First Anglo-Mysore War

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First Anglo–Mysore War
Part of the Anglo-Mysore wars
Anglo-Mysore War 1 and 2.png
A map of the war theatre
Date1766–1769
Location
South India
Result Mysore victory
Belligerents

Flag of Mysore.svg Mysore
Arakkal flag 1.png Arakkal Kingdom


Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg East India Company


Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Confederacy


Flag of the principality of Carnatic.gif Nawab of the Carnatic
Commanders and leaders

Flag of Mysore.svg Hyder Ali
Flag of Mysore.svg Lutf Ali Beg
Flag of Mysore.svg Makdum Ali
Flag of Mysore.svg Tipu Sultan
Flag of Mysore.svg Reza Sahib
Drapeau Banganapalle.png Husain Ali Khan Bahadur

Contents

Asafia flag of Hyderabad State.png Asaf Jah II (defected in 1768)
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Joseph Smith
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg John Wood
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svg Colonel Brooks
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Madhavrao I
Flag of the principality of Carnatic.gif Wallajah

The First Anglo–Mysore War (1766–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars.

East India Company 16th through 19th-century British trading company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with Mughal India and the East Indies, and later with Qing China. The company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, and colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China.

Nizam of Hyderabad Historic monarch of the Hyderabad State

The Nizam of Hyderabad was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty.

Northern Circars

The Northern Circars was a division of British India's Madras Presidency. It consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40′ to 20° 17′ north latitude, in the present-day Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.

Background

The eighteenth century was a period of great turmoil in Indian subcontinent. Although the century opened with much of the subcontinent under the control of the Mughal Empire, the death in 1707 of Emperor Aurangzeb resulted in the fracturing of the empire, and a struggle among viceroys and other local rulers for territory. [1] In the 1740s and 1750s French and British colonial companies became more active in these local conflicts, and by the Third Carnatic War (1757–1763) the British had not only gained somewhat solid footholds at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta, but they had also marginalised but not eliminated the influence of other colonial powers. Their eastern holdings at Madras were strongly influenced by treaties with the Nawab of Carnatic, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, whose territory surrounded Madras. The other major powers in the east were the Nizam of Hyderabad, formerly a viceroyalty of the Mughul Empire but declared independent in the 1720s, held in the 1760s by Asaf Jah II, and the Sultanate of Mysore, which occupied the high plains between the Eastern and Western Ghats, the mountain ranges separating the coastal plains of India from the interior. Nominally ruled by the Wodeyar dynasty, control of Mysore had in 1761 come into the hands of Hyder Ali, a Muslim military leader. [2] Each of these powers intrigued with and against the others, and sought to draw the power of the French and British colonial companies to serve their objectives. The colonial powers sought to influence the local powers to gain either direct control of territory, or the revenues from territory nominally controlled by a local ruler beholden to them for financial and military support. Since European military training was significantly better than local practices, the latter was particularly important; small numbers of disciplined European or European-trained forces could defeat significantly larger Indian armies composed mainly of poorly trained infantry and cavalry. [3]

Mughal Empire dynastic empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire, or Mogul Empire, founded in 1526, was an empire that comprised the majority of the Indian subcontinent. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Persian and Rajput ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs.

Aurangzeb Sixth Mughal Emperor

Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad, commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled over nearly the entire Indian subcontinent for a period of 49 years. Widely considered to be the last effective Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb compiled the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, and is regarded as one of the few rulers who have fully established Sharia law and Islamic economics throughout South Asia.

Eastern Ghats mountain range

The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from the northern Odisha through Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka and in the Wayanad district of Kerala. They are eroded and cut through by four major rivers of peninsular India, viz. Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri.

Causes of war

The flag of the Sultanate of Mysore. The North Entrance Into The Fort Of Bangalore -with Tipu's flag flying-.jpg
The flag of the Sultanate of Mysore.

The British East India Company, seeking an overland connection between its holdings at Madras and Bengal, sought to gain access to the Northern Circars, a series of coastal territories held by the French until 1758, when they were ousted with British military support. They had applied to the nizam, offering to pay rent well above that he was currently receiving from the nawab of Arcot; the nizam rejected their offers. [4] Lord Robert Clive next applied to Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, who in August 1765 issued a decree granting the company rights to that territory. [5]

Bengal Region in Asia

Bengal is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world; along with mountains in its north bordering the Himalayan states of Nepal and Bhutan and east bordering Burma.

Robert Clive British East India Company military officer

Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive,, also known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process, he also turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures setting in motion what would later become British India. Blocking impending French mastery of India, and eventual British expulsion from the continent, Clive improvised a military expedition that ultimately enabled the East India Company to adopt the French strategy of indirect rule via puppet government. Hired by the company to return a second time to India, Clive conspired to secure the Company's trade interests by overthrowing the locally unpopular heir to the throne of Bengal, the richest state in India, richer than Britain, at the time. Back in England, he used his success to secure an Irish barony, from the then Whig PM, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, and again a seat for himself in Parliament, via Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Powis, representing the Whigs in Shrewsbury, Shropshire (1761–1774), as he had previously in Mitchell, Cornwall (1754–1755).

Shah Alam II 16th Mughal Emperor

Ali Gohar, historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. His power was so depleted during his reign that it led to a saying in the Persian language, Sultanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Dilli ta Palam, meaning, 'The empire of Shah Alam is from Delhi to Palam', Palam being a suburb of Delhi.

At the same time, the nizam was involved in an alliance with the Marathas. Both he and the Marathas' ruling peshwa, Madhavrao I were concerned over the expansionist threat posed by Hyder Ali. After assisting the Marathas in dealing with one of their confederates 1765, the allies began developing plans to invade Mysore. When the British began occupying the Northern Circars in March 1766, the nizam objected, issuing threatening letters to company authorities in Madras. [6] He considered going to war against the company, but his poor financial condition made this impossible. [7] Instead he negotiated a treaty with the company in November 1766. Under its terms the company received four of the five circar immediately (Guntur, the fifth, having been granted to the nizam's son as a jaghir, was to be delivered upon the son's death) in exchange for 7 lakh rupees or military support to the nizam in his endeavours. One historian describes the nizam's agreement to the treaty as one of financial necessity, and that he was "resentful" of English power. [8] Pursuant to this treaty, the company provided two battalions of troops to the nizam. Under the treaty, there were no limits placed on the number of troops the nizam could request, nor were there checks on the uses (offensive or defensive) to which he could put them. [7]

Peshwa

Peshwas were the general in the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Originally, the Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati, but later, they became the de facto leaders of the Marathas, and the Chatrapati was reduced to a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, and remained under the authority of the Maratha nobles and the British East India Company.

Madhavrao I Peshwa of Maratha

Madhav Rao I was the fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. During his tenure, the Maratha empire recovered from the losses they suffered during the Third Battle of Panipat, a phenomenon known as Maratha Resurrection. He is considered one of the greatest Peshwas in Maratha history.

Guntur district District of Andhra Pradesh in India

Guntur district is an administrative district in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The administrative seat of the district is located at Guntur, the largest city of the district in terms of area and population. It has a coastline of approximately 100 km and is situated on the right bank of Krishna River, that separates it from Krishna district and extends till it empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is bounded on the south by Prakasam district and on the west by the state of Telangana. It has an area of 11,391 km2 (4,398 sq mi) and is the 2nd most populous district in the state, with a population of 4,889,230 as per 2011 census of India.

Conflict involving Madras authorities, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and Hyder Ali, was also simmering. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, allied to the British, whose territory his surrounded, was upset that Hyder was harbouring opponents of his, including his older brother Mahfuhz Khan, and Raja Saheb, the son of Chanda Saheb, a previous contender for the throne of the Carnatic. Hyder was annoyed that the British had established a fortified outpost at Vellore, and that the company had several times rebuffed his offers of alliance. An offer he made in late 1766 was rejected because the local company council viewed it as incompatible with the treaty signed with the nizam.The first anglo mysore war saw Hyder ali gain some measures of success against the British ,almost capturing madras [9]

Vellore City in Tamil Nadu, India

Vellore is a city and the administrative headquarters of Vellore District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the banks of the Palar River in the north-eastern part of Tamil Nadu, the city has been ruled, at different times, by the Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Vijayanagar Empire, Rashtrakutas, Carnatic kingdom and the British. The city has four zones covering an area of 87.915 km2 and has a population of 423,425 based on the 2001 census. It is located about 135 kilometres (84 mi) west of Chennai and about 210 kilometres (130 mi) east of Bangalore. Vellore is administered by Vellore Municipal Corporation under a mayor. It is a part of Vellore and Vellore.

Course of the war

Kishangiri fort was besieged in the first Anglo-Mysore war in 1768, and finally surrendered to the English, who held it briefly Kistnagherry Krishnagiri.jpg
Kishangiri fort was besieged in the first Anglo-Mysore war in 1768, and finally surrendered to the English, who held it briefly

The war began in January 1767 when the Marathas, possibly anticipating movements by the nizam, invaded northern Mysore. They reached as far south as the Tunghabadhra River, before Hyder entered into negotiations to end the invasion. In exchange for payments of 30 lakhs rupees the Marathas agreed to withdraw north of the Kistna River; by March, when the nizam began his invasion, they had already withdrawn. According to Mysore historian Mark Wilks, this action by the Marathas was a somewhat typical move to acquire wealth that might otherwise be claimed by other belligerents. [10] The nizam advanced as far as Bangalore, accompanied by two battalions of company troops under Colonel Joseph Smith. [11]

A lakh (; abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs; Devanāgarī: लाख) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105). In the Indian convention of digit grouping, it is written as 1,00,000. For example, in India 150,000 rupees becomes 1.5 lakh rupees, written as 1,50,000 or INR 1,50,000.

Bangalore Capital of Karnataka, India

Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third-most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India, on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, which is the highest among India's major cities. Its multi-ethnic, multi-religious, and cosmopolitan character is reflected by its more than 1000 temples and Hindu mandirs, 400 Islamic mosques, 100 Christian churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis. The religious places are further represented by the proposed Chabad of the Jewish community. The numerous Bahá'ís have a society called the Bahá'í Centre.

In May, Smith discovered that the Hyder and the nizam were negotiating an alliance, and consequently withdrew most of his troops to the Carnatic frontier. [11] The deal struck between the two powers called for them to join against the British. Hyder was to pay 18 lakhs rupees for the invasion to end, and the nizam was to recognise Hyder's son Tipu Sultan as Nawab of the Carnatic once that territory was conquered. Despite the agreement the two sides exhibited little trust for one another; Hyder was known to place spies in the nizam's camp.

This diplomatic maneouvring resulted in an attack against a company outpost at Changama by the combined Mysore-Hyderabad army under Hyder's command. [12] [13] Despite significantly outnumbering the British force (British estimates place the allied army size at 70,000 to the British 7,000), the allies were repulsed with heavy losses. Hyder moved on to capture Kaveripattinam after two days of siege, while Colonel Smith, who commanded at Changama, eventually retreated to Tiruvannamalai for supplies and reinforcements. [12] [14] There Hyder again attacked, and was decisively repulsed on 26 September 1767. [15] With the onset of the monsoon season, Hyder opted to continue campaigning rather than adopting the usual practice of suspending operations because of the difficult conditions the weather created for armies. [16] After overrunning a few lesser outposts, he besieged Ambur in November 1767, forcing the British to resume campaigning. [17] The British garrison commander refused large bribes offered by Hyder in exchange for surrender, and the arrival of a relief column in early December forced Hyder to lift the siege. [18] He retreated northward, covering the movements of the nizam's forces, but was disheartened when an entire corps of European cavalry deserted to the British. [19] The failures of this campaign, combined with successful British advances in the Northern Circars and secret negotiations between the British and the nizam, led to a split between Hyder and the nizam. The latter withdrew back to Hyderabad and eventually negotiated a new treaty with the British company in 1768. Hyder, apparently seeking an end to the conflict, made peace overtures to the British, but was rebuffed. [20]

Asaf Jah II opposed the East India Company in 1766, and initially allied himself with Hyder Ali during the First Anglo-Mysore War, particularly during the Battle of Chengam, but later abandoned Mysore's cause in 1768. Mir Nizam Ali Khan.jpg
Asaf Jah II opposed the East India Company in 1766, and initially allied himself with Hyder Ali during the First Anglo-Mysore War, particularly during the Battle of Chengam, but later abandoned Mysore's cause in 1768.

In early 1768, company authorities in Bombay organised an expedition to Mysore's Malabar coast territories. Hyder had established a small fleet, based primarily in the port of Mangalore, in the mid-1760s. This fleet, which the British reported as numbering about ten ships, deserted en masse, apparently because the captains were unhappy with Lutf Ali Beg, a Mysorean cavalry officer, as fleet commander. [21] Owing to a British deception, Lutf Ali Beg also withdrew much of the Mangalore garrison to move on what he perceived to be the British target, Onore. The British consequently occupied Mangalore against minimal opposition in February. [22] This activity, combined with the loss of the nizam as an ally, prompted Hyder to withdraw from the Carnatic, and move with speed to the Malabar. Dispatching his son Tipu with an advance force, Hyder followed, and eventually retook Mangalore and the other ports held by the over-extended British forces. [22] [23] He also levied additional taxes as punishment against rebellious Nair districts that had supported the British. [23]

During Hyder's absence from the Carnatic, the British recovered many places that Hyder had taken and only weakly garrisoned, and advanced as far south as Dindigul. [24] They also convinced the Marathas to enter the conflict, and a large force of theirs, under the command of Morari Rao, joined with Colonel Smith at Ooscota in early August 1768. [25] This army then began preparations to besiege Bangalore, but Hyder returned to Bangalore from the Malabar on 9 August, in time to harass the allies before the siege could begin. [26] On 22 August Hyder attacked the Maratha camp at Ooscota, but was repulsed with heavy losses. [27] Hyder was then foiled in an attempt to prevent the arrival of a second British column at the allied camp; the strength of these combined forces convinced him to retreat from Bangalore toward Gurramkonda, where he was reinforced by his brother in law. [28] He also attempted diplomatic measures to prevent a siege of Bangalore, offering to pay ten lakhs rupees and grant other land concessions in exchange for peace. The British countered with an aggressive list of demands that included payments of tribute to the nizam and larger land concessions to the British East India Company. Hyder specifically refused to deal with Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, whose lands were where much of the fighting had taken place, and a man Hyder intensely disliked. The negotiations failed to reach common ground. [28]

On 3 October, Hyder, while moving his army from Guuramkonda back toward Bangalore, surprised a small garrison of Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah's men at a rock fort called Mulwagal, near Ooscota. British reinforcements were sent, and Colonel Wood was able to recover the lower fort but not the upper. The next day he went out with a few companies of men to investigate movements that might have been cover for enemy reinforcements. This small force, numbering four companies, was surrounded by Hyder's entire army. [29] A stratagem by another officer, Colonel Brooks, prevented the loss of this detachment; Colonel Brooks and another two companies dragged two cannons to the top of a nearby rise, and Brooks called out "Smith! Smith!" while firing the cannons. [30] Both sides interpreted this to mean that Colonel Smith was arriving in force, and Hyder's troops began to retreat. This enabled Colonel Wood to join with Brooks and other reinforcements from Mulwagal before Hyder realised he had been fooled. [30] Hyder renewed his attack, but was eventually repulsed with heavy losses: he was estimated to lose 1,000 men while the British lost about 200. [31] The severity of the conflict convinced Colonel Smith that he would be unable to effectively besiege Bangalore without first inflicting a major defeat on Hyder in open battle. [32] Company officials blamed Smith for the failure to decisively defeat Hyder, and recalled him to Madras. Hyder took the opportunity to besiege Hosur, and Colonel Wood marched in relief of the town. As Wood approached, Hyder raised the siege, sneaked around Wood's column, and attacked his baggage train near Bagalur. Hyder successfully captured supplies and arms, and drove Wood in disgrace toward Venkatagiri. [33] Wood was consequently recalled and replaced by Colonel Lang. [34]

Hyder then raised additional forces in Mysore and went on the offensive. In November 1768 he split his army into two, and crossed the ghats into the Carnatic, regaining control of many minor posts held by the British. En route to Erode Hyder overwhelmed one contingent of British, who were sent as prisoners to Seringapatam when it was established that one of its officers was fighting in violation of a parole agreement. After rapidly establishing control over much of the southern Carnatic, his march turned toward Madras. [34] This prompted the British to send an envoy to discuss peace; because of Hyder's insistence that the nawab of the Carnatic be excluded from the negotiations, they went nowhere. Hyder then surprised company authorities by taking a picked force of 6,000 cavalry and a small number of infantry, and made a three-day forced march of 130 miles (210 km) to the gates of Madras. [35]

This show of force compelled the company to negotiate further, since Madras had been left nearly defenceless by military movements made to counter those of Hyder's main force. [36] Hyder, who was seeking diplomatic leverage against the Marathas, wanted an alliance of mutual defence and offence. [37] The company refused to accede to an offensive military treaty; the Treaty of Madras signed on 29 March 1769 had terms that each would support the other if attacked. [38] [39]

Battles

Consequences

Hyder Ali, apparently emboldened by the agreement with the British, engaged in war with the Marathas in 1770, and asked the British support them if and when the Marathas penetrated Mysorean territory. [40] The British refused to assist him, even though they were also drawn into conflict with the Marathas in the 1770s. Hyder's battles did not fully end until 1779, when the Marathas negotiated an alliance with him and the Nizam for united action against the British. This led to the beginning of the Second Anglo-Mysore War in 1780. [41] This conflict devastated much of the Carnatic, and also failed to decisively resolve differences between Mysore and the British. Resolution occurred in 1799 with the defeat and killing of Hyder's son Tipu Sultan, and the restoration of the Wodeyars as British clients.

Notes

  1. Bowring, pp. 19–23
  2. Bowring, p. 33
  3. Duff, pp. 607–608
  4. Duff, p. 651
  5. Duff, p. 652
  6. 1 2 Regani, p. 130
  7. 1 2 Regani, p. 131
  8. Regani, pp. 133–134
  9. Regani, p. 129
  10. Duff, p. 653
  11. 1 2 Wilks, p. 306
  12. 1 2 3 Bowring, p. 49
  13. 1 2 Wilks, p. 312
  14. Wilks, p. 311
  15. Bowring, p. 50
  16. Wilks, p. 322
  17. Wilks, p. 323
  18. Wilks, p. 324
  19. Wilks, p. 326
  20. Wilks, pp. 328–329
  21. Sen, pp. 147–148
  22. 1 2 Wilks, p. 331
  23. 1 2 Bowring, p. 51
  24. Bowring, p. 52
  25. Wilks, p. 340
  26. Wilks, pp. 341–342
  27. Wilks, p. 342
  28. 1 2 Bowring, p. 53
  29. Wilks, p. 346
  30. 1 2 Wilks, p. 347
  31. Wilks, p. 348
  32. Bowring, p. 54
  33. Bowring, p. 55
  34. 1 2 Bowring, p. 56
  35. Bowring, p. 57
  36. Wilks, pp. 367–369
  37. Duff, p. 668
  38. Bowring, p. 58
  39. Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 172–173. ISBN   9788131300343.
  40. Bowring, pp. 59–82
  41. Bowring, pp. 80–84

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Nawabs of the Carnatic ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801. The Carnatic was a dependency of Hyderabad Deccan, and was under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad, until their demise. They initially had their capital at Arcot in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Their rule is an important period in the history of Carnatic and Coromandel regions, in which the Mughal Empire gave way to the rising influence of the Maratha Empire, and later the emergence of the British Raj.

Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah Nawab of Carnatic

Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, or Muhammed Ali, Wallajah, was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah was born to Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan, by his second wife, Fakhr un-nisa Begum Sahiba, a niece of Sayyid Ali Khan Safavi ul-Mosawi of Persia, sometime Naib suba of Trichonopoly, on 7 July 1717 at Delhi. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah the Nawab of Arcot often referred to himself as the Subedar of the Carnatic in his letters and correspondence with the then Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.

The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Cornwallis in India

British General Charles Cornwallis, the Earl Cornwallis, was appointed in February 1786 to serve as both Commander-in-Chief of British India and Governor of the Presidency of Fort William, also known as the Bengal Presidency. He oversaw the consolidation of British control over much of peninsular India, setting the stage for the British Raj. He was also instrumental in enacting administrative and legal reforms that fundamentally altered civil administration and land management practices there. According to historian Jerry Dupont, Cornwallis was responsible for "laying the foundation for British rule throughout India and setting standards for the services, courts, and revenue collection that remained remarkably unaltered almost to the end of the British era."

The Maratha–Mysore Wars was a conflict in the 18th century India, between the Maratha Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore.

Mysorean invasion of Malabar

The Mysorean invasion of Kerala was the military invasion of northern Malabar(now Kerala), including the territories of the Zamorin of Calicut, by the Muslim de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore Hyder Ali. After completing the occupation, Kingdom of Cochin, situated south of Malabar, was made a tributary state of Mysore. The major reason for the occupation of Malabar was the desire to have access to the Indian Ocean ports. The Mysore invasion provided the English East India Company more chances to tighten their grip on the ancient feudal principalities of Malabar and converting Travancore, over whom Mysore Sultans attacked after Cochin, to a mere protected ally

The Treaty of Madras was a peace agreement signed on 2 April 1769 between Mysore and the British East India Company which brought an end to the First Anglo-Mysore War. Fighting had broken out in 1767 and the forces of Hyder Ali had come close to capturing Madras at one point.

Battle of Tiruvannamalai

The Battle of Tiruvannamalai is one of the two successful battles fought by the Madras Army in the Carnatic along with the Battle of Chengam. It was fought on 25 September 1767 between the allied forces led by the East India Company and troops of Hyder Ali. The allied forces of the English army were led by Colonel Smith.

Masjid-i-Ala

Masjid-i-Ala is a mosque located inside the Srirangapatna Fort in Srirangapatna in Mandya District in Karnataka. It was built during the regime of Tipu Sultan during 1786-87. The mosque is located close to the Bangalore Gate and has two minarets. The mosque is built over an elevated platform.

The Battle of Ooscota was a battle in the First British-Mysore War, a conflict between the British East India Company and Hyder Ali, the sultan of the Kingdom of Mysore. It took place on the night of the 22-23 August 1768.

The Siege of Tanjore was a series of battles fought between forces of the British East India Company, the Arcot State and the Rajah of Tanjore. The sieges took place after Thuljaji, the Rajah of Tanjore, provided fewer levies and money than the British had required him to and invaded lands claimed by the Arcot State.

References

Preceded by
Anglo–Mysore Wars Succeeded by
Second Anglo–Mysore War