Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War

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Final offensive
Part of the Spanish Civil War
GCE frente en feb 1939.svg
Map of Spain in March 1939.
     Republican territory     Nationalist territory
DateCasado's coup: 5–13 March 1939
Final offensive: 26 March – 1 April 1939
Southeastern Spain (provinces of Madrid, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Albacete, Valencia, Alicante, Murcia, Jaen, Almeria, and parts of Toledo, Guadalajara, Granada and Castellon).
  • Decisive Nationalist victory. End of the war.
  • Dissolution of the Second Spanish Republic and beginning of the Francoist regime.
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Spanish Republic Flag of Spain under Franco 1938 1945.svg  Nationalist Spain
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Condor Legion [1]
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg CTV
Commanders and leaders
Negrín's Government:
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Luis Barceló   Skull and Crossbones.svg
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Francisco Galán   White flag icon.svg
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Antonio Ortega   Skull and Crossbones.svg
Council of National Defense:
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Segismundo Casado
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Manuel Matallana   White flag icon.svg
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg José Miaja
Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg Cipriano Mera
Flag of Spain under Franco 1938 1945.svg Francisco Franco
Flag of Spain under Franco 1938 1945.svg Juan Yagüe
Flag of Spain under Franco 1938 1945.svg José Solchaga
Flag of Spain under Franco 1938 1945.svg Rafael García Valiño
Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg Gastone Gambara
250,000 [2] −500,000 men [3]
40 aircraft
1,000,000 men [4]
600 aircraft
Casualties and losses
Casado's coup: 230 [5] –2,000 dead [6]
Final offensive: 150,000 captured [7]
1,223 dead (sinking of the Castillo de Olite) [8]

The final offensive of the Spanish Civil War took place between 26 March and 1 April 1939, towards the end of the Spanish Civil War. On 5 March 1939, the Republican Army, led by Colonel Segismundo Casado and the politician Julián Besteiro, rose against the Socialist prime minister Juan Negrín, and formed a military junta, the National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa or CND) to negotiate a peace deal. Negrín fled to France but the Communist troops around Madrid rose against the junta, starting a civil war within the civil war. Casado defeated them and started peace negotiations with the Nationalists. Francisco Franco, however, was prepared to accept only an unconditional surrender. On 26 March, the Nationalists started a general offensive and by 31 March, they controlled all of Spanish territory. Hundreds of thousands of Republicans were arrested and interned in concentration camps.

Spanish Civil War War between the Republicans and the Nationalists in Spain from 1936 to 1939

The Spanish Civil War was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the elected, left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, and was variously viewed as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism. It has been frequently called the "dress rehearsal" for World War II.

Spanish Republican Army

The Spanish Republican Army was the main branch of the Armed Forces of the Second Spanish Republic between 1931 and 1939.

Segismundo Casado Spanish Army officer

Segismundo Casado López was a Spanish Army officer in the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, commanding the Republican Spanish Army in 1939.



Fall of Catalonia

After the fall of Catalonia in February 1939, the military situation of the Republic was hopeless. Despite still having the capital city and approximately 30% of Spanish territory, it had lost 220,000 soldiers, the second most populated city in the country and the industrial resources of Catalonia. [9] Furthermore, on 27 February, President Manuel Azaña resigned. The United Kingdom and France then recognised the Nationalist government. [10]

Catalonia Offensive 1938–1939 campaign in the Spanish Civil War

The Catalonia Offensive was part of the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist Army started the offensive on December 23, 1938, and rapidly conquered Republican-held Catalonia with Barcelona. Barcelona was captured on January 26, 1939. The Republican government headed for the French border. Thousands of people fleeing the Nationalists also crossed the frontier in the following month, to be placed in internment camps. Franco closed the border with France by February 10, 1939.

Manuel Azaña Prime Minister of Spain, President of Spain

Manuel Azaña Díaz was a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic and the last President of the Republic (1936–1939).

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Military situation

The Republican army still had between 250,000 [11] and 500,000 men [12] but only 40 aircraft (three Natasha and two Katiuska bomber squadrons, and 25 Chatos and Moscas fighters), [13] little artillery and few automatic weapons. [14] Many soldiers were unarmed (in December 1938, the Republican army had only 225,000 rifles), [15] and lacked shoes and overcoats. [16] In Madrid, there was food for only two months and no water, heating, medicine or surgical dressings. [17] On the other hand, the Nationalist army had more than a million men at the end of 1938, with.35,000 Moroccans, 32,000 Italians and 5,000 Germans, [18] as well as 600 aircraft. [19]

Polikarpov R-Z 1935 military aircraft family

The Polikarpov R-Z was a Soviet reconnaissance bomber aircraft of the 1930s. It was a revised version of the Polikarpov R-5 which was built in large numbers between 1935 and 1937. It was used in combat during the Spanish Civil War as well as the Winter War and Battle of Khalkhin Gol.

Tupolev SB medium bomber

The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name Tupolev SB and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three-seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934. The Tupolev design was advanced but lacked refinement, much to the dismay of crews, maintenance personnel, and Stalin, who pointed out that "there are no trivialities in aviation".

Polikarpov I-15 fighter aircraft

The Polikarpov I-15 was a Soviet biplane fighter aircraft of the 1930s. Nicknamed Chaika because of its gulled upper wings, it was operated in large numbers by the Soviet Air Force, and together with the Polikarpov I-16 monoplane, was one of the standard fighters of the Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War, where it was called Chato (snub-nose).

Opposition to continued resistance

On 16 February, the high command of the Republican Army told Prime Minister Juan Negrín that further military resistance was impossible. [20] Most of the members of the Republican Army, the PSOE, the UGT and the CNT believed that it was necessary to initiate peace negotiations. [21] Nevertheless, Negrín, backed by the Communist PCE, wanted to continue fighting because Franco rejected giving any guarantee against reprisals and a continental war against fascism was believed to be imminent. [22] Furthermore, Negrín wanted to organise the evacuation of those who were most at risk. [23]

Juan Negrín Prime Minister of Spain

Juan Negrín y López was a Spanish politician and physician. He was a leader of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and served as finance minister. He was President of the Council of Ministers of the Second Spanish Republic several times between 1937 and 1945, already in exile. He was the last Loyalist premier of Spain (1937–39), and presided over the defeat of the Republican forces by the rebel faction under General Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. He died in exile in Paris, France.

Unión General de Trabajadores Spanish trade union

The Unión General de Trabajadores is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).

Confederación Nacional del Trabajo Confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions

The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT). When working with the latter group it was also known as CNT-AIT. Historically, the CNT has also been affiliated with the Federación Anarquista Ibérica ; thus, it has also been referred to as the CNT-FAI. Throughout its history, it has played a major role in the Spanish labor movement.

Casado’s coup


From the end of February 1939, Colonel Segismundo Casado had been preparing a coup against the Negrín government to start peace negotiations with the Nationalists, believing that the government was too subordinate to the Communists. Colonel José Cendaño, a fifth column agent in the Republican army, promised to him that Franco would guarantee the lives of the Republican officers who had committed no crimes. [24] Most noncommunist elements of the Popular Front in Madrid supported the plot, including one of the leaders of the PSOE, Julián Besteiro, because they believed that continuing the war was useless. [25] Furthermore, after the surrender of Menorca, many Republican officers in the central zone believed that they could negotiate a deal with the Nationalists. [26]

Coup détat Sudden deposition of a government

A coup d'état, also known as a putsch (German:), a golpe de estado (Spanish/Portuguese), or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.

Fifth column group of people who undermine a larger group

A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation. The activities of a fifth column can be overt or clandestine. Forces gathered in secret can mobilize openly to assist an external attack. This term is also extended to organised actions by military personnel. Clandestine fifth column activities can involve acts of sabotage, disinformation, or espionage executed within defense lines by secret sympathizers with an external force.

Popular Front (Spain) Spanish electoral coalition

The Popular Front in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organizations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election. In Catalonia and today's Valencian Community the name of the coalition was Front d'Esquerres.

On 2 March, Negrín announced a number of new appointments in the Central Zone. [27] Colonel Casado and the communists Juan Modesto and Antonio Cordón García became generals, General Manuel Matallana was appointed as head of the central general staff [28] and communist officers were appointed to command the ports of Murcia (Manuel Tagüeña), Alicante (Etelvino Vega) and Cartagena (Francisco Galán). [29] (according to Beevor, Francisco Galán was appointed military governor of Cartagena, Etelvino Vega governor of Alicante, Leocadio Mendiola commander of Murcia and Inocencio Curto commander of Albacete). [30] The noncommunist elements believed that the communists wanted to control the evacuation harbors [31] and joined the plot against Negrín. [32]

Juan Guilloto León, usually referred to as Modesto or Juan Modesto, was a Republican army officer during the Spanish Civil War.

Antonio Cordón García. was a Spanish soldier, born in Sevilla, who commanded during the Spanish Civil War.

Manuel Matallana Gomez was a Spanish officer and lawyer. A son of a military officer, he joined the Spanish army and participated in the Rif War. He supported the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War. In November 1936 he was a member of the general Miaja’s staff during the battle of Madrid. After that, he was promoted to colonel and on July 1937 he was the chief of staff of Miaja during the battle of Brunete, and then later promoted again to general. On February 1939 he said to the prime minister Negrin that it was impossible to continue the war and on March 1939 he joined Casado's coup against the Negrin government. After the end of the war, he was detained and imprisoned by the Nationalists. He died in Madrid in 1952.


On 5 March 1939, Colonel Segismundo Casado, supported by General Matallana, the CNT [33] (Cipriano Mera), the secret service of the Republic (the Military Investigation Service, Servicio de Investigación Militar, or SIM ), [34] a section of the PSOE (Julian Besteiro) and a section of the UGT (Wenceslao Carrillo), deposed Negrín and formed a military junta, the National Council of Defense (Consejo Nacional de Defensa) in order to negotiate a peace deal with Franco. [35] On 6 March, Miaja joined the rebellion and was appointed president of the junta. [36] The other members of the junta were Casado, Julian Besteiro, Wenceslao Carrillo, Gonzalez Marín and Eduardo Val (CNT), Antonio Perez (UGT), and the republicans Miguel San Andrés and Jose del Río. [37]

Julian Besteiro, one of the leaders of the PSOE, supported Casado's coup. Julian Besteiro2.JPG
Julian Besteiro, one of the leaders of the PSOE, supported Casado's coup.

Colonel Adolfo Prada was appointed commander of the Army of the Centre, the communist commanders of the I, II and III Army Corps of the Army of the Centre were relieved, the PCE's newspaper Mundo Obrero was closed and Casado ordered massive arrests of communist commissars and militants. [38] Ironically, Casado's justification for the coup was that Negrín and the PCE wanted to carry out a communist takeover, an identical justification to that of the Nationalist uprising, which began the Civil War, but in fact, he rose against the government because he wanted to negotiate peace and believed that removing Negrín and the communists was a precondition to negotiations with Franco. In addition to other assurances, the British government said to him that Franco would guarantee the lives of the Republicans. [39] Casado had said to the commander of the Republican Air Force, Hidalgo de Cisneros: "I give you my word...that I can obtain better terms from Franco than Negrín ever can. I can even assure you that they will res our ranks". [40]

After a failed attempt to negotiate with Casado, Negrín fled to France from the Monovar's airfield, near Elda, with Hidalgo de Cisneros, the leaders of the PCE (La Pasionaria and Vicente Uribe), and the foreign minister Julio Álvarez del Vayo on 6 March to avoid capture by the supporters of Casado [41] (Casado wanted to arrest the government and the PCE's leaders and to hand them over to the Nationalists). [42]

Fight in Madrid

Casado's coup was supported by the commanders of the other three Armies of the Republican Army (Leopoldo Menéndez López, commander of the Levante Army; Antonio Escobar, commander of the Estremadura Army; and Domingo Moriones, commander of the Andalusia Army). [43] Nevertheless, the army units settled around Madrid and controlled by the PCE (the I corps of the Army of the Centre led by Luis Barceló and the Emilio Bueno’s II and Colonel Antonio Ortega’s III Corps), rose against the junta on 7 March, starting a brief civil war inside the Republic. Barceló appointed himself as commander of the Army of the Centre, and his troops closed all the entrances to Madrid, occupied most of the city centre and detained and shot three of Casado's colonels. Casado's supporters held only some government buildings and the southeast of the city. [44] Nevertheless, Mera's IV corps counterattacked and occupied Torrejón and Alcalá de Henares as the Nationalists started an offensive towards the Manzanares. [45] By 10 March, Barceló's troops had been surrounded, and a ceasefire was arranged. On 11 March, after days of bloody combat, Casado, backed by the IV corps of Cipriano Mera, defeated Barceló’s troops. Barceló and his commissar, José Conesa, were arrested and executed. [46] There were hundreds of dead (Thomas: 230, [47] Jackson: 1,000, [48] and Beevor: 2,000 dead [49] ).


There was also combat in Ciudad Real and Cartagena. In Ciudad Real, Escobar's Extremadura Army crushed the communist resistance led by the deputy Martínez Cárton. [50] Nevertheless, in Cartagena (the main base of the Spanish Republican Navy), where the supporters of Casado, backed by elements of the a fifth column, had started the uprising against Negrín's government on 4 March, they were defeated by the PCE's 206th Brigade, of the IV Division, led by colonel Joaquín Rodríguez, after a brief battle, on 7 March. Nevertheless, on 5 March, the Republican Navy (three cruisers and eight destroyers), led by Admiral Buiza, had fled to Bizerte after a Nationalist aerial bombardment. [51] One Nationalist transport ship, the Castillo de Olite , sent by the Nationalists in order to support the uprising, was sunk by the coastal batteries of Cartagena, killing 1,200 Nationalist soldiers. [52]

Peace negotiations with Franco

After the defeat of Barceló's troops, the Council tried to start peace negotiations with Franco, hoping to achieve a guarantee against political reprisals. On 12 March, the Council proposed a peace deal with a guarantee against reprisals and a period of 25 days to allow anyone who wanted to leave Spain to do so. On 16 March, Franco answered that he would only accept an unconditional surrender. [53] On 23 March, the Council sent two negotiators to Burgos (Colonel Antonio Garijo and Major Leopoldo Ortega), and the Nationalists told them that on 25 March, the Republican Air Force had to be surrendered and by 27 March, the Republican troops had to raise the white flag. [54] Nevertheless, on 25 March, the Republicans did not surrender their Air Force because of bad weather and Franco then broke off negotiations with the junta. [55] [56]

Final offensive

On 26 March, Yagüe’s troops advanced in Sierra Morena. There was no resistance, and in one day they captured 200,000 km2 of land and 30,000 prisoners. [57] The Junta ordered its soldiers not to resist the Nationalist advance, and the Republican soldiers threw away their weapons and abandoned the front. [58] By 27 March, the Nationalists were advancing on all fronts without resistance. Solchaga's Navarra Corps, Gambara's CTV and Garcia Valiño's Army of Maestrazgo advanced from Toledo. On 28 March, Colonel Prada, commander of the Army of the Centre, surrendered to the Nationalist troops, who occupied Madrid. [59] [60] Casado and the other members of the junta, except Besteiro, fled to Valencia. [61] On 29 March, the Nationalists occupied Jaén, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Albacete and Sagunto. [62] 50,000 Republican refugees gathered at the harbours of Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena and Gandia [63] but without the Republican navy, an evacuation was impossible since the French and the British governments refused to organise an evacuation. [64] Only a minority, those who had money to pay for passage, [65] were evacuated by British ships (between 650 [66] and more than 3,500 [67] ), Casado among them. [68] On 30 March, the Nationalists occupied Valencia and Gambara’s troops entered Alicante, rounding up 15,000 Republican refugees. [69] Italian General Gambara was prepared to permit the evacuation of political refugees, but on 31 March, the Nationalist troops arrived and took over jurisdiction from Gambara. [70] As a result, many refugees committed suicide to avoid capture by the Nationalists. [71] [72] [73] On 31 March, the Nationalists occupied Almeria, Murcia and Cartagena, controlling all Spanish territory except for an area of the port of Alicante, where thousands of Republicans expecting evacuation had assembled. They began giving themselves up on 31 March, but the operation was suspended for the night. The last 2000 surrendered the next morning, and approximately 25 committed suicide. By 1 April 1939, the war was effectively over. [74]


On 1 April 1939, the day the war ended, the Soviet Union was the only major power that had not yet recognized Franco's government. [75] The new regime had signed a Non-Aggression Pact with Portugal and a treaty of friendship with Nazi Germany on 31 March, [76] and on 6 April, Franco made public Spain's adherence to the Anti-Comintern Pact. [77] On 20 April, the Non-Intervention Committee was dissolved, and by June, both Italian and German troops had left Spain. [78] The Francoist dictatorship remained in power until Franco's death on 20 November 1975. [79]

Casado remained in exile in Venezuela until he returned to Spain in 1961. [80] Cipriano Mera fled to Oran and Casablanca, but he was extradited to Spain in February 1942. [81] In 1943, he was condemned to death, a sentence that was changed for 30 years in prison; he was set free in 1946 and fled to France [82] , where he died in 1975. Matallana was detained and imprisoned by the Nationalists and died in Madrid in 1956. [83] Besteiro, still at his post in the basement of the Revenue Building at 7 Alcalá Street in Madrid, was arrested by the Nationalists when they entered the city and faced a court martial. Sentenced to 30 years in prison, [84] he died there of an infection that resulted from an injury to his hand in 1940. [85]

The Nationalists arrested hundreds of thousands of Republican soldiers and civilians, with 150,000 soldiers captured in the final offensive, and herded them into improvised concentration camps. There were between 367,000 and 500,000 prisoners in 1939. [86] In the first years after the war, 50,000 Republican prisoners were executed. [87]

In literature

Casado's coup and the last days of the war are the background of the Max Aub's novels, Campo del Moro [88] and Campo de los Almendros. [89]


  1. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.395
  2. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p. 475
  3. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.861
  4. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.838
  5. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.884
  6. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.394
  7. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.404
  8. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.391
  9. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p..854
  10. Graham, Helen 2005. p. 165
  11. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p. 475
  12. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.861
  13. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.868
  14. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.861
  15. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.488
  16. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.866
  17. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.869
  18. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p. 838
  19. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.866
  20. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp.867–868
  21. Preston, Paul 2006. p.296
  22. Preston, Paul 2006. p.296
  23. Graham, Helen 2005. p.111
  24. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp.870–871
  25. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p. 861
  26. Thomas, Hugh 2006. p. 861.
  27. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p. 468
  28. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p. 874
  29. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp. 875-876
  30. Beevor, Antony 2006. p. 390
  31. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p. 468
  32. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. pp. 468–469
  33. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.873
  34. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.875
  35. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.876-878
  36. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.878
  37. Beevor, Antony 2006. pp.392
  38. Beevor, Antony 2006. pp.393–394
  39. Preston, Paul 2006. p.296
  40. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.875
  41. Beevor, Antony 2006. pp.392–393
  42. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.881
  43. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.883
  44. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.882
  45. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.884
  46. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.884
  47. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.884
  48. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p.433
  49. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.394
  50. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.884
  51. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp.876–877
  52. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.391
  53. Beevor, Antony 2006. pp.394–395
  54. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.395
  55. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp.885–888
  56. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.395
  57. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p. 867
  58. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.887
  59. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p.509
  60. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp.888–889
  61. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.888
  62. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.890
  63. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.889
  64. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.396
  65. Graham, Helen 2005. p.113
  66. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.890
  67. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.396
  68. "Aftermath", Time , 10 April 1939
  69. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.396
  70. Jackson, Gabriel 1967. p.477
  71. Graham, Helen 2005. p.113
  72. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.396
  73. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.890
  74. Thomas, Hugh 2001. pp.886–890
  75. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.894
  76. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.893
  77. Graham Helen 2005. p.166
  78. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.894
  79. Preston, Paul. 1995. pp. 786–787
  80. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.923
  81. Beevor, Antony 2006. p. 410
  82. Beevor, Antony 2006. p. 410
  83. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.923
  84. Thomas, Hugh 2001. p.888
  85. Preston, Paul 2006. p.319
  86. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.404
  87. Beevor, Antony 2006. p.405
  88. Aub, Max. 1979.
  89. Aub, Max. 1981.

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Further reading