Ferdinand Piëch

Last updated

Ferdinand Piëch
Ferdinand Piech by Stuart Mentiply.jpg
Ferdinand Karl Piëch

(1937-04-17)17 April 1937
Died25 August 2019(2019-08-25) (aged 82)
Occupation Automobile engineer, business executive
Known forChairman of Volkswagen Group until 25 April 2015 [1] [2]
Spouse(s)Unknown first wife (before 1984)
Ursula Piëch (1984–2019; his death)
Children 13
Relatives Louise Porsche Piëch - mother
Anton Piëch - father
Ferdinand Porsche - grandfather
Ferry Porsche - uncle
Wolfgang Porsche- cousin
Ferdinand Porsche III - cousin

Ferdinand Karl Piëch (German pronunciation: [ˈfɛʁdinant ˈpiːɛç] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); 17 April 1937 – 25 August 2019) [3] was an Austrian business magnate, engineer and executive who was the chairman of the executive board (Vorstandsvorsitzender) of Volkswagen Group in 1993–2002 and the chairman of the supervisory board (Aufsichtsratsvorsitzender) of Volkswagen Group in 2002–2015. [2]


A grandson of Ferdinand Porsche, Piëch started his career at Porsche, before leaving for Audi after an agreement that no member of the Porsche or Piëch families should be involved in the day-to-day operations of the Porsche company. Piëch eventually became the head of Audi, where he is credited with evolving and growing Audi into a competitor to equal Mercedes-Benz and BMW, thanks in part to innovative designs such as the Quattro and 100. In 1993, Piëch became the chairman and CEO of Volkswagen Group, which he is credited with turning into the large conglomerate it is today; He oversaw the purchase of Lamborghini and Bentley, as well as the founding of Bugatti Automobiles, all of which he integrated with the Volkswagen, Škoda, SEAT and Audi brands into a ladder-type structure similar to that used by Alfred Sloan at General Motors. Piëch was required to retire at age 65 per Volkswagen company policy, but he remained on its supervisory board and was involved in the company's strategic decisions until his resignation on 25 April 2015. [4]

Educated as an engineer, Piëch influenced the development of numerous significant cars including the Porsche 911, Audi Quattro and notably, the Bugatti Veyron, which as of 2012 was the fastest, most powerful and most expensive road legal automobile ever built. Due to his influence on the automobile industry, Piëch was named the Car Executive of the Century in 1999 [5] and was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2014.


Piëch was born in Vienna, Austria, to Louise (née Porsche; Ferdinand's daughter) and Anton Piëch, a lawyer. He studied at the Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz and graduated from the ETH Zurich, Switzerland, in 1962, with a degree in mechanical engineering, having written a master thesis about the development of a Formula One (F1) engine. At the same time, Porsche was involved in F1 and developed an 8-cylinder engine for the Porsche 804.

From 1963 to 1971, he worked at Porsche in Stuttgart, on the development of the Porsche 906 and following models that led to the successful Porsche 917. In 1972, he moved to Audi in Ingolstadt. Starting from 1975, he was manager of technological engineering, being responsible for the concepts of many Audi models from the 1970s and 1980s, including the Audi 80, Audi 100 and the Audi V8. He celebrated his 40th birthday on 17 April 1977 with a ball at which guests included Giorgetto Giugiaro and at which the staff of the Porsche Hotel presented him with an Audi 80 that was just 40 cm (16 in) long and constructed of marzipan. [6] In 1977 he also initiated the development of a car for the World Rally Championship, resulting in the four-wheel drive Audi Quattro. The engine used in the Quattro model was a turbocharged inline-5 cylinder unit.

Piëch held a small engineering company in the time between leaving Porsche AG and joining Audi, and while there, he developed a 5-cylinder in-line diesel engine for Mercedes-Benz. He picked up the concept again after moving to Audi, because there was a market demand for engines with more than 4 cylinders. At the time, Audi (and the Audi-derived VW Passat/Santana model range) used longitudinally mounted inline engines and front wheel drive. More conservative layouts with 6 cylinders were rejected because of engineering and production costs (V6 engine) or packaging requirements (straight 6 did not fit because front wheel drive required that it be mounted in front of the axle).

In 1993, Piëch moved to Volkswagen AG, parent company of the Volkswagen Group, where he became Chairman of the Board of Management, succeeding Carl Hahn. At that time Volkswagen was only three months from bankruptcy, and he was central to orchestrating its dramatic turnaround. [7] He retired from the Board of Management in 2002, but still served in an advisory capacity as Chairman of the Supervisory Board. In 2000, he was named chairman of Scania AB. [8] He retired from the management board in 2002 and was succeeded as chairman by Bernd Pischetsrieder.

While head of Volkswagen Group, Piëch was known for his aggressive moves into other markets. He drove the Volkswagen and Audi brands upmarket with great success. Piëch also pursued other marques, successfully acquiring Lamborghini for Audi, and establishing Bugatti Automobiles SAS. His purchase of British Rolls-Royce and Bentley was more controversial. After successfully buying the Crewe, England, car building operation, including the vehicle designs, nameplates, administrative headquarters, production facilities, Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks, VW was denied the use of the Rolls-Royce brand name, which had been licensed to BMW by Rolls-Royce Holdings, and was thought to be the most valuable part of the division. After tensions had formed between the two companies, VW later sold the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks to BMW, which allowed them to found Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, and produce a new line of cars that were unrelated to their predecessors, with all of the traditional Rolls-Royce styling cues. Although Piëch later claimed that he only really wanted the Bentley brand, as it was the higher volume brand, out-selling the equivalent Rolls Royce by around two to one, the loss of the intellectual property rights for Rolls-Royce to rival BMW was widely seen as a major failure.

What was not a failure, however, was his effort to revitalize Volkswagen in North America. Hahn's previous efforts to regain market share in North America — which he had built up as the head of Volkswagen of America from 1958 to 1965 — were unsuccessful, but Piëch helped reverse VW's fortunes by the decision to manufacture the Volkswagen New Beetle, the introduction of which in 1998 gave Volkswagen of America a much needed impulse, after years of selling competent, but bland offerings in the US.

Due to his continued influence in the auto industry, Automobile Magazine announced that Piëch has won their Man of the Year award for 2011. [9]


At Porsche, Piëch triggered significant changes in the company's policy. For example, the position of drivers in race cars was moved from the left to the right, as this gives advantages on the predominantly clockwise race tracks. After making mainly small 2,000 cc (120 cu in) race cars that were supposed to be closely related to road cars, Porsche made a risky investment by unexpectedly building twenty-five 5,000 cc (310 cu in) Porsche 917, surprising the rule makers at the FIA. Even Ferrari had needed to sell his company to Fiat before making such a move. Always thinking big, Piëch started development of a 16-cylinder engine for the Can-Am series. It is probably no coincidence that his grandfather had developed a famous supercharged 16-cylinder engine for the Auto Union racing cars in the 1930s. Piëch was denied the chance to complete it, as a turbocharged version of the existing 12-cylinder was simpler, more powerful and very successful. Three decades later as CEO of Volkswagen Group, Piëch insisted on the very ambitious Bugatti Veyron, with a turbocharged W16-cylinder, 1,001 horsepower (746 kW) and 407 km/h (253 mph) top speed. Some of these figures are still not higher than those of the Porsche 917/30, but higher than most current racing cars. Piëch was also behind the Volkswagen Phaeton luxury saloon, which was intended as a rival to other German luxury cars, but the sales of the model have been disappointing.

Porsche ownership

Piëch owned a significant share of Porsche, exactly 10%. In order to prevent discussions among the many family members, a policy was established in early 1972 that no Porsche family member is allowed to be involved in the management of the company. Even company founder Ferry Porsche, Piëch's uncle, only held a seat on the supervisory board of Porsche after the company's legal form was changed from a limited partnership to a private legal company. This made Piëch move to Audi after the foundation of his engineering bureau.

Personal life

Piëch reportedly had 12 children from four different women, [9] though an obituary published by The Detroit News mentioned him having 13 children. [10] He was married to his second wife Ursula Piëch from 1984 to his death, he lived with her in retirement in Salzburg, Austria. [10] One of his sons, Toni Piëch, is the founder of car company Piëch Automotive. He was dyslexic, [9] and had a vast car collection that included two Bugatti Veyrons regularly driven by him and his wife.

Piëch collapsed suddenly on 25 August 2019 while having dinner with his wife in Aschau near Rosenheim, Oberbayern. He was rushed to hospital, where he was pronounced dead shortly thereafter. A specific cause of death wasn't released. [11]

Personality and management style

An engineer by trade, Ferdinand Piech was both known for his intricate involvement in product development from a technical standpoint, as well as his domineering personality. Piech has been behind the development of multiple significant and influential automobiles, including the Porsche 911, Third generation (C3) Audi 100, Audi Quattro and Bugatti Veyron. Automotive blog Jalopnik said of Piech, "He is the mad genius behind much of Porsche and Audi’s racing successes as well as VW’s all-out engineering and luxury push from the early 2000s. That’s what gave us cars like the Bugatti Veyron and the 12-cylinder VW Phaeton." [12] Piech is both noted for turning the Audi brand from an also-ran economy car builder to one of the most respected luxury brands in the world, as well as rescuing Volkswagen as a whole from near-bankruptcy and overseeing its transformation into the massive conglomerate it is today. [13] Fellow automotive executive Bob Lutz described Piech as "one of the most successful leaders in the automotive business" [14] and "the greatest living product guy" in the automobile industry. [15] Automotive News described Piech as "a world-class eccentric but a figure of transcendent importance in the history of cars and car companies" who has had "The strangest and possibly most significant automotive industry career this side of Henry Ford". [16] In their obituary, The Guardian said of Piech, “His stewardship of VW has been indisputably successful. Piech will go down in history as an automotive legend, in the same class as Gottlieb Daimler, Henry Ford and Kiichiro Toyoda.” [17]

Piech has been described as being socially awkward and having an abrasive personality; some automotive journalists who have encountered Piech described him as being uncomfortable to be around. [18] [9] Automotive News once noted, "Many of his CEO peers said they could not hold a normal conversation with him. Discussions could be punctuated with long stretches of unexplained silence." [19] Piech himself has acknowledged that he occasionally struggles to relate to other people and understand their feelings. [20] As Piech rose to the top of Volkswagen in the late 1980s and early 1990s, then-CEO Carl Hahn took notice of Piech's poor social skills and tried to position him as a technocrat kept behind closed doors. [21] Hahn was particularly bothered by how Piech behaved during a meeting with the Emperor of Japan; while the Emperor was showing his collection of vintage swords, Piech examined one and told the Emperor that it was a fake. [21] [lower-alpha 1] Subsequently, Hahn presented the Audi Avus quattro concept car himself at the 1991 Tokyo Motor Show and didn't allow Piech to take part, which infuriated Piech due to his extensive personal involvement in the Avus quattro's creation. [21]

Piech was widely interested in pushing technological boundaries in automotive development, especially as the head of Audi. Automotive News noted of this, "The company’s slogan “Vorsprung durch Technik” was the personification of Piech — the belief that technology was the answer to all problems in the auto business. Audi was the test bed to prove his theory and the springboard for his ambition." [16] Piech often spearheaded the development of audacious vehicles or oversaw business decision and strategies that baffled analysts, but still proved beneficial for the company as a whole. [13] In recounting some of the extraordinary vehicles Volkswagen put in production under Piech's watch, Wired noted that he alone pushed the Bugatti Veyron supercar into production, despite objection from other executives as well as the fact that Volkswagen lost what is believed to be millions on every Veyron sold: [22] "Consider that for a moment. Long past the average retirement age, this gent greenlit one of the largest automotive losses in history and managed to keep his job. Moreover, he was hailed as a hero." [22]

An aggressive and demanding manager, Piëch was known for setting both lofty and extremely specific goals and standards for projects. An example of this is with the development of the Volkswagen Phaeton luxury car, in which Piëch laid out ten parameters the car had to meet, amongst them being that the Phaeton should be capable of being driven all day at 300 km/h (186 mph) with an exterior temperature of 50  °C (122  °F ) whilst maintaining the interior temperature at 22 °C (72 °F). [23] Piëch requested this even though the Phaeton's top speed was electronically limited to 250 km/h (155.3 mph). [24] Another requirement was that the car should possess torsional rigidity of 37,000 N·m/degree. Piech would often become personally involved in vehicle development, such as how he oversaw the development of the Audi 100's aerodynamics himself, keeping it secret from even Audi's top engineers to prevent any crucial details of the car's aerodynamic capabilities from leaking to competitors. [17] Piech often liked to ride along with automotive journalists during press test drives and would consider their critiques to improve Volkswagen's vehicles. Car and Driver writer John Phillips recounted how when he test drove the Volkswagen New Beetle during its launch in 1997, Piech rode along and asked for his opinion on how its chassis and driving dynamics could be improved. [18] Similarly, Piech once demanded that an Automobile reviewer take the Volkswagen Phaeton up to its top speed while he rode along in the back seat. [9]

With a leadership style described as "old fashioned", [14] Piech was known for his prolific firing of subordinates throughout his career, particularly how he engineered the ousting of former Volkswagen CEO Bernd Pischetsrieder and Porsche CEO Wendelin Wiedeking. [9] According to Piëch, he fires any subordinate who "makes the same mistake twice". [9] The Guardian noted, "Piech was known for his ability to outmanoeuvre competitors by stoking internal rivalries to his own advantage, even if it resulted in turning against his own managers, including the VW chief executive Bernd Pischetsrieder, to side with VW’s labour leaders." [17] Piech has leveraged this reputation to use threats and intimidation to get subordinates to meet his lofty goals; during Piech's induction into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2014, fellow automotive executive Bob Lutz recounted a conversation he had with Piëch at the Frankfurt Auto Show in the early 1990s, in which he remarked how he was impressed with the fit and finish and tight body tolerances on Volkswagen's new models. Piëch told Lutz that he achieved this by assembling Volkswagen's top body engineers in his office and telling them they would all be fired if all of Volkswagen's vehicles didn't have body tolerances of 3 millimeters within six weeks. [14] Wired described Piech as "Machiavellian" and "an autocrat's autocrat". [22] Bob Lutz said of his management style, "It's what I call a reign of terror and a culture where performance was driven by fear and intimidation[...]That management style gets short-term results, but it's a culture that's extremely dangerous. Look at dictators. Dictators invariably wind up destroying the very countries they thought their omniscience and omnipotence would make great. It's fast and it's efficient, but at huge risk." [25] He would also describe Piech as a "mad genius" that while he respected, he would never want to work for or with at any capacity. [15] Lutz, CNBC, the American documentary TV series Dirty Money , among others, have claimed that the Volkswagen diesel emissions scandal is the result of the ruthless and tyrannical corporate culture Piech installed at the company. [26] [25] [20]




  1. Piech was correct; The Emperor would later have the sword examined by experts and they confirmed that it was fake.

Related Research Articles

Porsche German automobile manufacturer, now owned by Volkswagen AG

Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. The headquarters of Porsche AG is in Stuttgart, and the company is owned by Volkswagen AG, a controlling stake of which is owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera, Macan, Cayenne and Taycan.

Volkswagen Automobile brand of the Volkswagen Group

Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German motor vehicle manufacturer founded in 1937 by the German Labour Front, known for the iconic Beetle and headquartered in Wolfsburg. It is the flagship brand of the Volkswagen Group, the largest car maker by worldwide sales in 2016 and 2017. The group's biggest market is in China, which delivers 40% of its sales and profits. Popular models of Volkswagen include Golf, Jetta, Passat, Atlas, and Tiguan. The German term Volk translates to "people", thus Volkswagen translates to "people's car".

Volkswagen Group German automotive manufacturing conglomerate

Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing corporation headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany and indirectly majority owned by the Porsche and Piëch family. It designs, manufactures and distributes passenger and commercial vehicles, motorcycles, engines, and turbomachinery and offers related services including financing, leasing and fleet management. In 2016, it was the world's largest automaker by sales, overtaking Toyota and keeping this title in 2017, 2018 and 2019, selling 10.9 million vehicles. It has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades. It ranked seventh in the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. In 2021, Volkswagen is the first largest German automaker and the fourth-largest worldwide by production.

Ferdinand Porsche Austrian-German automotive engineer, inventor and Nazi who founded the Porsche car company

Ferdinand Porsche was an Austrian-German automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle (Lohner-Porsche), the Volkswagen Beetle, the Auto Union racing car, the Mercedes-Benz SS/SSK, several other important developments and Porsche automobiles.

Ferry Porsche

Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche, mainly known as Ferry Porsche, was an Austrian-German technical automobile designer and automaker-entrepreneur. He operated Porsche AG in Stuttgart, Germany. His father, Ferdinand Porsche, Sr. was also a renowned automobile engineer and founder of Volkswagen and Porsche. His nephew, Ferdinand Piëch, was the longtime chairman of Volkswagen Group, and his son, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche, was involved in the design of the 911.

Volkswagen Phaeton Motor vehicle

The Volkswagen PhaetonFAY-tən is a full-size luxury sedan/saloon manufactured by the German automobile manufacturer Volkswagen, described by Volkswagen as their "premium class" vehicle. Introduced at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show, the Phaeton was marketed worldwide. Sales in North America ended in 2006 and global sales ended in 2016.

VR6 engine Motor vehicle engine

VR6 engines are V6 piston engines with a narrow angle between the cylinder banks and a single cylinder head covering both banks of cylinders.

Volkswagen Group China Division of Volkswagen Group in China

Volkswagen Group China is division of the German automotive concern Volkswagen Group in the People's Republic of China.

International Motor Show Germany Annual German motor show

The International MobilityShow Germany or simply International Mobilty Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung, is the world's largest mobility show. It is held annually, with mobility solutions being displayed as the IAA Mobility Show in odd-numbered years in Munich, and IAA Transportation for commercial vehicles in even-numbered years in Hanover, Germany. Before 1991, the show was held solely in Frankfurt.

Bugatti Automobiles French high-performance luxury automobiles manufacturer

Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. is a French high-performance luxury automobiles manufacturer and a luxury brand for hyper sports cars. The company was founded in 1998 as a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group and is based in Molsheim, Alsace. In 1909, namesake Ettore Bugatti founded his automotive brand here and, with interruptions due to World War II, built sports, racing, and luxury cars until 1963. Since January 1, 2018, the company has been led by Stephan Winkelmann as President.

Bernd Pischetsrieder German automobile engineer and manager (born 1948)

Bernd Peter Pischetsrieder is a German automobile engineer and manager.

Rudolf Leiding

Dr. Ing. h.c. Rudolf Leiding was the third post-war chairman of the Volkswagen automobile company, succeeding Kurt Lotz in 1971.

Beijing International Automotive Exhibition, Beijing Motor Show or Auto China is an auto show held biennially in Beijing, China since 1990. China is currently the largest auto market in the world.

Jozef Kabaň Slovak automobile designer (born 1973)

Jozef Kabaň is a Slovak automobile designer. He started his career as a designer at Volkswagen. In 2003 he moved to Audi as an exterior design assistant. In 2007 he advanced to the position of Chief of Exterior Design at Audi. He was exterior designer of the Volkswagen Lupo, SEAT Arosa, Bugatti Veyron and Škoda Octavia. He has been Chief of Exterior Design at Škoda Auto since 2008. In early 2017 he left Škoda for BMW to become its head of design replacing Karim Habib. In 2019 he changed position within BMW Group and headed design at its subsidiary Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. After half a year he decided to leave Rolls-Royce and BMW Group returning to VW in January 2020, this time for its main VW brand.

Audi Sport GmbH, formerly known as quattro GmbH, is the high-performance car manufacturing subsidiary of Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.

Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE, is a German holding company with investments in the automotive industry. Porsche SE is headquartered in Zuffenhausen, a city district of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg and is majority owned by the Austrian-German Porsche-Piëch family. The company was founded in Stuttgart as Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche (1875–1951) and his son-in-law Anton Piëch (1894–1952).

Automotive industry in Germany Overview of the automotive industry in Germany

The automotive industry in Germany is one of the largest employers in the world, with a labor force of over 857,336 (2016) working in the industry.

<i>Driven to Distraction</i> (Clarkson book)

Driven to Distraction is a non-fiction book, first published in 2009, written by English journalist and television presenter Jeremy Clarkson. The book is a collection of Clarkson's articles for the Sunday Times newspaper, all originally published in 2006 and 2007. The articles consist of car reviews combined with rants on current events.

This article describes automobile transmission. For heavy-duty 5 speed automatic transmission, see ZF Ecomat.

Frank Götzke German automotive engineer

Frank Götzke is a German engineer and technology manager. His creations include the Bugatti Veyron, Bugatti Chiron and Bugatti Bolide. He is also well known for his metallic 3D printing creations. He is considered to be a pioneer in the field of carbon-fiber-reinforced structural and functional parts, which are manufactured with resin infiltration processes. Götzke has been a member of the Volkswagen Group since 1995, and he has worked for its super car brand Bugatti since 2001.


  1. "Ferdinand Piech resigns, ending an era at Volkswagen". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  2. 1 2 "DGAP-Ad hoc: Volkswagen AG Vz. (VW AG)". finanzen.net. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  3. Online, FOCUS. "Ehemaliger VW-Chef Ferdinand Piëch ist tot". FOCUS Online (in German). Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  4. "Volkswagen chairman Ferdinand Piech quits in power struggle". BBC News . 25 April 2015. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  5. Cobb, James G. (24 December 1999). "This Just In: Model T Gets Award". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
  6. "Personalien: Ferdinand Piech". Auto, Motor und Sport . Heft 9 1977: Seite 7. 27 April 1977.
  7. Kapoor, Rahul (27 August 2019). "Former VW head, Ferdinand Piech passes away: Here's how he turned the company from rags to riches". The Financial Express. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  8. Ferdinand Piëch new chairman of the Scania Board Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine 24 May 2000, Scania.com.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ferdinand Piech - 2011 Man of the Year - Automobile Magazine Archived 19 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  10. 1 2 Ferdinand Piech, Longtime Volksawgen Patriarch Dies
  11. Ferdinand Piech, Long Time VW Patriarch Dies at 82
  12. Orlove, Raphael. "This Latest Revelation About Dieselgate Is Kind Of Insane". Jalopnik. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  13. 1 2 George, Patrick. "The Mad Genius Of VW's Former Chairman And His Legacy Of Audacious Cars". Jalopnik. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  14. 1 2 3 "Ferdinand K. Piech 2014 Induction Video". Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2019 via www.youtube.com.
  15. 1 2 "Bob Lutz on Ferdinand Piech - "An Autocrat's Autocrat"" via www.youtube.com.
  16. 1 2 "A bitter end for Ferdinand Piech". Automotive News. 27 March 2017.
  17. 1 2 3 Ferdinand Piech, Porche Partiarch and VW Saviour Dies at 82
  18. 1 2 John Phillips: We're Not Done With You Yet, Piëch
  19. A Bitter End For Ferdinand Piech
  20. 1 2 Dirty Money Season 1, episode 1, "Hard NOx". Released January 26, 2018.
  21. 1 2 3 Keller, Maryann (1 September 1993). Collision: GM, Toyota, Volkswagen and the Race to Own the 21st Century . Currency Doubleday. ISBN   978-0385467773.
  22. 1 2 3 Smith, Sam (23 April 2015). "The Crazy Schemes of the World's Most Surprising Car Exec". Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2019 via www.wired.com.
  23. "Volkswagen 2009 Phaeton - Beijing show: VW facelifts Phaeton – again". GoAuto. GoAutoMedia. 23 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
  24. Top Gear Series 2 Episode 10, July 20, 2003
  25. 1 2 One Man Established the Culture That Led to VW's Emissions Scandal
  26. Volkswagen's Uniquely Awful Governance At Fault in Emissions Scandal
  27. Editor, ÖGV. (2015). Wilhelm Exner Medal. Austrian Trade Association. ÖGV. Austria.