Fernando de la Rúa

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Fernando de la Rúa
Fernando de la Rua con baston y banda de presidente.jpg
President of Argentina
In office
10 December 1999 21 December 2001
Vice President Carlos Álvarez (1999–2000)
None (2000–2001)
Preceded by Carlos Menem
Succeeded by Ramón Puerta (provisional)
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá
1st Chief of Government of Buenos Aires
In office
6 August 1996 10 December 1999
President Carlos Menem
Vice President Enrique Olivera
Preceded by Jorge Domínguez (as appointed mayor)
Succeeded by Enrique Olivera
Personal details
Born(1937-09-15)15 September 1937
Córdoba, Argentina
Died9 July 2019(2019-07-09) (aged 81)
Loma Verde, Argentina
NationalityArgentine
Political party Radical Civic Union/Alliance
Spouse(s)
Children3, including Antonio
Profession Lawyer
Signature Firma Fernando de la Rua vec.svg

Fernando de la Rúa (15 September 1937 – 9 July 2019) was an Argentine politician of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) who served as President of Argentina from 10 December 1999 to 21 December 2001. De la Rúa was born in Córdoba; he entered politics after graduating with a degree in law. He was elected senator in 1973 and unsuccessfully ran for the office of Vice President as Ricardo Balbín's running mate the same year. He was re-elected senator in 1983 and 1993, and as deputy in 1991. He unsuccessfully opposed the pact of Olivos between President Carlos Menem and party leader Raúl Alfonsín, which enabled the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution and the re-election of Menem in 1995.

Radical Civic Union Argentine political party

The Radical Civic Union is a centrist social-liberal political party in Argentina. The party has been ideologically heterogeneous, ranging from Social liberalism to social democracy. The UCR is a member of the Socialist International.

President of Argentina Head of State of Argentina

The President of Argentina, officially known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is also the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.

Córdoba, Argentina City in Córdoba, Argentina

Córdoba is a sprawling city in the geographic center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km (435 mi) northwest of the Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census. It was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Córdoba, Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region that is now Argentina. The National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the seventh to be inaugurated in Spanish America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order. Because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta.

Contents

De la Rúa was the first chief of government of Buenos Aires to be elected by popular vote, a change introduced by the amendment of the Constitution. He expanded the Buenos Aires Underground, adding new stations to Line D, starting the expansion of Line B, and establishing Line H. He established Roberto Goyeneche Avenue and the city's first bicycle path.

Buenos Aires Underground rapid transit railway in Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Buenos Aires Underground, locally known as Subte, is a rapid transit system that serves the area of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The first section of this network opened in 1913, making it the 13th subway in the world, and first underground railway in Latin America, the Southern Hemisphere and the Spanish-speaking world, with the Madrid Metro opening five years later, in 1919. As of 2015, Buenos Aires is the only Argentine city with a metro system, but there is a proposal to build a metro in the city of Córdoba, while a proposal to build a metro in Rosario was shelved in favour of a tramway network.

In 1999, De la Rúa was elected President after running on the Alliance ticket, a political coalition of the UCR and the Frepaso. He was opposed by the Peronist unions and his Vice President Carlos Álvarez resigned after denouncing bribes in the Senate. The economic crisis that began during Menem's administration worsened and by the end of 2001 led to a banking panic. The government established the Corralito to limit bank withdrawals. De la Rúa called a state of emergency during the December 2001 riots. He resigned on 20 December, and the Congress appointed a new President. Since then, he retired from politics and faced legal proceedings.

Alliance for Work, Justice and Education Argentine political alliance

The Alliance for Work, Justice and Education was a party coalition in Argentina around the turn of the third millennium. It was born of the alliance of the Radical Civic Union (UCR), the Front for a Country in Solidarity (FrePaSo), and a number of smaller provincial parties, in 1997.

The Front for a Country in Solidarity was a political coalition in Argentina. It was formed in 1994 out of the Broad Front, which had been founded mainly by progressive members of the Peronist Justicialist Party who denounced the policies and the alleged corruption of the Carlos Menem administration; the Frente joined with other dissenting Peronists, the Unidad Socialista and several other leftist parties and individuals. Its leading figures were José Octavio Bordón, Carlos "Chacho" Álvarez and Graciela Fernández Meijide.

Carlos Álvarez (politician) Argentine politician

Carlos Alberto "Chacho" Álvarez is an Argentine politician; he was Vice President of Argentina during part of President Fernando de la Rúa's term, and currently heads the ALADI Secretariat.

Early life

Fernando de la Rúa was the son of Eleonora Bruno and Antonio De la Rúa; he was born in the city of Córdoba and attended the local Military Lyceum before entering the National University of Córdoba, from which he graduated with a law degree at the age of 21. [1] He married a Buenos Aires socialite, Inés Pertiné, in 1970; they had three children, including Antonio de la Rúa. De la Rúa became involved in politics at a young age; he entered public service in 1963 as an advisor to President Arturo Illia's minister Juan Palmero. [2]

National University of Córdoba the oldest university in Argentina

The National University of Córdoba, founded in 1613, is the oldest university in Argentina, the fourth oldest in South America and the sixth oldest in Latin America. It is located in Córdoba, the capital of Córdoba Province. Since the early 20th century it has been the second largest university in the country in terms of the number of students, faculty, and academic programs. As the location of the first university founded in the land that is now Argentina, Córdoba has earned the nickname La Docta.

Antonio de la Rúa Argentin

Antonio de la Rúa Pertiné is an Argentine lawyer, and the eldest son of former Argentine president, Fernando de la Rúa and Inés Pertiné. He was an advisor to his father during his father's presidency and one of the heads of his father’s presidential campaign.

Advertisement for the September 1973 general elections, for the Ricardo Balbin-Fernando de la Rua ticket UCR1973.jpg
Advertisement for the September 1973 general elections, for the Ricardo Balbín-Fernando de la Rúa ticket

He was elected senator in the March 1973 general elections, defeating the Peronist Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo. [3] He was the only politician from the Radical Civic Union (UCR) who could defeat the Peronist candidate in his administrative division. The elected president Héctor José Cámpora and his vice president resigned a few months later, leading to the call to new elections. Ricardo Balbín ran for president in the September general elections, with De la Rúa as his running mate for the post of vice president. The UCR was defeated by Juan Perón in a landslide. [4] De la Rúa was removed from the Congress during the 1976 Argentine coup d'état. He left politics and worked as a lawyer for the firm Bunge y Born. [5]

March 1973 Argentine general election

The first Argentine general election of 1973 was held on 11 March. Voters chose both the President and their legislators and with a turnout of 85.5%, it produced the following results:

Peronism Argentine political movement

Peronism or Justicialism (justicialismo) is an Argentine political movement based on the political ideology and legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife Eva Perón.

Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo Catholic bishop

Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo is an Argentine Catholic bishop, the current Chancellor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. Having issued a long set of various publications in the sciences, he earned several honors such as the Légion d’Honneur of France in 2000.

The National Reorganization Process ended in 1983. De la Rúa intended to run for president but lost in the primary elections of the UCR to Raúl Alfonsín, who was elected in the general election. [5] De la Rúa ran for the post of senator instead, defeating the Peronist Carlos Ruckauf. He ran for re-election as senator in 1989 but, despite his electoral victory, the electoral college voted for the Peronist Eduardo Vaca. [6] De la Rúa was elected deputy in 1991 and returned to the senate in 1993. President Carlos Menem, elected in 1989, wanted to amend the constitution to allow him to run for re-election in 1995, which was opposed by the UCR. Alfonsín signed the Pact of Olivos with Menem, negotiating terms to support the proposal. De la Rúa led the opposition to the pact within the UCR, but Alfonsín prevailed in the internal dispute. This damaged the relationship between the two leaders, but helped the party to retain a number of radicals who were against the pact. [7] De la Rúa could not prevent the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution. As a result, Menem was re-elected in 1995. [8] The UCR finished third in the elections for the first time, being surpassed by the Frepaso, a new party composed by former Peronists. [7]

National Reorganization Process Argentinas last military dictatorship

The National Reorganization Process was the name used by its leaders for the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. In Argentina it is often known simply as última junta militar, última dictadura militar or última dictadura cívico-militar, because there have been several in the country's history.

Raúl Alfonsín former President of Argentina (1983-89)

Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes was an Argentine lawyer and statesman who served as the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 8 July 1989. Alfonsín was the first democratically elected president after more than seven years of military dictatorship and is considered the "father of modern democracy in Argentina". Born in Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province, he began his studies of law at the National University of La Plata and was a graduate of the University of Buenos Aires. He was affiliated with the Radical Civic Union (UCR), joining the faction of Ricardo Balbín after the party split.

Carlos Ruckauf Argentine politician and diplomat

Carlos Federico Ruckauf is a Peronist politician in Argentina, member of the Justicialist Party. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from January 2002 to March 2003. He had earlier served as Vice-President of Argentina from 1995 to 1999, with Carlos Menem, and as his Interior Minister during his first administration. He was twice elected to the National Assembly following the restoration of democratic rule.

Mayor of Buenos Aires

The constitutional amendment gave autonomy to the city of Buenos Aires, allowing it to sanction local laws and elect its own mayor, who was previously appointed by the president of the nation. De la Rúa was the first mayor elected in this manner, defeating the previous mayor Jorge Domínguez. [9] During his term of office he created or reformulated several institutions to fit the new status of the city, as required by the national constitution and the recently approved Constitution of Buenos Aires. [10]

De la Rúa worked on the expansion of the Buenos Aires Underground. The first stations of the extended Line D, Olleros and José Hernández, were opened in 1997, [11] [12] Juramento was opened in 1999, [13] and Congreso de Tucumán in 2000. [14] He also started the works to extend the Line B. [15] Carlos Menem started to transfer the control and financing of the underground system to the city, but the 2001 economic crisis halted the process. [16]

The former mayor Domínguez intended to expand the Pan-American Highway into Saavedra, but the project met widespread opposition. De la Rúa reformulated the project and built an avenue instead of a highway, which was accepted. The avenue was named Roberto Goyeneche. He also restarted a project to build the Cámpora Highway linking Dellepiane Avenue with the Riachuelo, and established the first non-recreational bikeway in Buenos Aires at Avenida del Libertador. [17]

Presidential elections

Fernando de la Rua takes the oath of office next to his vice-president Carlos Alvarez. De la Rua jura como presidente.jpg
Fernando de la Rúa takes the oath of office next to his vice-president Carlos Álvarez.

The Pact of Olivos diminished the electoral strength of the UCR, leading to the rise of the Frepaso. Both parties united in a political coalition, the Alliance, which defeated the PJ in the 1997 midterm elections. [18] It was the PJ's first national defeat since 1985. The parties held open primary elections for the 1999 presidential elections. De la Rúa stood for the UCR; the whole party, including Alfonsín, supported him. The Frepaso candidate was Graciela Fernández Meijide, who had defeated Peronism in the populous Buenos Aires province. De la Rúa won the primary elections by a wide margin. [19] In the primaries, De la Rúa was voted for by more people than those who voted for the UCR in 1995. [20] Despite his victory, Alfonsín was still the president of the UCR. They disagreed on the vice president for De la Rúa's ticket; he thought that it should be Meijide because she took part in the primary elections and came from a different district than him. Alfonsín preferred the popular Carlos Álvarez, leader of the Frepaso, saying he could attract more voters and had more political expertise. [20] It was also a result of the internal politics of the Alliance: except for Meijide, the Frepaso did not have a political figure who could run with high prospects for winning the post of Governor of the Buenos Aires province. Had she run for vice president, Frepaso would have had to resign that candidacy to a radical candidate. [21]

Carlos Menem dismissed De la Rúa as a "boring" candidate. De la Rúa exploited that description in television advertisements, embracing it and setting a comparison with the glitzy style of Menem and the perceived political corruption of his administration. He also compared himself with the Peronist candidate Eduardo Duhalde. He promised to solve the economic crisis with fiscal austerity and higher tax controls, hoping it would lower interest rates, bring more foreign investments, and reduce unemployment. He also promised to keep the convertibility plan established by Menem that pegged the Argentine peso one-to-one with the United States dollar. [22]

The 1999 presidential election was held on 24 October. De la Rúa defeated Duhalde by 48.4% to 38.3%, well ahead of the threshold to avoid a second round run-off election. Domingo Cavallo, Menem's former minister of economy, finished the race in third place. De la Rúa was inaugurated President of Argentina on 10 December 1999. He took office with a favorability rating of 75%. Unlike Menem, whose initial cabinet was composed of trusted friends, De la Rúa's cabinet included five people with international degrees and four economists. [23]

Presidency

Domestic policy

De la Rua prepares a speech after the resignation of his vice president, Carlos Alvarez. He is with his son Antonio de la Rua and the secretary Dario Loperfido. Fernando De la Rua, su hijo Antonio y Dario Loperfido.jpg
De la Rúa prepares a speech after the resignation of his vice president, Carlos Álvarez. He is with his son Antonio de la Rúa and the secretary Darío Lopérfido.

In the first days of his presidency, De la Rúa sent a bill to the Congress to request a federal intervention in the province of Corrientes. The province had a high level of debt, and organizations of piqueteros blocked roads to make demonstrations. There were two interim governors disputing power. The bill was immediately approved. [24] The intervenor selected for the task was Ramón Mestre. [25]

The Peronist unions opposed De la Rúa and held seven general strikes against him. He sent a bill known as the labour flexibility law to deregulate labor conditions, attempting to reduce the political influence of unions, to the Congress. This project was opposed by the PJ and was changed from the original draft. It was finally approved but Álvarez said several legislators were bribed to support the bill. Álvarez asked for the removal of the labor minister Alberto Flamarique, but De la Rúa instead promoted him to be his personal secretary. [26] Álvarez resigned the following day and the political scandal divided the coalition. Several deputees who initially supported De la Rúa switched to the opposition. Alfonsín tried to prevent a breakup of the UCR. Some months later, it was proposed that Álvarez return to the De la Rúa government as the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers. Álvarez initially supported the idea [27] but De la Rúa opposed it. [28] Cavallo was also proposed for the office before he was appointed Minister of Economy. [29] De la Rúa intended to include the Frepaso in the new cabinet but to exclude Álvarez himself because he still resented the latter's resignation. The negotiations failed and the new cabinet included no Frepaso politicians, but the Alliance was still working as a coalition in the Congress. It also included several radical politicians from Alfonsín's internal faction. The new Chief of Cabinet was Chrystian Colombo, who mediated between Alfonsín and the president. [30]

The PJ won the 2001 midterm election by 40% to 24%, giving it a majority in both chambers of the Congress. However, the abstention rate and several forms of protest votes combined reached 41%, the highest in Argentine history, as a consequence of the popular discontent with the two main parties. Even the few candidates of the Alliance who won at their districts, such as the radical Rodolfo Terragno in Buenos Aires, did so with political platforms against De la Rúa's administration. [31]

Foreign policy

De la Rua, Mireya Moscoso and US president George W. Bush during the 3rd Summit of the Americas. George W. Bush, Mireya Moscoso and Fernando de la Rua in 2001.jpg
De la Rúa, Mireya Moscoso and US president George W. Bush during the 3rd Summit of the Americas.

The first year of De la Rúa's presidency coincided with the last year of Bill Clinton's presidency of the United States. Ricardo López Murphy, Minister of Defense at the time, met William Cohen, U.S. Secretary of Defense, in a summit of ministers that took place in Brazil in 2000. Both countries agreed to share classified information and to hold joint operations against terrorism. [32]

George W. Bush took office as President of the United States in January 2001, and changed American policy towards countries in financial crises. His Treasury Secretary, Paul H. O'Neill, a critic of financial aid, said, "We're working to find a way to create a sustainable Argentina, not just one that continues to consume the money of the plumbers and carpenters in the United States who make $50,000 a year and wonder what in the world we're doing with their money". [33] The September 11 attacks occurred a few months later, and the U.S. focused its foreign policy on the War on Terror against countries suspected of harboring terrorist organizations. As a result, the U.S. gave no further financial aid to Argentina. [34] This policy was confirmed after an interview of Bush with the Brazilian president, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who confirmed Brazil would not be affected by the Argentine crisis. [35]

Economic policy

The minister of economy Ricardo López Murphy announces a large fiscal austerity plan. He resigned a short time later, because of the protests caused by it.

De la Rúa's first Minister of Economy was the progressive José Luis Machinea, who was proposed by Alfonsín and Álvarez. Menem had left a deficit of 5 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) points that Machinea tried to compensate with higher taxes to people with the highest incomes, and a reduction of the highest retirement pensions. [36] The deficit was reduced but the crisis continued. The scandal over the labor law and the resignation of Álvarez increased the country's risk, and made Argentina's access to international credit more difficult. The government negotiated a US$38 billion International Monetary Fund (IMF) line of credit to prevent a default and allow the economy to grow again. Machinea also proposed appointing former minister Cavallo as the new President of the Central Bank of Argentina. However, Machinea was unable to achieve the levels of austerity negotiated with the IMF and resigned a few days later. [37] The Minister of Defense Ricardo López Murphy became the new Minister of Economy. During the election camapain, De la Rúa had promised not to appoint him to that ministry, but with the ongoing crisis he did not want to risk problems caused by a temporary lack of minister. [38] López Murphy announced a stricter austerity plan, with reduction to the health and education budgets. His plan was rejected by street demonstrations and the Frepaso, so De la Rúa declined it. Murphy resigned after being minister for 16 days. [39]

De la Rúa appointed Cavallo, who had served under Menem and had established the convertibility plan. He was supported by the PJ, Carlos Álvarez, and the financial groups, but he was rejected by the rest of the UCR. [40] The government announced it would retain the convertibility plan and that there would be no devaluation or sovereign default. [41] Cavallo proposed several bills; De la Rúa sent them to the Congress and they were approved. The "superpowers law" authorized the chief of government to modify the national budget without the intervention of the Congress. There was a new tax on bank operations and more products attracted value-added tax. The wages of national customs workers were increased and some industries benefited from tax exemptions. [42] The Megacanje was a negotiation to delay the payment of foreign debt in exchange for higher interest rates. [43] However, internal debt was still a problem because the provinces, especially Buenos Aires, were nearing default. [44] This led to conflicts between Cavallo and the provincial governors. [45] Congress approved a bill for a "Zero deficit" policy to prevent further increases of debt and to work only with money from tax revenue. [46] There was a banking panic in November; the government reacted by introducing the " corralito ", which prevented people from withdrawing cash from banks. It was initially a temporary measure. [47] The IMF refused to send the monthly payment for the line of credit approved at the beginning of the year because the government had not stuck to the "zero deficit" policy. [48]

Riots and resignation

Fernando de la Rúa announces the state of emergency in cadena nacional .

The crisis worsened and by 19 December 2001, riots and looting broke out at several points in the country. De la Rúa announced in a cadena nacional (national network broadcast) that he had established a state of emergency. [49] The riots continued; his speech was followed by increased protests, the cacerolazos , which caused 27 deaths and thousands of injuries. [50] Cavallo resigned at midnight the same day, and the rest of the cabinet followed suit. [51]

There was increased looting on 20 December, both in Buenos Aires and the Conurbano. The cacerolazos continued; large groups of people started demonstrations calling for the government's resignation. The unions—first the CTA and then the CGT—began general strikes against the state of emergency. Most of the UCR withdrew their support for De la Rúa, so he asked the PJ to create a government coalition. The PJ refused, and De la Rúa resigned from government. His last administrative action was to lift the state of emergency. [50] He gave his resignation to Congress at 19:45 local time on 20 December 2001, and left the Casa Rosada in a helicopter. He had presided for two years, half of his alloted term of office. [49]

Because Vice President Carlos Álvarez had already resigned, the Congress convened to appoint a new president. Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, governor of San Luis Province, was in office for two months while calling for new presidential elections. Renewed demonstrations forced him to resign as well, and Eduardo Duhalde was appointed as the new president. He was able to complete De la Rúa's term of office. [52]

Later life and death

President Mauricio Macri at the state funeral of Fernando de la Rua Macri Velatorio de De la Rua.jpg
President Mauricio Macri at the state funeral of Fernando de la Rúa

De la Rúa retired from political life after his resignation. The scandal over the labor flexibility law was renewed in 2003 when a former Senate worker, Mario Pontaquarto, claimed to be a witness of the case who delivered $5,000,000 to the legislators. De la Rúa was indicted alongside seven politicians from both the UCR and the PJ. In 2013, they were all cleared of charges by a unanimous resolution, and Pontaquarto was removed from the witness protection program. [53]

De la Rúa was also indicted for the police repression which took place during the crisis; he was tried by judge Claudio Bonadio, who in 2009 declared him innocent. The Supreme Court overturned Bonadio's ruling and ordered him to further investigate the matter. [54] De la Rúa and Cavallo were indicted for illegally benefiting the banks that took part in the Megacanje. They were declared innocent on 6 October 2014. [43]

He died of heart failure on 9 July 2019 at age 81. [55] He received a state funeral in Congress before a private burial the following day. [56]

Public image

De la Rúa started to work in politics from a very young age. He was nicknamed "Chupete" (Spanish : "Pacifier") because of this; the nickname was still employed when he grew up. During Carlos Menem's administration he was perceived as a serious and formal politician, in stark contrast with Menem's style. De la Rúa took advantage of this perception during the electoral campaign of 1999. [57] When he became president and the economic crisis worsened, he was perceived as a weak and tired man who was unable to react to the crisis. He was perceived as a man without leadership skills who could not make use of his presidential authority. [58] De la Rúa thought that the parody of him by the television comedian Freddy Villarreal helped to establish that image. [59] [60] He sought to change his image by appearing on the television comedy show El show de Videomatch , but his appearance on the program backfired. He confused the names of the show and that of the host Marcelo Tinelli's wife. After De la Rúa's participation ended, Tinelli began to close the program; De la Rúa could be seen seeking an exit from the set in the background. [59] The aforementioned popular image of De la Rúa was further magnified when he was hospitalized for peripheral artery disease caused by high blood cholesterol. Although it is a standard, simple medical intervention, the medic told the press De la Rúa suffered from arteriosclerosis, which is usually linked with a lack of speed and reflexes. [61]

Honours

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References

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  8. Romero, pp. 286–287
  9. Graciela Guadalupe (1 July 1996). "De la Rúa en toda la Capital" [De la Rua in all the Capital]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  10. Mariana García (30 December 1996). "De la Rúa crea más comunas" [De la Rúa creates more communes]. Clarín (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  11. "Habilitan la estación de subte Olleros" [The Olleros subway station is open]. La Nación (in Spanish). 31 May 1997. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  12. Willy G. Bouillon (14 November 1997). "Una multitud esperó el subte en la nueva estación José Hernández" [A multitude awaited the subway at the new station José Hernández]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  13. "El subte por fin llegó a Juramento" [The subway finally arrived to Juramento]. La Nación (in Spanish). 22 June 1999. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  14. Andrés Villalonga (28 April 2000). "La línea D del subte llegó a Núñez" [The line D of the subway arrived to Nuñez]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  15. "La línea B tiene dos nuevas estaciones" [Line B has two new stations]. La Nación (in Spanish). 10 August 2003. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  16. "Ordenan bajar el cospel del subte" [It is ordered to reduce the price of the subway's ticket]. Clarín (in Spanish). 7 June 2000. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  17. Martín Rodríguez Yebra (19 September 1997). "Inauguran el primer tramo de las bicisendas" [The first bikeway path is opened]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  18. Romero, p. 295
  19. Florencia Carbone (30 November 1998). "De la Rúa es el candidato de la Alianza para las elecciones del ´99" [De la Rúa is the candidate of the Alliance for the `99 elections]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  20. 1 2 Reato, p. 75
  21. Reato, p. 76
  22. Clifford Krauss (26 September 1999). "Vote for Me, Declares Argentine, I'm Boring". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  23. Reato, p. 77
  24. "El Gobierno decidió la intervención a Corrientes" [The government decided the intervention of Corrientes]. Clarín (in Spanish). 16 December 1999. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  25. Florencia Carbone (17 December 1999). "Mestre es el interventor designado en Corrientes" [Mestre is the interventor appointed in Corrientes]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  26. Reato, pp. 117–118
  27. Reato, pp. 94–96
  28. Reato, p. 105
  29. Reato, p. 104
  30. Reato, pp. 105–107
  31. Reato, p. 85
  32. Convenio militar con los EE.UU. ‹See Tfd› (in Spanish)
  33. Anthony Boadle (20 August 2001). "Argentina, IMF Talking About Plan for Future". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  34. Reato, pp. 137–138
  35. Reato, p. 140
  36. Reato, pp. 99–100
  37. Reato, pp. 101–103
  38. Reato, pp. 98–99
  39. Reato, p. 103
  40. Reato, p. 97
  41. Reato, p. 96
  42. Reato, pp. 128–129
  43. 1 2 Reato, p. 130
  44. Reato, p. 132
  45. Reato, pp. 132–133
  46. Reato, p. 136
  47. Reato, p. 145
  48. Reato, p. 144
  49. 1 2 Clifford Kraus (21 December 2001). "Argentine leader, his nation frayed, abruptly resigns". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  50. 1 2 Larry Rohter (22 December 2001). "Interim Presidency Decided in Argentina but Doubts Linger". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  51. Clifford Kraus (21 December 2001). "Past Economic Cures Are Now Fuel for a Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  52. Larry Rohter (2 January 2002). "New Argentine President Takes Office". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  53. Reato, pp. 121–122
  54. "Argentina: Murder Charges Against Ex-President Restored". The New York Times. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  55. Murió Fernando de la Rúa: de la militancia al poder, con una breve y conflictiva gestión (in Spanish)
  56. "Ceremonia privada en el funeral de De la Rúa". Diario de Cuyo (in Spanish). 11 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  57. Reato, p. 79
  58. "Little sympathy for Argentine president". BBC News. 17 March 2001. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  59. 1 2 Reato, p. 80
  60. "De la Rúa acusó a Tinelli por su caída" [De la Rúa accused Tinelli for his fall]. La Nación (in Spanish). 18 December 2003. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  61. Reato, pp. 81–82
  62. Slovak republic website, State honours  : 1st Class in 2001 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
  63. "O chefe de estado argentino, Fernando de La Rua, reencontrou-se hoje com o ex-presidente português Mário Soares (...)" (in Portuguese). Angop. Retrieved 26 March 2014.

Bibliography

Political offices
Preceded by
Jorge Domínguez (as mayor)
Chief of Government of Buenos Aires
1996–1999
Succeeded by
Enrique Olivera
Preceded by
Carlos Menem
President of Argentina
1999–2001
Succeeded by
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá