Fernsehturm Stuttgart

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Fernsehturm Stuttgart
Stuttgarter Fernsehturm6.jpg
General information
StatusComplete
TypeTelecommunications
Observation tower
Architectural style Modernism
LocationJahnstraße 120
Stuttgart, Germany
Coordinates 48°45′24″N9°11′29″E / 48.75667°N 9.19139°E / 48.75667; 9.19139 Coordinates: 48°45′24″N9°11′29″E / 48.75667°N 9.19139°E / 48.75667; 9.19139
Construction started10 January 1954
Completed5 February 1956
Renovated1965
Cost4.2 million DM
Owner Süddeutscher Rundfunk
Height
Antenna spire216.61 m (710.7 ft)
Design and construction
ArchitectHeinle, Wischer and Partner
Engineer Fritz Leonhardt
Main contractorG. Epple
Wayss & Freytag
References
[1] [2] [3] [4]

Fernsehturm Stuttgart (English: Stuttgart TV Tower) is a 216.61 m (710.7 ft) telecommunications tower in Stuttgart, Germany. It was the first telecommunications tower in the world constructed from reinforced concrete, and it is the prototype for many such towers worldwide. Although controversial at first, it quickly became a well known landmark of Stuttgart and a tourist attraction.

Radio masts and towers tall structure designed to support antennas

Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. There are two main types: guyed and self-supporting structures. They are among the tallest human-made structures. Masts are often named after the broadcasting organizations that originally built them or currently use them.

Stuttgart Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are consistently ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP; Mercer listed Stuttgart as 21st on its 2015 list of cities by quality of living, innovation agency 2thinknow ranked the city 24th globally out of 442 cities and the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked the city as a Beta-status world city in their 2014 survey.

Reinforced concrete composite building material

Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.

Contents

Location

The tower is located on the hill Hoher Bopser (elevation 483 meters) in the southern Stuttgart borough of Degerloch. [5] From the observation decks there is a view of Stuttgart, from the forests and vineyards in and around Stuttgart to the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest.

Swabian Jura low mountain range in Germany

The Swabian Jura, sometimes also named Swabian Alps in English, is a mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km (140 mi) from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia.

Black Forest mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany

The Black Forest is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine valley to the west and south. Its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). The region is roughly oblong in shape with a length of 160 km (99 mi) and breadth of up to 50 km (31 mi).

History

The tower's construction was controversial – critics opposed the new building method and its costs; a simple 200-meter antenna array would have cost just 200,000 DM. Construction began on 10 January 1954 and continued for 20 months. This made it the first telecom tower in the world built with reinforced concrete. The construction cost was 4.2 million DM. Revenues from visitors reached that sum within five years. The tower was placed in service on 5 February 1956 by Süddeutscher Rundfunk (today Südwestrundfunk SWR). [5]

Südwestrundfunk is a regional public broadcasting corporation serving the southwest of Germany, specifically the federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The corporation has main offices in three cities: Stuttgart, Baden-Baden and Mainz, with the director's office being in Stuttgart. It is a part of the ARD consortium. It broadcasts on two television channels and six radio channels, with its main television and radio office in Baden-Baden and regional offices in Stuttgart and Mainz. It is the second largest broadcasting organization in Germany. SWR, with a coverage of 55,600 km2, and an audience reach estimated to be 14.7 million. SWR employs 3,700 people in its various offices and facilities.

The tower reached its current height of 216.61 m (710.7 ft) after the antenna was extended from October 1965 to December 1965.

Specifications

Fritz Leonhardt was a German structural engineer who made major contributions to 20th-century bridge engineering, especially in the development of cable-stayed bridges. His book Bridges: Aesthetics and Design is well known throughout the bridge engineering community.

Broadcasting

The tower is still known as Fernsehturm but today only broadcasts several public FM radio stations. Transmission of the ARD TV network's analogue service stopped in 2006. The digital television services have moved to nearby Fernmeldeturm Stuttgart , which also broadcasts private FM radio stations in the area.

FM broadcasting

FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer equally good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies. The term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting.

Das Erste is the flagship national television channel of the ARD association of public broadcasting corporations in Germany. ARD and ZDF – "the Second" German Television Channel – together comprise the public service television broadcasters in the German television system. Das Erste is jointly operated by the nine regional public broadcasting corporations that are members of the ARD.

Fernmeldeturm Stuttgart architectural structure

The Stuttgarter Fernmeldeturm is a reinforced concrete tower for radio relay, FM, and TV transmitting services at Stuttgart-Frauenkopf in Germany. Unlike the Stuttgart TV tower, it is not accessible to the public. It belongs to Deutsche Telekom and is 192.4 metres high. The tower has an operations room with a diameter of 40.6 meters at a height of 33.78 metres.

Air traffic warning lights

The tower carries beside the conventional red air traffic warning lights three rotating xenon lamps similar to those used on lighthouses just above the observation deck.

Public access

On 27 March 2013 the tower was closed to the public because of a review of fire safety regulations. [6] The tower was reopened on 30 January 2016 with a refurbished entrance, shop area and new, optimised fire safety precautions. [5]

Fire safety precautions taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire

Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire safety measures include those that are intended to prevent ignition of an uncontrolled fire, and those that are used to limit the development and effects of a fire after it starts.

See also

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References

  1. "Fernsehturm Stuttgart". CTBUH Skyscraper Center .
  2. Fernsehturm Stuttgart at Emporis
  3. "Fernsehturm Stuttgart". SkyscraperPage .
  4. Fernsehturm Stuttgart at Structurae
  5. 1 2 3 Abele, Rüdiger (24 January 2016). "Da ergeht einem Hören und Sehen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (in German). Technik & Motor. p. 58.
  6. "Opening Hours". Fernsehturm Stuttgart. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

Further reading