Felicia Hemans

Last updated

Felicia Hemans
Unknown woman, formerly known as Felicia Dorothea Hemans from NPG.jpg
Born(1793-09-25)25 September 1793
Liverpool, Lancashire, England
Died16 May 1835(1835-05-16) (aged 41)
Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland
OccupationPoet
NationalityBritish
PeriodLate Romantic
GenrePoetry

Felicia Dorothea Hemans (25 September 1793 – 16 May 1835) was an English poet (who identified as Welsh by adoption). [1] [2] Two of her opening lines, "The boy stood on the burning deck" and "The stately homes of England", have acquired classic status.

Contents

Early life and education

118 Duke Street, Liverpool, birthplace of Felicia Hemans 118 Duke Street, Liverpool 2018.jpg
118 Duke Street, Liverpool, birthplace of Felicia Hemans

Felicia Dorothea Browne was the daughter of George Browne, who worked for his father-in-law's wine importing business and succeeded him as Tuscan and imperial consul in Liverpool, and Felicity, daughter of Benedict Paul Wagner (1718–1806), wine importer at 9 Wolstenholme Square, Liverpool and Venetian consul for that city. [3] Hemans was the fourth of six children (three boys and three girls) to survive infancy. Her sister Harriett collaborated musically with Hemans and later edited her complete works (7 vols. with memoir, 1839). [3] George Browne's business soon brought the family to Denbighshire in North Wales, where she spent her youth. They lived in a cottage within the grounds of Gwrych Castle near Abergele [4] when Felicia was seven years old until she was sixteen [5] and later moved to Bronwylfa, St. Asaph (Flintshire); she later called Wales "Land of my childhood, my home and my dead". Lydia Sigourney says of her education:

"The nature of the education of Mrs. Hemans, was favourable to the development of her genius. A wide range of classical and poetical studies, with the acquisition of several languages, supplied both pleasant aliment and needful discipline. She required not the excitement of a more public system of culture,—for the never-resting love of knowledge was her school master." [6]

Hemans was proficient in Welsh, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. [7] [ citation needed ] Her sister Harriet remarked that "One of her earliest tastes was a passion for Shakspeare, which she read, as her choicest recreation, at six years old." [8]

Career

Hemans’ first poems, dedicated to the Prince of Wales, were published in Liverpool in 1808, when she was fourteen, arousing the interest of poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, who briefly corresponded with her. She quickly followed them up with "England and Spain" (1808) and "The Domestic Affections" (1812).

From "Casabianca" (1826)

The boy stood on the burning deck,
 Whence all but he had fled;
The flame that lit the battle's wreck
 Shone round him o'er the dead.

Yet beautiful and bright he stood,
 As born to rule the storm;
A creature of heroic blood,
 A proud though childlike form.

From "Casabianca"
October 1826 [9]

Hemans‘ major collections, including The Forest Sanctuary (1825), Records of Woman and Songs of the Affections (1830) were popular, especially with female readers. Her last books, sacred and profane, were Scenes and Hymns of Life and National Lyrics, and Songs for Music. She was by now a well-known literary figure, highly regarded by contemporaries such as Wordsworth, and with a popular following in the United States and the United Kingdom.

Personal life

In 1812, she married Captain Alfred Hemans, an Irish army officer some years older than herself. The marriage took her away from Wales, to Daventry in Northamptonshire until 1814. During their first six years of marriage, Hemans gave birth to five sons, including G. W. Hemans and Charles Isidore Hemans, and then the couple separated. Marriage had not, however, prevented her from continuing her literary career, with several volumes of poetry being published by the respected firm of John Murray in the period after 1816, beginning with The Restoration of the Works of Art to Italy (1816) and Modern Greece (1817). Tales and Historic Scenes was the collection which came out in 1819, the year of their separation.

From 1831, Hemans lived in Dublin. At her death of dropsy, William Wordsworth, Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Lydia Huntley Sigourney and Walter Savage Landor composed memorial verses in her honour. She is buried in St. Ann's Church, Dawson Street.

Legacy

Felicia Hemans Felicia Hemans 2.jpg
Felicia Hemans

Hemans's works appeared in nineteen individual books during her lifetime. After her death in 1835, they were republished widely, usually as collections of individual lyrics and not the longer, annotated works and integrated series that made up her books. For surviving female poets, such as Caroline Norton and Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Lydia Sigourney and Frances Harper, the French Amable Tastu and German Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, she was a valued model. To many readers she offered a woman's voice confiding a woman's trials; to others, a lyricism consonant with Victorian sentimentality. Among the works, she valued most were the unfinished "Superstition and Revelation" and the pamphlet "The Sceptic," which sought an Anglicanism more attuned to world religions and women's experiences. In her most successful book, Records of Woman (1828), she chronicles the lives of women, both famous and anonymous.

Hemans' poem "The Homes of England" (1827) is the origin of the phrase "stately home", referring to an English country house.

From "The Homes of England"

The stately Homes of England,
How beautiful they stand!
Amidst their tall ancestral trees,
O’er all the pleasant land;
The deer across their greensward bound
Through shade and sunny gleam,
And the swan glides past them with the sound
Of some rejoicing stream.

The free, fair Homes of England!
Long, long in hut and hall,
May hearts of native proof be reared
To guard each hallowed wall!
And green forever be the groves,
And bright the flowery sod,
Where first the child's glad spirit loves
Its country and its God.

From "The Homes of England"
(1827) [10]

Despite her illustrious admirers her stature as a serious poet gradually declined, partly due to her success in the literary marketplace. Her poetry was considered morally exemplary, and was often assigned to schoolchildren; as a result, Hemans came to be seen as more a poet for children rather than on the basis of her entire body of work. Schoolchildren in the U.S. were still being taught "The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers in New England" in the middle of the 20th century. But by the 21st century, "The Stately Homes of England" refers to Noël Coward's parody, not to the once-famous poem it parodied.

However, her critical reputation has been re-examined in recent years. Her work has resumed a role in standard anthologies and in classrooms and seminars and literary studies, especially in the US. Other anthologised poems include "The Image in Lava," "Evening Prayer at a Girls' School," "I Dream of All Things Free," "Night-Blowing Flowers," "Properzia Rossi," "A Spirit's Return," "The Bride of the Greek Isle," "The Wife of Asdrubal," "The Widow of Crescentius," "The Last Song of Sappho" and "Corinne at the Capitol".

Casabianca

Portrait of Felicia Dorothea Hemans c.1820 Portrait of Felicia Dorothea Hemans (4670849).jpg
Portrait of Felicia Dorothea Hemans c.1820

First published in August 1826 the poem Casabianca (also known as The Boy stood on the Burning Deck) [11] by Hemans depicts Captain Luc-Julien-Joseph Casabianca and his 12-year-old son, Giocante, who both perished aboard the ship Orient during the Battle of the Nile. The poem was very popular from the 1850s on and was memorized in elementary schools for literary practice. Other poetic figures such as Elizabeth Bishop and Samuel Butler allude to the poem in their own works.

"'Speak, Father!' once again he cried / 'If I may yet be gone! / And'—but the booming shots replied / And fast the flames rolled on." Wikisource-logo.svg 'Casabianca' by Felicia Hemans .

The poem is sung in ballad form (abab) and consists of a boy asking his father whether he had fulfilled his duties, as the ship continues to burn until the magazine catches fire. Hemans adds the following note to the poem: 'Young Casabianca, a boy about thirteen years old, son to the Admiral of the Orient, remained at his post (in the Battle of the Nile) after the ship had taken fire, and all the guns had been abandoned, and perished in the explosion of the vessel, when the flames had reached the powder.'

Martin Gardner, Michael R. Turner, and others wrote modern-day parodies that were much more upbeat and consisted of boys stuffing their faces with peanuts and bread. This contrasted sharply with the dramatic image created in Casabianca as Hemans wrote it.

England and Spain, or, Valour and Patriotism

Her second book, England and Spain, or, Valour and Patriotism, was published in 1808 and was a narrative poem honouring her brother and his military service in the Peninsular War. The poem called for an end to the tyranny of Napoleon Bonaparte and for a long-lasting peace. Multiple references to Albion, an older name for Great Britain, emphasize Hemans's patriotism.

"For this thy noble sons have spread alarms, and bade the zones resound with BRITAIN's arms!" [12]

Female suicide in Hemans' works

Several of Hemans's characters take their own lives rather than suffer the social, political and personal consequences of their compromised situations. At Hemans's time, women writers were often torn between a choice of home or the pursuit of a literary career. [13] Hemans herself was able to balance both roles without much public ridicule, but left hints of discontent through the themes of feminine death in her writing. [14] The suicides of women in Hemans's poetry dwell on the same social issue that was confronted both culturally and personally during her life: the choice of caged domestication or freedom of thought and expression. [13]

"The Bride of the Greek Isle", "The Sicilian Captive", "The Last Song of Sappho" and "Indian Woman's Death Song" are some of the most notable of Hemans' works involving women's suicides. Each poem portrays a heroine who is untimely torn from her home by a masculine force – such as pirates, Vikings, and unrequited lovers – and forced to make the decision to accept her new confines or command control over the situation. None of the heroines are complacent with the tragedies that befall them, and the women ultimately take their own lives in either a final grasp for power and expression or a means to escape victimisation. [14]

Selected works

Coeur De Lion At The Bier Of His Father

Torches were blazing clear,
Hymns pealing deep and slow,
Where a king lay stately on his bier
In the church of Fontevraud.
As if each deeply furrowed trace
Of earthly years to show, -
Alas! that sceptred mortal's race
Had surely closed in woe!

And the holy chant was hushed awhile,
As, by the torch's flame,
A gleam of arms up the sweeping aisle
With a mail-clad leader came.
He came with haughty look,
An eagle-glance and clear;
But his proud heart through its breast-plate shook
When he stood beside the bier!

"Oh, father! is it vain,
This late remorse and deep?
Speak to me, father! once again,
I weep, - behold, I weep!
Alas! my guilty pride and ire!
Were but this work undone,
I would give England's crown, my sire!
To hear thee bless thy son.

"Thou that my boyhood's guide
Didst take fond joy to be! -
The times I've sported at thy side,
And climbed thy parent knee!
And there before the blessed shrine,
My sire! I see thee lie, -
How will that sad still face of thine
Look on me till I die!"

From the "Coeur De Lion At The Bier
Of His Father"
poem [15]

Further reading

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anna Laetitia Barbauld</span> English author (1743–1825)

Anna Laetitia Barbauld was a prominent English poet, essayist, literary critic, editor, and author of children's literature. A "woman of letters" who published in multiple genres, Barbauld had a successful writing career that spanned more than half a century.

This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1793.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anne Bradstreet</span> Anglo-American poet

Anne Bradstreet was the most prominent of early English poets of North America and first writer in England's North American colonies to be published. She is the first Puritan figure in American Literature and notable for her large corpus of poetry, as well as personal writings published posthumously.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Casabianca (poem)</span> Poem by Felicia Hemans

"Casabianca" is a poem by the English poet Felicia Dorothea Hemans, first published in The Monthly Magazine, Vol 2, August 1826.

Dramatic monologue is a type of poetry written in the form of a speech of an individual character. M.H. Abrams notes the following three features of the dramatic monologue as it applies to poetry:

  1. The single person, who is patently not the poet, utters the speech that makes up the whole of the poem, in a specific situation at a critical moment […].
  2. This person addresses and interacts with one or more other people; but we know of the auditors' presence, and what they say and do, only from clues in the discourse of the single speaker.
  3. The main principle controlling the poet's choice and formulation of what the lyric speaker says is to reveal to the reader, in a way that enhances its interest, the speaker's temperament and character.
<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dorothea Mackellar</span> Australian poet

Isobel Marion Dorothea Mackellar, was an Australian poet and fiction writer. Her poem My Country is widely known in Australia, especially its second stanza, which begins: "I love a sunburnt country/A land of sweeping plains,/Of ragged mountain ranges,/Of droughts and flooding rains."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lydia Sigourney</span> American poet

Lydia Huntley Sigourney, néeLydia Howard Huntley, was an American poet, author, and publisher during the early and mid 19th century. She was commonly known as the "Sweet Singer of Hartford." She had a long career as a literary expert, publishing 52 books and in over 300 periodicals in her lifetime. While some of her works were signed anonymously, most of her works were published with just her married name Mrs. Sigourney. During the lyceum movement that flourished in the United States in the 19th century, women named literary societies and study clubs in her honor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Violet Nicolson</span> English poet

Violet Nicolson, was an English poet who wrote under the pseudonym Laurence Hope, however she became known as Violet Nicolson. In the early 1900s, she became a best-selling author.

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.

Dorothea Primrose Campbell was a poet, novelist and teacher from the Shetland islands of Scotland. She wrote a novel, Harley Radington: A Tale (1821), and had poems and short fiction printed in London periodicals. Campbell continued to write in the face of family trauma, poverty, and ethnic and gender discrimination. Her melodic, whimsical poetry and her works of fiction are seen as revealing works that cover historical and societal barriers which Campbell herself was facing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Annie Finch</span> American poet (born 1956)

Annie Finch is an American poet, critic, editor, translator, playwright, and performer and the editor of the first major anthology of literature about abortion. Her poetry is known for its often incantatory use of rhythm, meter, and poetic form and for its themes of feminism, witchcraft, goddesses, and earth-based spirituality. Her books include The Poetry Witch Little Book of Spells, Spells: New and Selected Poems, The Body of Poetry: Essays on Women, Form, and the Poetic Self, A Poet’s Craft, Calendars, and Among the Goddesses.

Susan J. Wolfson is Professor of English at Princeton University. She received her PhD from University of California, Berkeley and, previous to Princeton, taught for thirteen years at Rutgers University New Brunswick. Wolfson's recent books include Frankenstein: Longman Cultural Edition (2007). Formal Charges: The Shaping of Poetry in English Romanticism and The Questioning Presence: Wordsworth, Keats, and the Interrogative Mode in Romantic Poetry ; two editions, Lord Byron: Selected Poems, co-edited with Peter Manning, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson, coedited with Barry V. Qualls, and scholarship on William Blake, S.T. Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Dorothy Wordsworth, Mary Lamb, Lord Byron, John Keats, Felicia Hemans, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, various topics on British Romanticism.

Harriet Mary Browne Owen (1798–1858) was an English writer and composer, the sister of poet Felicia Hemans. Browne was a granddaughter of the Venetian consul in Liverpool, and the family moved from there to Denbighshire in North Wales for her father to pursue his business. She grew up near Abergele and St. Asaph in Flintshire, and married a man named Owen. She was confused within her own lifetime with another composer, making attribution of her works difficult. Besides composing, she wrote a The works of Mrs. Hemans, with a memoir by her sister. She also used the pseudonym Mrs. Hughes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adelaide Anne Procter</span> English poet and songwriter

Adelaide Anne Procter was an English poet and philanthropist.

Lady Eliza Dorothea Tuite was an Irish author and poet. She was a member of the Anglo-Irish gentry, the distinguished Cobbe family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Romantic literature in English</span> Era in English-language literature

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Scholars regard the publishing of William Wordsworth's and Samuel Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads in 1798 as probably the beginning of the movement, and the crowning of Queen Victoria in 1837 as its end. Romanticism arrived in other parts of the English-speaking world later; in the United States, it arrived around 1820.

Mary Ann Browne was an English poet and writer of musical scores.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lou Singletary Bedford</span> American author and editor

Lou Singletary Bedford was an American author and editor. Her poems were published when she was sixteen using a pen name until she married. Later she wrote songs. Bedford contributed periodicals published to many southern States. In El Paso, she filled the position of social and literary editor of the El Paso Sunday Morning Tribune.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amanda M. Edmond</span> American writer

Amanda Maria Corey Edmond was an American poet and children's writer.

Emma Alice Browne was a 19th-century American poet. She contributed to various periodicals, including Louisville Journal, The Pantagraph, The Saturday Evening Post, Graham's Magazine, and The Methodist Protestant (Baltimore). Many of her early writings were contributed to the Cecil Whig, while the New York Ledger monopolized her writings for the last 32 years of her life. Browne was a friend of George D. Prentice and Sallie M. Bryan.

References

  1. "The Boy Stood on the Burning Deck". 19 March 2013.
  2. Hendon, S. & Byrne, A. & Singer, R., (2018) “Reviews”, International Journal of Welsh Writing in English 5(1), p.1-11. doi: https://doi.org/10.16995/ijwwe.5.4
  3. 1 2 "Felicia Hemans" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12888. ISBN   978-0-19-861412-8 . Retrieved 3 September 2017.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. Liverpool Evening Express - Friday 15 September 1944 [Page 2]
  5. Black's picturesque guide to North Wales, 1874. [Page 36])
  6. Essay on the Genius and Writings of Mrs. Hemans, by Mrs Sigourney, New York, 1845.
  7. Translations from Camoens; and Other Poets, with Original Poetry, Felicia Hemans, 1818
  8. Memoir of the Life and Writings of Felicia Hemans by her Sister, New York, 1845.
  9. A Library of Poetry and Song: Being Choice Selections from The Best Poets. With An Introduction by William Cullen Bryant, New York, J.B. Ford and Company, 1871, p. 487.
  10. A Library of Poetry and Song: Being Choice Selections from The Best Poets. With An Introduction by William Cullen Bryant, New York, J.B. Ford and Company, 1871, p. 137.
  11. "Casablanca : Image" (JPG). Readytogoebooks.com. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  12. "British Women Romantic Poets Project". Digital.lib.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  13. 1 2 Lootens, Tricia (1994). "Hemans and Home: Victorianism, Feminine "Internal Enemies," and the Domestication of National Identity". PMLA. 109 (2): 238–253. doi:10.2307/463119. JSTOR   463119.
  14. 1 2 Robinson, Jeffrey C. (3 September 2017). "The Poetics of Expiration: Felicia Hemans". Romanticism on the Net (29–30). doi:10.7202/007715ar.
  15. A Library of Poetry and Song: Being Choice Selections from The Best Poets. With An Introduction by William Cullen Bryant, New York, J.B. Ford and Company, 1871, pp. 212-213.