Ferrari

Last updated

Ferrari N.V.
Native name
Ferrari N.V.
Public
Traded as
Industry Automotive
Founded13 September 1939;79 years ago (1939-09-13) in Modena, Italy (as Auto Avio Costruzioni) [1]
Founder Enzo Ferrari
Headquarters
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products Sports cars
Production output
Increase2.svg 9,251 units (2018)
RevenueIncrease2.svg €3.417  billion  (2017)
Increase2.svg €775 million (2017)
Increase2.svg€537 million (2017)
Total assets Decrease2.svg €4.141 billion (2017)
Total equity Increase2.svg €779 million (2017)
Owners
Exor N.V. (22.91%)
Piero Ferrari (10.00%)
Public(67.09%)
Number of employees
3,336 (2017)
Subsidiaries Ferrari S.p.A.
Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A.
Website ferrari.com
Footnotes /references
[2]

Ferrari ( /fəˈrɑːri/ ; Italian:  [ferˈraːri] ) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Luxury vehicle marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury

A luxury vehicle is intended to provide passengers with increased comfort, a higher level of equipment and increased perception of quality than regular cars for an increased price. The term is subjective and can be based on either the qualities of the car itself or the brand image of its manufacturer. Luxury brands are considered to have a higher status than premium brands, however there is no fixed differentiation between the two.

Sports car Performance-oriented car class, generally small or light-weight with good handling

A sports car is designed to emphasise handling, performance or thrill of driving. Sports cars originated in Europe in the early 1900s and are currently produced by many manufacturers around the world.

Contents

In 2014 Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. [3] In June 2018, the 1964 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, setting an all-time record selling price of $70 million. [4] [5]

Brand Finance is an independent branded business valuation consultancy. It advises branded organisations, or those with intangible assets, on how to maximise their value through effective management of their brand and other intangible assets. Brand Finance has been certified with ISO 10668:2010. As of July 2017, the company evaluates over 3,500 brands annually.

Ferrari 250 GTO car model

The Ferrari 250 GTO is a GT car produced by Ferrari from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIA's Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. It was powered by Ferrari's Tipo 168/62 Colombo V12 engine.

Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988. [6] In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. (FCA) announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari. [7] [8] [9] The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V. (a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange. [10] Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. [11] The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016. [10]

Fiat S.p.A. 1899-2014 automotive manufacturer holding company

Fiat S.p.A., or Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, was an Italian holding company whose original and core activities were in the automotive industry, and that was succeeded by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (FCA). The Fiat Group contained many brands such as Ferrari, Maserati, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, the Chrysler Group, and many more. On 29 January 2014, it was announced that Fiat S.p.A. was to be merged into a new Netherlands-based holding company Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (FCA), taking place before the end of 2014. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles became the new owner of Fiat Group. On 1 August 2014, Fiat S.p.A. received necessary shareholder approval to proceed with the merger. The merger became effective 12 October 2014.

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Multinational automotive manufacturing conglomerate

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., often abbreviated as FCA, is an Italian-American multinational corporation and is the world's eighth largest auto maker. The group was established in October 2014 by merging Fiat and Chrysler into a new holding company. Fiat Chrysler Automobiles' main headquarters are located in the Netherlands, and the financial headquarters are in London for tax purposes. The holding company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and Borsa Italiana in Milan. Exor N.V., an Italian investment group controlled by the Agnelli family, owns 29.19% of FCA and controls 44.31% through a loyalty voting mechanism.

Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges. Through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public, a privately held company is transformed into a public company. Initial public offerings can be used: to raise new equity capital for the company concerned; to monetize the investments of private shareholders such as company founders or private equity investors; and to enable easy trading of existing holdings or future capital raising by becoming publicly traded.

Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the oldest and most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of drivers' championship wins (15). [12] Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth. [13]

Auto racing motorsport involving the racing of cars for competition

Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950. The word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads.

Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is also nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana.

History

Enzo Ferrari in a rare interview, with the Ferrari's symbol Cavallino Rampante ("prancing horse") behind him. Ferrari-enzo-cavallo-rampante.jpeg
Enzo Ferrari in a rare interview, with the Ferrari's symbol Cavallino Rampante ("prancing horse") behind him.

Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari (pronounced [skudeˈriːa] ) literally means "Ferrari Stable" and is usually used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought,[ citation needed ] prepared, and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo. In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team: [1] the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milan and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department; therefore the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded. [1]

Modena Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Modena is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.

Alfa Romeo in motorsport motorsport activities of Alfa Romeo

During its history, Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in many different categories of motorsport, including Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and rallies. They have competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries and private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of A.L.F.A., the 40-60HP had 6 liter straight-4 engine. Alfa Romeo quickly gained a good name in motorsport and gave a sporty image to the whole marque.

In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. [1] A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni , headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari. [1] The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform. It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including works for road car production.

Mille Miglia Italian endurance road race

The Mille Miglia was an open-road, motorsport endurance race established in 1927 by the young Counts Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Maranello Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Maranello is a town and comune in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy, 18 km from Modena, with a population of 17,165 as of 2013. It is known worldwide as the home of Ferrari and Scuderia Ferrari Formula One racing team. Maranello was also home to coachbuilding firm Carrozzeria Scaglietti, owned by Ferrari.

125 S replica Ferrari 125 S fl.jpg
125 S replica
166MM Barchetta replica Ferrari 166MM Barchetta.JPG
166MM Barchetta replica

The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine; [1] Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari. [14]

The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.

In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.A. (Società Esercizio Fabbriche Automobili e Corse). [15]

Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari. An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost.

In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari launched before his death later that year. In 1989, the company was renamed Ferrari S.p.A. [15] From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made (minus the 400th which was donated to the Vatican for charity) had a price tag of $650,000 apiece (equivalent to £400,900).

On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars worth over $162 million (£99.95 million) attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record. [16]

Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company. [17] In July 2018, Marchionne was replaced by board member Louis Camilleri as CEO and by John Elkann as chairman. [18]

On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari. The aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015. [19] Ferrari officially priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015. [20]

Motorsport

Ferrari 312T2 Formula One car driven by Niki Lauda LaudaNiki19760731Ferrari312T2.jpg
Ferrari 312T2 Formula One car driven by Niki Lauda

Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one make race series.

The 1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model.

Scuderia Ferrari

Scuderia Ferrari has participated in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first F1 victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix.

Ferrari SF15-T (2015) Sebastian Vettel-Ferrari 2015.JPG
Ferrari SF15-T (2015)

Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship a year later. Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2014 , the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles, 16 World Constructors Championship titles, 221 Grand Prix victories, 6736.27 points, 679 podium finishes, 207 pole positions, and 230 fastest laps in 890 Grands Prix contested. Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the F2004, with a further 3 set by the F2003-GA, F2008 and F10.

Ferrari drivers include: Tazio Nuvolari, José Froilán González, Juan Manuel Fangio, Alberto Ascari, Luigi Chinetti, Maurice Trintignant, Wolfgang von Trips, Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Mike Hawthorn, Peter Collins, Giancarlo Baghetti, Ricardo Rodríguez, Chris Amon, John Surtees, Lorenzo Bandini, Ludovico Scarfiotti, Jacky Ickx, Mario Andretti, Clay Regazzoni, Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Didier Pironi, Patrick Tambay, René Arnoux, Michele Alboreto, Gerhard Berger, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost, Jean Alesi, Michael Schumacher, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, Felipe Massa, Kimi Räikkönen, Fernando Alonso, Sebastian Vettel, and Charles Leclerc.

At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers. A five-year deal was agreed and although this was not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari.

A 312PB (driven by Jacky Ickx) during the team's final year in the World Sportscar Championship 1973-05-27 Jacky Ickx, Ferrari 312P.jpg
A 312PB (driven by Jacky Ickx) during the team's final year in the World Sportscar Championship

In addition to Formula One, Ferrari also entered cars in sportscar racing, the two programs existing in parallel for many years.

In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years.

When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967. Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One.

During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965.

Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers. These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the 458 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.

Race cars for other teams

Throughout its history, Ferrari has supplied racing cars to other entrants, aside from its own works Scuderia Ferrari team.

In the 1950s and '60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams. One famous example was Tony Vandervell's team, which raced the Thinwall Special modified Ferraris before building their own Vanwall cars. The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car. [21]

Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008-09 season. [22] The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car.

Ferrari currently runs a customer GT program for a racing version of its 458 and has done so for the 458's predecessors, dating back to the 355 in the late 1990s. Such private teams as the American Risi Competizione and Italian AF Corse teams have been very successful with Ferrari GT racers over the years. This car, made for endurance sportscar racing to be competed against such racing versions of the Audi R8, McLaren MP4-12C, and BMW Z4 (E89) has proven to be successful, but not as successful as its predecessor, the F430. The Ferrari Challenge is a one-make racing series for the Ferrari 458. The FXX is not road legal and is therefore only used for track events.

Road cars

166 Inter Touring Berlinetta 1947 Ferrari 166 Inter Touring Berlinetta 0043S - fvl.jpg
166 Inter Touring Berlinetta

The first vehicle made with the Ferrari name was the 125 S. This was primarily a sports/racing model. In 1949, the 166 Inter was introduced marking the company's significant move into the grand touring road car market. Road cars continue to make up the bulk of Ferrari sales to the present day.

Many early cars featured bodywork designed and customised by independent coachbuilders such as Pininfarina, Scaglietti, Zagato, Vignale and Bertone. Starting in the early 2010s with the LaFerrari, the focus was shifted to what is now the standard, Ferrari relying on an in-house design from the Centro Stile Ferrari.

The original road cars were typically two seat front engined V12s. This platform served Ferrari very well through the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968 the Dino was introduced as the first two-seat rear mid-engined Ferrari. The Dino was produced primarily with a V6 engine, however, a V8 model was also developed. This rear mid-engine layout would go on to be used in many Ferraris of the 1980s, 1990s and to the present day. Current road cars typically use V8 or V12 engines, with V8 models making up well over half of the marque's total production. Historically, Ferrari has also produced flat 12 engines.

For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB.[ citation needed ]

The company has also produced several front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current V12 model Lusso and V8 models Portofino and Lusso T. The California is credited with initiating the popular current model line of V8 front-engined 2+2 grand touring performance sports cars.[ citation needed ]

Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa (also mid-engined 12 cylinder) remains one of the most popular and famous Ferrari road cars of all time.

Current models

GTC4Lusso / GTC4Lusso T F8 Tributo Portofino 812 Superfast SF90 Stradale
Ferrari GTC4Lusso, Paris Motor Show 2018, IMG 0651.jpg
Ferrari F8 Tributo Genf 2019 1Y7A5665.jpg
Ferrari Portofino IMG 0532.jpg
Ferrari 820 Superfast.jpg
Image manquante 2.svg

Customization

In the 1950s and 1960s, clients often personalized their vehicles as they came straight from the factory. [23] This philosophy added to the mystique of the brand. Every Ferrari that comes out of Maranello is built to an individual customer's specification. In this sense, each vehicle is a unique result of a specific client's desire.

Ferrari formalized this concept with its earlier Carrozzeria Scaglietti programme. The options offered here were more typical such as racing seats, rearview cameras, and other special trim. In late 2011, Ferrari announced a significant update of this philosophy. The Tailor Made programme allows clients to work with designers in Maranello to make decisions at every step of the process. Through this program almost any trim, any exterior color or any interior material are possible. The program carries on the original tradition and emphasizes the idea of each car being unique. [23]

Enzo Ferrari Ferrari Enzo - Flickr - Alexandre Prevot (1) (cropped).jpg
Enzo Ferrari

Supercars

Mythos Ferrari Mythos Side.jpg
Mythos

The 1984 288 GTO may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars. This pedigree extends through the Enzo Ferrari to the LaFerrari. In March 2018, at the 88th Geneva International Motor Show, Ferrari revealed its latest supercar, the 488 Pista. [24]

Ferrari SF90 Stradale is the first ever Ferrari to feature PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) architecture which sees the internal combustion engine integrated with three electric motors, two of which are independent and located on the front axle, with the third at the rear between the engine and the gearbox. [25]

Concept cars and specials

Ferrari has produced a number of concept cars, such as the Mythos. While some of these were quite radical (such as the Modulo) and never intended for production, others such as the Mythos have shown styling elements which were later incorporated into production models.

The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Millechili.

A number of one-off special versions of Ferrari road cars have also been produced, commissioned to coachbuilders by wealthy owners. Recent examples include the P4/5 [26] and the 412 Kappa.

Ferrari Special Projects

The Special Projects programme was launched in the late 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, enabling customers to own bespoke bodied one-offs based on modern Ferrari road cars. [27] Engineering and design is done by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with external design houses like Pininfarina or Fioravanti, and the vehicles receive full homologation to be road legal. [27]

The first car to be completed under this programme was the 2008 SP1, commissioned by a Japanese business executive, the second was the P540 Superfast Aperta, commissioned by an American collector. [27] The following is a list of Special Projects cars that have been made public:

NamePictureYearBased onCommissioned byNotes
SP1 No image 3x4.svg 2008 F430 [28] Junichiro Hiramatsu [28] Design by Leonardo Fioravanti. [28]
P540 Superfast Apert Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta.jpg 2009 599 GTB [29] Edward Walson [29] Inspired by a similarly gold-painted and open-topped one-off built by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi on a Ferrari 330 LMB chassis. [27] [29]
Superamerica 45 Ferrari Superamerica 45 in Villa Erba.jpg 2011 599 GTB [30] Peter Kalikow [30] Rotating targa top; [30] design by Pininfarina
SP12 EC FerrariSP12EC.jpg 2012 458 Italia [31] Eric Clapton [31] Designed by Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, in hommage to the 512 BB. [31]
SP30 No image 3x4.svg 2013 [32] 599 GTO [32] Cheerag Arya [32]
SP FFX No image 3x4.svg FF [33] Shin Okamoto [33] Design by Pininfarina [33]
Ferrari F12 TRS Festival automobile international 2015 - Ferrari F12 TRS - 007 (cropped).jpg 2014 F12berlinetta [34] Barchetta body, inspired by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa. Design by Ferrari Styling Centre. [34]
Ferrari SP America No image 3x4.svg 2014 F12berlinetta Danny Wegman [35]
Ferrari SP3JC No image 3x4.svg 2014 F12tdf John Collins [36] Designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre. Took 3.5 years to complete. Presented in 2018.
Ferrari 458 MM Speciale FoS20162016 0624 132509AA (27809762691).jpg 2016 458 Speciale [37] Design by Ferrari Styling Centre. [37]
SP275 RW Competizione Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione.jpg 2016 F12tdf Rick Workman [38] Inspired by the 1964 275 GTB/C Speciale. Design by Pininfarina in collaboration with Ferrari Styling Centre. [39]
Ferrari J50 No image 3x4.svg 2017 488 Spider
SP38 No image 3x4.svg 2018 488 GTB Inspired by the F40 and 308. [40]
P80/C No image 3x4.svg 2019 488 GT3 One-off track-only car inspired by the 330 P3, 330 P4 and the Dino 206 S.

Bio-fuel and hybrid cars

An F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599. Called the "HY-KERS Concept", Ferrari's hybrid system adds more than 100 horsepower on top of the 599 Fiorano's 612 HP. [41] Also in mid-2014, the flagship LaFerrari was put into production.

Naming conventions

Until the early 1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement:

612 Scaglietti Sessanta Edition Ferrari612SessentaEdition.jpg
612 Scaglietti Sessanta Edition

Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used:

This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style. Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4. [42] Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4 run by NART (who raced Ferraris in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911. [43]

The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers—for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.

In the mid-1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice abandoned after the F512 M and F355, but adopted again with the F430, but not with its successor, the Ferrari 458 ).

Identity

Ferrari head office and factory Usine Ferrari Maranello 0002.JPG
Ferrari head office and factory
Count Francesco Baracca FBaracca 1.jpg
Count Francesco Baracca
Coat of arms of the Baracca family Coa fam ITA baracca.jpg
Coat of arms of the Baracca family

The famous symbol of the Ferrari race team is the Cavallino Rampante ("prancing horse") black prancing stallion on a yellow shield, usually with the letters S F (for Scuderia Ferrari), with three stripes of green, white and red (the Italian national colors) at the top. The road cars have a rectangular badge on the hood (see picture at top of page), and, optionally, the shield-shaped race logo on the sides of both front wings, close to the door.

On 17 June 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Count Francesco Baracca, an ace of the Italian air force and national hero of World War I, who used to paint a horse on the side of his planes. The Countess asked Enzo to use this horse on his cars, suggesting that it would bring him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's airplane was painted in red on a white cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to have the horse in black (as it had been painted as a sign of grief on Baracca's squadron planes after the pilot was killed in action) and he added a canary yellow background as this is the color of the city of Modena, his birthplace. The Ferrari horse was, from the very beginning, markedly different from the Baracca horse in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the original Baracca version was pointing downward.

Ferrari has used the cavallino rampante on official company stationery since 1929. Since the Spa 24 Hours of 9 July 1932, the cavallino rampante has been used on Alfa Romeos raced by Scuderia Ferrari.

The motif of a prancing horse is old, it can be found on ancient coins. A similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the German city of Stuttgart, home of Mercedes-Benz and the design bureau of Porsche, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's name derives from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia. Porsche also includes the Stuttgart sign in its corporate logo, centred in the emblem of the state of Württemberg. Stuttgart's Rössle has both rear legs firmly planted on the soil, like Baracca's horse, but unlike Ferrari's cavallino.

Fabio Taglioni used the cavallino rampante on his Ducati motorbikes, as Taglioni was born at Lugo di Romagna like Baracca, and his father too was a military pilot during WWI (although not part of Baracca's squadron, as is sometimes mistakenly reported). As Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse- perhaps the result of a private agreement between the two companies.

Austrian fuel stations Logo avanti.png
Austrian fuel stations

The cavallino rampante is the visual symbol of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine uses the name, but not the logo. Other companies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company operating over 100 filling stations, uses a prancing horse logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as does Iron Horse Bicycles and Norfolk Southern Railway.

Colour

Since the 1920s, Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and later Ferrari and Abarth were (and often still are) painted in "race red" (Rosso Corsa). This was the customary national racing color of Italy, as recommended between the World Wars by the organizations that later would become the FIA. It refers to the nationality of the competing team, not that of the car manufacturer or driver. In that scheme, French-entered cars such as Bugatti were blue, German such as Auto Union and Mercedes white (since 1934 also bare sheet metal silver), and British green such as the mid-1960s Lotus and BRM, for instance.

Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.S.-based North American Racing Team (NART) team. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car.

Corporate affairs

In 1963, Enzo Ferrari was approached by the Ford Motor Company about a possible buy out. [44] Ford audited Ferrari's assets but legal negotiations and talks were unilaterally cut off by Ferrari when he realized that the deal offered by Ford would not enable him to stay at the helm of the company racing program. Henry Ford II consequently directed his racing division to negotiate with Lotus, Lola, and Cooper to build a car capable of beating Ferrari on the world endurance circuit, eventually resulting in the production of the Ford GT40 in 1964.

As the Ford deal fell through, FIAT approached Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased controlling interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10% share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari.

Ferrari has an internally managed merchandising line that licenses many products bearing the Ferrari brand, including eyewear, pens, pencils, electronic goods, perfume, cologne, clothing, high-tech bicycles, watches, cell phones and laptop computers.

Ferrari also runs a museum, the Museo Ferrari in Maranello, which displays road and race cars and other items from the company's history.

Formula Uomo programme

In 1997 Ferrari launched a long term master planned effort to improve overall corporate efficiency, production and employee happiness. The program was called Formula Uomo and became a case study in social sustainability. [45] It took over ten years to fully implement and included over €200 million (2008) in investment. [46]

Technical partnerships

Ferrari has had a long-standing relationship with Shell Oil. It is a technical partnership with Ferrari and Ducati to test as well as supply fuel and oils to the Formula One, MotoGP and World Superbike racing teams. For example, the Shell V-Power premium gasoline fuel has been developed with the many years of technical expertise between Shell and Ferrari. [47]

Ferrari has had agreements to supply Formula One engines to a number of other teams over the years, and currently supply Sauber F1 Team, and Haas F1 Team.

Sales history

As of the end of 2018, the total of Ferrari built and sold cars in their whole company history is 208,931. [48]

YearSales to end customers (number of type-approved vehicles)
12345678910
1947 [49] 3* 
1948 [49] 5* 
1949 [49] 21* 
1950 [49] 26* 
1951 [49] 33* 
1952 [49] 44* 
1953 [49] 57* 
1954 [49] 58* 
1955 [49] 61* 
1956 [49] 81* 
1957 [49] 113* 
1958 [49] 183* 
1959 [49] 248* 
1960 [49] 306* 
1961 [49] 441* 
1962 [49] 493* 
1963 [49] 598* 
1964 [49] 654* 
1965 [49] 619* 
1966 [49] 928* 
1967 [49] 706* 
1968 [49] 729* 
1969 [49] 619* 
1970 [49] 928* 
1971 [49] 1,246* 
1972 [49] 1,844* 
1973 [49] 1,772* 
1974 [49] 1,436* 
1975 [49] 1,337* 
1976 [49] 1,426* 
1977 [49] [50] 1,798* 
1978 [49] 1,939* 
1979 [49] 2,221* 
1980 [49] 2,470* 
1981 [49] 2,565* 
1982 [49] 2,209* 
1983 [51] 2,366* 
1984 [52] 2,856* 
1985 [50] 3,051 
1986 [50] 3,663 
1987 [53] 3,942 
1988 [54] 4,001 
1989 [54] 3,821 
1990 [55] [ page needed ]4,293 
1991 [55] 4,487 
1992 [55] 3,384 
1993 [55] 2,345 
1994 [55] 2,671 
1995 [55] 3,144 
1996 [56] 3,350 
1997 [56] 3,581 
1998 [57] 3,652 
1999 [57] 3,775 
2000 [58] 4,070 
2001 [59] 4,289 
2002 [60] 4,236 
2003 [61] 4,238 
2004 [62] 4,975 
2005 [63] 5,409 
2006 [64] 5,671 
2007 [65] 6,465 
2008 [66] 6,587 
2009 [67] 6,250 
2010 [68] 6,461 
2011 [69] 7,001 
2012 [70] 7,318 
2013 [71] 6,922 
2014 [72] 7,255 
2015 [73] 7,664 
2016 [74] 8,014 
2017 [75] 8,398 
2018 [76] 9,251 
* Figure refers to units produced rather than to units sold.
† Figure refers to units shipped rather than to units sold.

Stores

Approximately thirty Ferrari boutiques exist worldwide, with two owned by Ferrari and the rest operating as franchises. The stores sell branded clothes, accessories and racing memorabilia. Clothing includes upscale and lower-priced collections for men, women, and children.

Some stores include race car simulation games for entertainment. [77]

See also

Notes

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References

Coordinates: 44°31′57″N10°51′51″E / 44.532447°N 10.864137°E / 44.532447; 10.864137