Finchley

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Finchley
Ballards lane.JPG
Ballards Lane, Church End, Finchley
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Finchley
Location within Greater London
Population65,812 (2011 Census [1]
OS grid reference TQ255905
  Charing Cross 6.8 mi (10.9 km)  S
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district N2, N3, N12
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°35′56″N0°11′13″W / 51.599°N 0.187°W / 51.599; -0.187 Coordinates: 51°35′56″N0°11′13″W / 51.599°N 0.187°W / 51.599; -0.187

Finchley ( /ˈfɪnli/ ) is a large district of north London, England, in the London Borough of Barnet. Finchley is on high ground, 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Charing Cross.

Contents

It formed an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, becoming a municipal borough in 1933, and has been part of Greater London since 1965. Nearby districts include: Golders Green, Muswell Hill, Friern Barnet, Whetstone, Mill Hill and Hendon.

It is predominantly a residential suburb, with three town centres: North Finchley, East Finchley and Finchley Church End (Finchley Central). Made up of four wards, the population of Finchley counted 65,812 as of 2011. [2]

History

Finchley (parish) population
188111,191
189116,647
190122,126
191139,419
192146,716
193158,964
1941war #
195169,991
196169,370
# no census was held due to war
source: UK census

Finchley probably means "Finch's clearing" or "finches' clearing" in late Anglo-Saxon; the name was first recorded in the early 13th century. [3] Finchley is not recorded in Domesday Book, but by the 11th century its lands were held by the Bishop of London. In the early medieval period the area was sparsely populated woodland, whose inhabitants supplied pigs and fuel to London. [4]

Extensive cultivation began about the time of the Norman conquest. By the 15th and 16th centuries the woods on the eastern side of the parish had been cleared to form Finchley Common. [4] The medieval Great North Road, which ran through the common, was notorious for highwaymen until the early 19th century. [3]

St Mary's Church Entrance to st marys church end.JPG
St Mary's Church

St Mary-at-Finchley Church is first recorded in the 1270s. [5] Near the northern gate to the Bishop of London's park, the hamlet of East End, later East Finchley, had begun to develop by 1365. [6] [7]

The Edgware, Highgate and London Railway (later the Great Northern Railway) reached Finchley in 1867. [8] It ran from Finsbury Park via Finchley to Edgware. The branch from Finchley to High Barnet opened in 1872. In 1905 tram services were established in Finchley, and extended shortly afterwards to Barnet. [9] They were eventually replaced by trolleybuses. [10]

In 1933, the Underground New Works Programme (1935–1940), to electrify the lines through Finchley, and connect the Northern line from Archway to East Finchley, via a new tunnel was announced. Much of the work was carried out and East Finchley station was rebuilt, but the project was halted by the second world war. All passenger services from Finchley to Edgware ended in September 1939. Nevertheless, Underground trains began running from central London to High Barnet in 1940, and to Mill Hill East, to reach the army barracks, in 1941.

After the war, the introduction of London's Metropolitan Green Belt undermined pre-war plans and the upgrading between Mill Hill East and Edgware (the 'Northern Heights' project) was abandoned, although the line continued to be used by steam trains for goods traffic through Finchley, until 1964.

Governance

Wards of Finchley Urban District in the 1930s Finchley UD ward map 1930s.svg
Wards of Finchley Urban District in the 1930s
Wards of Finchley Municipal Borough in the 1950s Finchley MB Ward Map 1950s.svg
Wards of Finchley Municipal Borough in the 1950s

From around 1547 Finchley had a parish vestry, which became a local board in 1878, an urban district council in 1895, and finally a municipal borough council between 1933–1965. The area is now part of the London Borough of Barnet. [11]

From 1959–1992 the Finchley constituency was represented in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher, UK Prime Minister from 1979–1990. [12] Finchley is now included in the new constituency of Finchley and Golders Green.

In February 2010, the Green Party held its spring party conference at the artsdepot in North Finchley. [13]

Geography

Tally Ho Corner Tally ho corner.JPG
Tally Ho Corner

Finchley is on a plateau, 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Charing Cross and 6 km (3.7 mi) south of Barnet. To the west is the Dollis valley formed by Dollis Brook the natural western boundary of Finchley. [3] Mutton Brook forms the southern boundary, joining the Dollis Brook to become the River Brent.

Most of Finchley is on boulder clay or glacial moraine, skirted by a layer of gravel, then the underlying layer of London clay. This roughly triangular gravel line was the most fertile area; hamlets which grew at the three corners evolved into Finchley's early population centres [6] corresponding to the three town centres in the area:

The residential areas of West Finchley, in postcode district N3, and Woodside Park, in postcode district N12, centre on their respective tube stations to the west of the area. Between East Finchley and Finchley Central is Long Lane, which runs parallel to the tube line and is dotted with small shopping parades.

The area of London known as 'Finchley Road', around Finchley Road Underground station, is not part of Finchley, but instead refers to a district further south at Swiss Cottage, Camden. The area is named after a section of the A41 road, which runs north to Golders Green and eventually continues to Henlys Corner on the North Circular Road and on to Finchley.

Demography

According to the 2011 UK Census in Finchley Church End ward, 67% of the population was White (47% British, 18% Other, 2% Irish), 8% Indian and 6% Other Asian. The largest religion was Judaism, claimed by 31% of the population, whereas Christians made up 28%. [14] West Finchley ward was 61% White (40% British, 18% Other, 3% Irish), 13% Indian and 8% Other Asian. [15]

Landmarks

St Mary's at Finchley is the parish church, with parts dating from the 13th century.

College Farm is the last farm in Finchley; it was a model dairy farm, then a visitor attraction. The Phoenix Cinema in East Finchley with its 1930s art deco façade is one of the oldest purpose-built cinemas in the United Kingdom.

The Sternberg Centre for Judaism in the old Manor House (formerly convent and school of St Mary Auxiliatrice) at 80 East End Road in Finchley is a Jewish cultural centre. It was founded to facilitate Reform and Liberal Jewish institutions,[ clarification needed ] attached to the Movement for Reform Judaism.

The Archer, on East Finchley tube station, is a 10-foot-tall (3.0 m) statue by Eric Aumonier of a kneeling archer having just released an arrow. The statue La Délivrance depicts a naked woman holding a sword (and is informally known as the Naked Lady); it stands at the approach to Finchley from the south, in a small garden beside Regent's Park Road, just north of Henlys Corner.

Transport

East Finchley tube station East Finchley stn building.JPG
East Finchley tube station

Transport for London is responsible for transport in Finchley. Finchley has four London Underground stations, all on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, which serves the West End and City (financial district).

Two of London's major roads, the east–west A406 North Circular Road and the north–south A1 meet and briefly merge at Henlys Corner at the southern edge of Finchley.

North Finchley bus station is a hub with nine bus routes using bus stops around Tally Ho Corner. [16]

Education

The old Christ's College, now a secondary school Christs College old building on hendon lane.JPG
The old Christ's College, now a secondary school

There are 17 primary schools in the district. [17]

There are seven secondary schools. Three are voluntary aided schools, all Catholic: Bishop Douglass Catholic, [18] Finchley Catholic High [19] and St Michael's Catholic Grammar. [20] Two are community schools: Christ's College Finchley [21] and The Compton. [22] Two are academies: The Archer Academy [23] and The Wren Academy, [24] named after Sir Christopher Wren, and sponsored by the Church of England. [25]

There is also a secondary special school, Oak Lodge Special School in East Finchley.

Woodhouse College in North Finchley, on the site of the old Woodhouse Grammar School, is one of two colleges in the borough. [17]

Sports

The local football team Old Finchleians formed in 1901 who play home games at The Old Finchleians Memorial Ground in Southover and are members of the Southern Amateur League. Nicknamed The OF's the club have had well-known players like Gordon Finnie, Wayne Gosling and Cliff Brooks on their books.

Wingate & Finchley plays in the premier division of the Isthmian league. The club was formed in 1991 following the merger between Finchley Football Club (est. 1874) and Wingate Football Club (est. 1946). Although the club is sometimes incorrectly perceived to be exclusively Jewish, it is open to people of every religion and ethnic background. Wingate & Finchley play home games at Summers Lane, N12.

The local rugby team is Finchley RFC. Finchley Cricket Club (founded 1832), plays in the Middlesex premier league, at Arden Field, East End Road, N3. [26] Finchley golf club on Frith Lane was designed by five-times Open Champion James Braid. Ken Brown, Ryder Cup player and BBC presenter, described it as "The best presented golf course for club play that I have seen in years".

Finchley Victoria Bowls and Croquet Club, with two greens and a modern clubhouse in Victoria Park, offers lawn bowls and croquet facilities in the summer and year-round social activities.

Public services

Veolia Water Central Limited, formerly Three Valleys Water, supplies Finchley's water; the area is in the southeast corner of the company's water supply area. [27] EDF Energy Networks is the Distribution network operator licensed to distribute electricity from the transmission grid to homes and businesses in Finchley. [ citation needed ]

Finchley Memorial Hospital, on Granville Road, North Finchley, was a small NHS hospital administered by NHS Barnet, a primary care trust. Built with local donations in 1908 it was originally Finchley Cottage Hospital, renamed and expanded after the First World War as a war memorial. [28] A modern new hospital on adjacent land opened in September 2012; the old hospital buildings were demolished.

London Ambulance Service responds to medical emergencies in Finchley. Policing in Finchley is by the Metropolitan Police Service. Statutory emergency fire service is by London Fire Brigade, which has a station on Long Lane.

Community facilities

The artsdepot, a community arts centre including a gallery, studio and theatre, opened in 2004, at Tally Ho Corner, North Finchley. [29]

Finchley Film Makers was founded as the Finchley Amateur Cine Society in 1930, making it one of the oldest clubs in the Country. It still meets at the Quaker Meeting House in Alexandra Grove, North Finchley.

Victoria Park is off Ballards Lane between North Finchley and Finchley Central. It was proposed in 1887 to mark Queen Victoria's golden jubilee and opened in 1902 to be Finchley's first public park. [30] It is home to tennis courts and Finchley Victoria Bowling and Croquet Club. There is also a small nature reserve adjacent to the North Circular Road known as Long Lane Pasture.

Avenue House in East End Road was built in 1859. In 1874 it was acquired by Henry Charles Stephens, known as "Inky" Stephens, the son of the inventor of indelible blue-black ink Dr Henry Stephens. On his death in 1918 he bequeathed the house and its grounds to "the people of Finchley". The estate, a public park, is now known as Stephens House and Gardens.

It has a visitor centre with a small museum, the Stephens Collection, which covers the history of the Stephens Ink Company and the history of writing materials. The bequest also included Avenue House Grounds, designed by the leading nineteenth-century landscape gardener Robert Marnock. This has a tearoom, a children's playground, a walled garden called The Bothy, a pond and rare trees. A recent attraction is a bronze statue of Spike Milligan sitting on a bench. [31]

Cultural references

March of the Guards to Finchley William Hogarth 007.jpg
March of the Guards to Finchley

William Hogarth painted his satirical March of the Guards to Finchley in 1750. It is a depiction of a fictional mustering of troops on London's Tottenham Court Road to march north to Finchley to defend the capital from the second Jacobite rebellion of 1745.

A number of fictional characters have been associated with the area, including:

Notable people

In birth order

Twinning

Finchley Borough had four twin towns; the London Borough of Barnet continues these links.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Cricklewood Human settlement in England

Cricklewood is an area of London, England, which spans the boundaries of three London boroughs: Barnet to the east, Brent to the west and Camden to the south-east. The Crown pub, now the Clayton Crown Hotel, is a local landmark and lies 5 miles (8.0 km) north-west of Charing Cross.

Mill Hill Human settlement in England

Mill Hill is a suburb in the London Borough of Barnet, England. It is situated around 9 miles (14 km) northwest of Charing Cross. Mill Hill was in the historic county of Middlesex until 1965, when it became part of Greater London. Its population counted 18,451 inhabitants as of 2011.

London Borough of Barnet Borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Barnet is a suburban London borough in North London. It forms part of Outer London and is the largest London borough by population with 384,774 inhabitants; it covers an area of 86.74 square kilometres (33 sq mi), the fourth highest, and has a population density of 45.8 people per hectare, which ranks it 25th. The borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the counties of Middlesex and Hertfordshire.

East Finchley tube station London Underground station

East Finchley is a London Underground station in East Finchley in the London Borough of Barnet, north London. The station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between Highgate and Finchley Central stations and is in Travelcard Zone 3.

East Finchley Human settlement in England

East Finchley is an area in North London, immediately north of Hampstead Heath. Like neighbouring Muswell Hill it straddles the London Boroughs of Barnet and Haringey, with most of East Finchley falling into the London Borough of Barnet. It has the greenest high road in London

Highgate tube station London Underground and former railway station

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North Finchley Human settlement in England

North Finchley is a suburb of London in the London Borough of Barnet, situated 7 miles (11 km) north-west of Charing Cross.

Finchley Central tube station London Underground station

Finchley Central is a London Underground station in the Church End area of Finchley, north London. The station is located on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between West Finchley and East Finchley stations; it is the junction for the short branch to Mill Hill East. The station is around 7 miles north-northwest of Charing Cross and is in Travelcard Zone 4.

Totteridge & Whetstone tube station London Underground station

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Dollis Brook

Dollis Brook, runs through the London Borough of Barnet in north London. It is a tributary of the River Brent, which is itself a tributary of the River Thames. The Dollis Valley Greenwalk follows almost all of Dollis Brook, apart from a short section at the beginning which passes through private land, and the London Loop follows it as far as Barnet Lane. The name Dollis is probably derived from the Middle English word 'dole', meaning the shares of land in the common field.

Church End, Finchley Human settlement in England

Church End is a locality within Finchley in the London Borough of Barnet in London, England. Aside from its church it centres on Finchley Central Underground station. Church End is an old village, now a suburban development, centred 7 miles (11 km) north-northwest of Charing Cross.

History of Church End describes the development of Church End, the oldest part of the district of Finchley in the London Borough of Barnet in north London, England.

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North Finchley is an area of the London Borough of Barnet between Church End to the south and Whetstone to the north.

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Dollis Brook Viaduct railway viaduct in the London Borough of Barnet

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Dollis Valley Greenwalk

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Mutton Brook river in London, United Kingdom

Mutton Brook is a stream which runs between East Finchley and Hendon in the London Borough of Barnet. It is a tributary of the River Brent, which is itself a tributary of the River Thames.

References

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  2. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  8. Clive's Underground Line Guides, Northern line, Dates
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  10. London Transport Museum Trolley bus at North Finchley
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  12. 1 2 "Historic Figures Margaret Thatcher (1925 - )". BBC. Retrieved 27 April 2009.
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Further reading