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Imperio Mexicano(in Spanish)
Motto: Independencia, Unión, Religion
"Independence, Union, Religion"
|Agustín de Iturbide|
|José Manuel de Herrera|
|Chamber of Deputies|
|September 27, 1821|
|February 24, 1821|
• Abdication of Agustín I of Mexico
|March 19, 1823|
|ISO 3166 code||MX|
The Mexican Empire (Spanish : Imperio Mexicano, pronounced [ĩmˈpeɾjo mexiˈcano] ) was a short-lived monarchy, and the first independent post-colonial imperial state in Mexico. It was the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence. Together with the Brazilian Empire and the two Haitian Empires, it was one of four European-style empires in the Americas; it lasted two years before transitioning into a federal republic.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies". It also included territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets".
It existed from the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba and the declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire in September 1821 until the emperor's abdication in March 1823 when the Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824. The first monarch of the state was Agustín de Iturbide, reigning as Agustín I of Mexico.
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, Jefe Político Superior Juan O'Donojú. The treaty has 17 articles, which developed the proposals of the Plan of Iguala. The Treaty is the first document in which Spanish and Mexican officials accept the liberty of what will become the First Mexican Empire, but it is not today recognized as the foundational moment, since these ideas are often attributed to the Grito de Dolores. The treaty was rejected by the Spanish government. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836.
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire. This founding document of the Mexican nation was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City on September 28, 1821, by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, secretary of the Provisional Governmental Board.
The First Mexican Republic, known also as the First Federal Republic, was a federated republic and nation-state officially designated the United Mexican States. The First Mexican Republic lasted from 1824 to 1835, when conservatives under Antonio López de Santa Anna transformed it into a centralized state, the Centralist Republic of Mexico.
The various independentist factions in revolutionary Mexico coalesced around three principles, or "guarantees," for Mexican independence from Spain: that Mexico would be an independent constitutional monarchy governed by a conservative European prince; that criollos and peninsulares would henceforth enjoy equal rights and privileges; and that the Roman Catholic Church would retain its privileges and position as the official religion of the land. These Three Guarantees formed the core of the Plan of Iguala, the revolutionary blueprint which, by combining the goal of independence and a constitution with the preservation of Catholic monarchy, brought together all Mexican factions.Under the 24 February 1821 Plan of Iguala, to which most of the provinces subscribed, the Mexican Congress established a regency council which was headed by Iturbide.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Japan and Sweden where the monarch retains no formal authorities.
The Criollo are Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial European immigrant origin. Historically, they were a social class in the hierarchy of the overseas colonies established by Spain beginning in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of Spanish ancestry. Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the other populations: Amerindians, enslaved Africans and peoples of mixed descent.
In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies. The word "peninsulars" makes reference to Peninsular Spain and was originally used in contrast to the "islanders" (isleños), viz. the native Canary Islanders.
After signing the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire of 28 September 1821, the Mexican Congress intended to establish a commonwealth whereby the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, would also be emperor of Mexico, and both countries would be governed by separate laws and form separate legislative bodies. If the king refused the position, the law provided for another member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne. However, the goal was merely a political tactic to appease the last royalists, and full independence was expected.King Ferdinand, however, refused to recognize Mexico's independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico.
Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic". The noun "commonwealth", meaning "public welfare general good or advantage" dates from the 15th century. Originally a phrase it comes from the old meaning of "wealth", which is "well-being", and is itself a loose translation of the Latin res publica (republic). The term literally meant "common well-being". In the 17th century, the definition of "commonwealth" expanded from its original sense of "public welfare" or "commonweal" to mean "a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people; a republic or democratic state".
The Capetian House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.
The Sovereign Mexican Constituent Congress decreed on June 22, 1822the following:
June 22 is the 173rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 192 days remain until the end of the year.
1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1822nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 822nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1822, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
General Agustín de Iturbide, a Mexican criollo who had been a royalist officer and who had led the Army of the Three Guarantees in the final phases of the war, was elected head of the provisional government and of the regency which held the imperial power while a monarch was chosen. Iturbide was extremely popular after his successes in the war of independence, and in the evening of 18 May 1822 a mass demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya, which Iturbide had commanded during the war, marched through the streets of Mexico City and demanded that their commander-in-chief accept the throne himself.
On 19 May 1822, Mexican Congress named Iturbide as a constitutional emperor. On 21 May it issued a decree confirming this appointment, which was officially a temporary measure until a European monarch could be found to rule Mexico. Iturbide's official title was, "By Divine Providence and the National Congress, First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico" (Spanish : Por la Divina Providencia y por el Congreso de la Nación, Primer Emperador Constitucional de México). His coronation took place on 21 July 1822 in Mexico City.
In August 1822 a plot to overthrow the monarchy was discovered and on August 25, plotters, including 16 members of Congress, were arrested. As factions in the Congress began to sharply criticise Iturbide and his policies, the emperor decided on 31 October to dissolve the body.This led to provincial uprisings, the most important of which was in the garrison at Veracruz led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, who would later be president of Mexico during the secession of Texas and the disastrous Mexican–American War. Santa Anna and his troops revolted against Iturbide, calling for the restoration of the Congress on 1 December 1822. Santa Anna had secretly persuaded General Echávarri, the commander of the Imperial forces, to switch sides and support the revolution when it was ready to be proclaimed throughout Mexico. The independence heroes Vicente Guerrero, Nicolás Bravo and Guadalupe Victoria soon joined, signing the Plan of Casa Mata on February 1, 1823, which called for the restoration of the Congress.
The Plan of Casa Mata, which other Mexican generals, governors, and high-ranking governmental officials soon signed, did not recognize the First Mexican Empire and called for the convening of a new Constituent Congress. The insurrectionists sent their proposal to the provincial governments and requested their adherence to the plan. In the course of just six weeks, the Plan of Casa Mata traveled to such remote places as Texas, and almost all the provinces supported the plan.
Each provincial government that accepted the plan thereby withdrew its allegiance from the Imperial government and assumed sovereignty within its own province.
This left Emperor Agustín I isolated with little support outside of Mexico City and a few factions of the Imperial Army. Consequently, he reinstalled the Congress, which he had previously abolished, abdicated the throne, and fled the country on 19 March 1823.
Santa Anna and the other proponents of the Plan of Casa Mata went on to oversee the drafting of a new constitution and the establishment of the First Mexican Republic the following year.
The territory of the Mexican Empire corresponded to the borders of Viceroyalty of New Spain, excluding the Captaincies General of Cuba, Santo Domingo and the Philippines. The Central American lands of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala were annexed to the Empire shortly after its establishment, making the First Mexican Empire the largest country in North America with territory of approximately 5 million square km.[ citation needed ]
Under the First Empire, Mexico reached its greatest territorial extent, stretching from northern California to the provinces of Central America (excluding Panama, which was then part of Colombia), which had not initially approved becoming part of the Mexican Empire but joined the Empire shortly after their independence.
After the emperor abdicated, on March 29 the departing Mexican general Vicente Filisola called for a new Central American Congress to convene and on July 1, 1823 the Central American provinces formed the Federal Republic of Central America, with only the province of Chiapas choosing to remain a part of Mexico as a state. Subsequent territorial evolution of Mexico over the next several decades (principally cessions to the United States) would eventually reduce Mexico to less than half its maximum extent.
The first Mexican empire was divided into the following intendances:
Agustín de Iturbide, in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. After the secession of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.
The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees or Act of Independence of North America, was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain. The Plan stated that Mexico was to become a constitutional monarchy, whose sole official religion would be Roman Catholicism, in which the Peninsulares and Creoles of Mexico would enjoy equal political and social rights. It took its name from the city of Iguala in the modern-day state of Guerrero.
The Emperor of Mexico was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century.
The Plan of Casa Mata was formulated to elect a new constituent congress, which the monarchy of Agustín de Iturbide, had dissolved in 1822. The Plan of Casa Mata sought to establish a republic.
Salvador Agustín Francisco de Paula de Iturbide y Marzán was the grandson of Agustín de Iturbide, the first emperor of independent Mexico, and his consort Empress Ana María. He became the adopted son, along with his cousin Agustín de Iturbide y Green, of Mexico's only other royal heads of state—Emperor Maximilian I and Empress Carlota of Mexico.
Salvador María de Iturbide y Huarte was the eighth child of Agustín I of Mexico and Empress Ana Maria Huarte. He was married in 1845 to Doña María del Rosario de Marzán y Guisasola. His descendants, through his son Salvador de Iturbide y de Marzán, are the current pretenders to the Mexican Throne. He was in the Secretary Mexican Legation in Washington, D.C. in 1849.
Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte was the eldest son of the first Emperor of Mexico, Agustín I of Mexico. He was the heir apparent to the First Mexican Empire and a member of the Imperial House of Iturbide. Later in life, he served as a military officer in South America and also worked as a diplomat for the United Mexican States at the Mexican embassy in the United States and in London, after his military career had ended in South America.
The House of Iturbide is the former Imperial House of Mexico. It was founded by the Sovereign Mexican Constituent Congress on June 22 1822 when the newly-independent Mexican congress confirmed his title of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral there. The lastname Iturbide was originally from the Basque Country, Spain.
Juana de Dios María Francisca Ramona Ignacia de Iturbide y Huarte, was the third child of Agustín I of Mexico and Empress Ana María. She died at a young age at the Georgetown Visitation Monastery in Washington, D.C..
Sabina de Iturbide y Huarte was the daughter of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte who received the title of Mexican Princess during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress.
The Prince Imperial of Mexico is the title created on June 22, 1822 by the Mexican Constituent Congress, to be granted to the firstborn and heir of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. This title also refers to the heads of the Imperial House and designated to be the official title of the heir apparent to the imperial throne of Mexico.
The Provisional Government of Mexico, was an organization denominated Supreme Executive Power which served as Executive to govern México between 1823 and 1824, after the fall of the Mexican Empire of Agustín I. The organization was responsible for convening the creation of a Federal Republic, the United Mexican States and was in effect from April 1, 1823 to October 10, 1824.
Prince of the Union was the title created June 22, 1822, by the Constituent Congress, to be granted to the father of the emperor Agustín de Iturbide. This title went to Don José Joaquín de Iturbide.
Prince de Iturbide was the title originally created as Princess of Iturbide on June 22, 1822 by the Mexican Constituent Congress, to be granted to the older sister of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. Upon the arrival of Maximilian of Habsburg, he again decreed the titles of Prince and Princess of Iturbide for the daughter who was still alive and the two grandchildren of Agustín de Iturbide.
Mexican Prince was the title created on June 22, 1822 by the Mexican Constituent Congress, to be granted to legitimate children who were not the heir or firstborn of the Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. This title went to the legitimate sons of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte at the time of the decree. Later Felipe de Iturbide became as Mexican Prince at birth months later.
The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.
María de Jesús de las Angustias Juana Nepomuceno de Iturbide y Huarte was daughter of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte who received the title of Mexican Princess during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress. She was better known as Isis.
Ángel María José Ignacio Francisco Xavier de Iturbide y Huarte was the second son of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte who received the title of Mexican Prince during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress.
José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arregui was the father of Agustín de Iturbide who received the title of Prince of the Union during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress.
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