Central 25,6791,501,21458.461937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tyumen Oblast.svg Aleksandr Moor (UR) Ural West Siberian 160,1221,601,94010.001944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Flag Ul'ianovskoi oblasti (2013).svg Gerb Ul'ianovskoi oblasti (2013).svg Aleksey Russkikh (CPRF) Volga Volga 37,1811,196,74532.191943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Aleksey Teksler (UR) Ural Ural 88,5293,431,22438.761934
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg krai Aleksandr Osipov (Ind.) Far Eastern East Siberian 431,8921,004,1252.322008
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg oblast Mikhail Yevrayev (Ind.) Central Central 36,1771,209,81133.441936
77 Moscow Flag of Moscow.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow.svg federal city Sergey Sobyanin (UR) Central Central 2,56113,010,1125,080.091147
78 Saint Petersburg Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).svg Alexander Beglov (UR) Northwestern Northwestern 1,4035,601,9113,992.811703
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg autonomous oblast Jews Rostislav Goldstein (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,271150,4534.151934
80 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of arms of Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg autonomous okrug Nenets Yury Bezdudny (UR) Northwestern Northern 176,81041,4340.231929
81 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Flag of Yugra.svg Coat of arms of Yugra (Khanty-Mansia).svg Khanty, Mansi Natalya Komarova (UR) Ural West Siberian 534,8011,711,4803.201930
82 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr Flag of Chukotka.svg Coat of Arms of Chukotka.svg Chukchi Roman Kopin (UR) Far Eastern Far Eastern 721,48147,4900.071930
83 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Novy Urengoy)
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia.svg Nenets Dmitry Artyukhov (UR) Ural West Siberian 769,250510,4900.661930
Federal subjects in the internationally recognized territory of Ukraine
84 Republic of Crimea [d] Simferopol Flag of Crimea.svg Emblem of Crimea.svg republic Sergey Aksyonov (UR) Southern [14] [15] North Caucasus 26,0811,934,63074.182014
85 Sevastopol [d] Flag of Sevastopol.svg COA of Sevastopol.svg federal city Mikhail Razvozhayev (UR) Southern [14] [15] North Caucasus 864547,820634.052014
86 Donetsk People's Republic [d] [f] Donetsk Flag of Donetsk People's Republic.svg Coat of Arms of the Donetsk People's Republic.svg republic Denis Pushilin (UR/ODDR)26,517 [g] 4,100,280 [16] [g] 154.63 [g] 2022
87 Luhansk People's Republic [d] [f] Luhansk Flag of the Luhansk People's Republic.svg COA LPR oct 2014.svg Leonid Pasechnik (UR/ML)26,684 [g] 2,121,322 [16] [g] 79.50 [g] 2022
88 Zaporizhzhia Oblast [d] [f] Melitopol (de facto)
Zaporizhzhia (claimed)
Flag of the Russian administered Zaporizhzhia Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Aleksandrovsk (1811).svg oblast Yevgeny Balitsky (UR)27,183 [g] 1,666,515 [16] [g] 61.31 [g] 2022
89 Kherson Oblast [d] [f] Henichesk (de facto)
Kherson (claimed)
(Largest city: Kherson)
Flag of the Russian administered Kherson Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of the Kherson Military-Civil Administration.svg Volodymyr Saldo (Ind.)28,461 [g] 1,016,707 [16] [g] 35.72 [g] 2022

Notes

a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative centre.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Saint Petersburg. However, Saint Petersburg is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

d. ^ Internationally recognized as part of Ukraine.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

f. ^ Claimed, but only partially controlled by Russia.

g. ^ As Russia only partially controls the region, this is a claimed figure.

Statistics of federal subjects

Mergers, splits and internal territorial changes

Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange) Russian Subjects merged.png
Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Date of referendumDate of mergerOriginal entitiesOriginal codesNew codeOriginal entitiesNew entity
2003-12-072005-12-011, 1a59 (1), 81 (1a)90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-172007-01-012, 2a, 2b24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b)24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-232007-07-013, 3a41 (3), 82 (3a)91 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-162008-01-014, 4a38 (4), 85 (4a)38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-112008-03-015, 5a75 (5), 80 (5a)92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:

With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a Gross Regional Product [GRP] per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.

In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however, they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the federal average. [17] [18]

Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.

In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. [19] [20] The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population. [21]

See also

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References

Notes

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  3. Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  4. "Putin to annex seized Ukrainian land, U.N. Warns of 'dangerous escalation'". Reuters. September 29, 2022.
  5. This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions:
  6. 1 2 "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Garant-Internet. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
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  8. Nekrasova, Tamara (2011). "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" (PDF). Eulita. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  9. Heaney, Dominic, ed. (2022). "Territorial Surveys". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2022 (23rd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN   9781032249698.
  10. The Territories of the Russian Federation 2012. Taylor & Francis. 2012. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-135-09584-0 . Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  11. Saunders, R.A. (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 232. ISBN   978-1-5381-2048-4 . Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  12. "Таблица 5. Численность населения России, федеральных округов, субъектов Российской Федерации, городских округов, муниципальных районов, муниципальных округов, городских и сельских поселений, городских населенных пунктов, сельских населенных пунктов с населением 3000 человек и более". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography . Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  13. "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  14. 1 2 "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia" . Retrieved July 29, 2016.
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  16. 1 2 3 4 Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  17. Archived March 26, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ""Рейтинг трезвости-2017": кто в России меньше всех пьет".
  19. Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  20. "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times . May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
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