First Mexican Empire

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Mexican Empire

Imperio Mexicano(in Spanish)
1821–1823
Motto: Independencia, Unión, Religion
"Independence, Union, Religion"
First Mexican Empire (orthographic projection).svg
Capital Mexico City
Common languages Spanish
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Government Constitutional Monarchy
Emperor  
 1822–1823
Agustín I
Regent  
 1821-1822
Agustín de Iturbide
Prime Minister [1]  
 1822-1823
José Manuel de Herrera
Legislature Congress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
History 
September 27, 1821
February 24, 1821
 Abdication of Agustín I of Mexico
March 19, 1823
Currency Mexican real
ISO 3166 code MX
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of New Spain.svg Viceroyalty of New Spain
Provisional Government of Mexico Flag of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893).svg
United Provinces of Central America Flag of the United Provinces of Central America.svg
History of Belize (1506–1862) Flag of British Honduras (1870-1919).svg
Mosquito Coast Flag of the Mosquito Monarchy.svg

The Mexican Empire (Spanish : Imperio Mexicano, pronounced  [ĩmˈpeɾjo mexiˈcano] ) was a short-lived monarchy, and the first independent post-colonial imperial state in Mexico. It was the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence. Together with the Brazilian Empire and the two Haitian Empires, it was one of four European-style empires in the Americas; it lasted two years before transitioning into a federal republic.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Spanish Empire world empire from the 16th to the 19th century

The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies". It also included territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Contents

It existed from the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba and the declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire in September 1821 until the emperor's abdication in March 1823 when the Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824. The first monarch of the state was Agustín de Iturbide, reigning as Agustín I of Mexico. [2]

Treaty of Córdoba treaty that established Mexican independence from Spain

The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and, acting on behalf of the Spanish government, Jefe Político Superior Juan O'Donojú. The treaty has 17 articles, which developed the proposals of the Plan of Iguala. The Treaty is the first document in which Spanish and Mexican officials accept the liberty of what will become the First Mexican Empire, but it is not today recognized as the foundational moment, since these ideas are often attributed to the Grito de Dolores. The treaty was rejected by the Spanish government. Spain did not recognize Mexico's independence until December 1836.

Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire

The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire. This founding document of the Mexican nation was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City on September 28, 1821, by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, secretary of the Provisional Governmental Board.

First Mexican Republic 1824-1864 federal republic in Central America

The First Mexican Republic, known also as the First Federal Republic, was a federated republic and nation-state officially designated the United Mexican States. The First Mexican Republic lasted from 1824 to 1835, when conservatives under Antonio López de Santa Anna transformed it into a centralized state, the Centralist Republic of Mexico.

Creation

The various independentist factions in revolutionary Mexico coalesced around three principles, or "guarantees," for Mexican independence from Spain: that Mexico would be an independent constitutional monarchy governed by a conservative European prince; that criollos and peninsulares would henceforth enjoy equal rights and privileges; and that the Roman Catholic Church would retain its privileges and position as the official religion of the land. These Three Guarantees formed the core of the Plan of Iguala, the revolutionary blueprint which, by combining the goal of independence and a constitution with the preservation of Catholic monarchy, brought together all Mexican factions. [3] Under the 24 February 1821 Plan of Iguala, to which most of the provinces subscribed, the Mexican Congress established a regency council which was headed by Iturbide.

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Japan and Sweden where the monarch retains no formal authorities.

The Criollo are Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial European immigrant origin. Historically, they were a social class in the hierarchy of the overseas colonies established by Spain beginning in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of Spanish ancestry. Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the other populations: Amerindians, enslaved Africans and peoples of mixed descent.

In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies. The word "peninsulars" makes reference to Peninsular Spain and was originally used in contrast to the "islanders" (isleños), viz. the native Canary Islanders.

After signing the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire of 28 September 1821, the Mexican Congress intended to establish a commonwealth whereby the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, would also be emperor of Mexico, and both countries would be governed by separate laws and form separate legislative bodies. If the king refused the position, the law provided for another member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne. However, the goal was merely a political tactic to appease the last royalists, and full independence was expected. [4] King Ferdinand, however, refused to recognize Mexico's independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico.

Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic". The noun "commonwealth", meaning "public welfare general good or advantage" dates from the 15th century. Originally a phrase it comes from the old meaning of "wealth", which is "well-being", and is itself a loose translation of the Latin res publica (republic). The term literally meant "common well-being". In the 17th century, the definition of "commonwealth" expanded from its original sense of "public welfare" or "commonweal" to mean "a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people; a republic or democratic state".

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The Capetian House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Decree

The Sovereign Mexican Constituent Congress decreed on June 22, 1822 [5] the following:

June 22 is the 173rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 192 days remain until the end of the year.

1822 Year

1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1822nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 822nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1822, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Iturbide

Emperor Augustin I Iturbide Emperador by Josephus Arias Huerta.jpg
Emperor Augustin I

General Agustín de Iturbide, a Mexican criollo who had been a royalist officer and who had led the Army of the Three Guarantees in the final phases of the war, was elected head of the provisional government and of the regency which held the imperial power while a monarch was chosen. Iturbide was extremely popular after his successes in the war of independence, and in the evening of 18 May 1822 a mass demonstration led by the Regiment of Celaya, which Iturbide had commanded during the war, marched through the streets of Mexico City and demanded that their commander-in-chief accept the throne himself.

On 19 May 1822, Mexican Congress named Iturbide as a constitutional emperor. On 21 May it issued a decree confirming this appointment, which was officially a temporary measure until a European monarch could be found to rule Mexico. Iturbide's official title was, "By Divine Providence and the National Congress, First Constitutional Emperor of Mexico" (Spanish : Por la Divina Providencia y por el Congreso de la Nación, Primer Emperador Constitucional de México). His coronation took place on 21 July 1822 in Mexico City.

In August 1822 a plot to overthrow the monarchy was discovered and on August 25, plotters, including 16 members of Congress, were arrested. As factions in the Congress began to sharply criticise Iturbide and his policies, the emperor decided on 31 October to dissolve the body. [6] This led to provincial uprisings, the most important of which was in the garrison at Veracruz led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, who would later be president of Mexico during the secession of Texas and the disastrous Mexican–American War. Santa Anna and his troops revolted against Iturbide, calling for the restoration of the Congress on 1 December 1822. Santa Anna had secretly persuaded General Echávarri, the commander of the Imperial forces, to switch sides and support the revolution when it was ready to be proclaimed throughout Mexico. The independence heroes Vicente Guerrero, Nicolás Bravo and Guadalupe Victoria soon joined, signing the Plan of Casa Mata on February 1, 1823, which called for the restoration of the Congress.

Collapse

The Plan of Casa Mata, which other Mexican generals, governors, and high-ranking governmental officials soon signed, did not recognize the First Mexican Empire and called for the convening of a new Constituent Congress. The insurrectionists sent their proposal to the provincial governments and requested their adherence to the plan. In the course of just six weeks, the Plan of Casa Mata traveled to such remote places as Texas, and almost all the provinces supported the plan.

Each provincial government that accepted the plan thereby withdrew its allegiance from the Imperial government and assumed sovereignty within its own province.

This left Emperor Agustín I isolated with little support outside of Mexico City and a few factions of the Imperial Army. Consequently, he reinstalled the Congress, which he had previously abolished, abdicated the throne, and fled the country on 19 March 1823.

Santa Anna and the other proponents of the Plan of Casa Mata went on to oversee the drafting of a new constitution and the establishment of the First Mexican Republic the following year.

Territory

Provinces of the Empire.
Treaty of Cordoba
Acquisitions (1821-1822) Political divisions of Mexico 1821 (location map scheme).svg
Provinces of the Empire.
  Treaty of Córdoba
  Acquisitions (1821–1822)

The territory of the Mexican Empire corresponded to the borders of Viceroyalty of New Spain, excluding the Captaincies General of Cuba, Santo Domingo and the Philippines. The Central American lands of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala were annexed to the Empire shortly after its establishment, making the First Mexican Empire the largest country in North America with territory of approximately 5 million square km.[ citation needed ]

Under the First Empire, Mexico reached its greatest territorial extent, stretching from northern California to the provinces of Central America (excluding Panama, which was then part of Colombia), which had not initially approved becoming part of the Mexican Empire but joined the Empire shortly after their independence. [7]

After the emperor abdicated, on March 29 the departing Mexican general Vicente Filisola called for a new Central American Congress to convene and on July 1, 1823 the Central American provinces formed the Federal Republic of Central America, with only the province of Chiapas choosing to remain a part of Mexico as a state. Subsequent territorial evolution of Mexico over the next several decades (principally cessions to the United States) would eventually reduce Mexico to less than half its maximum extent.

Political subdivisions

The first Mexican empire was divided into the following intendances:

See also

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Plan of Iguala revolutionary proclamation

The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees or Act of Independence of North America, was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain. The Plan stated that Mexico was to become a constitutional monarchy, whose sole official religion would be Roman Catholicism, in which the Peninsulares and Creoles of Mexico would enjoy equal political and social rights. It took its name from the city of Iguala in the modern-day state of Guerrero.

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Juana de Dios María Francisca Ramona Ignacia de Iturbide y Huarte, was the third child of Agustín I of Mexico and Empress Ana María. She died at a young age at the Georgetown Visitation Monastery in Washington, D.C..

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Prince Imperial of Mexico

The Prince Imperial of Mexico is the title created on June 22, 1822 by the Mexican Constituent Congress, to be granted to the firstborn and heir of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. This title also refers to the heads of the Imperial House and designated to be the official title of the heir apparent to the imperial throne of Mexico.

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Prince of the Union was the title created June 22, 1822, by the Constituent Congress, to be granted to the father of the emperor Agustín de Iturbide. This title went to Don José Joaquín de Iturbide.

Prince de Iturbide was the title originally created as Princess of Iturbide on June 22, 1822 by the Mexican Constituent Congress, to be granted to the older sister of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. Upon the arrival of Maximilian of Habsburg, he again decreed the titles of Prince and Princess of Iturbide for the daughter who was still alive and the two grandchildren of Agustín de Iturbide.

Mexican Prince was the title created on June 22, 1822 by the Mexican Constituent Congress, to be granted to legitimate children who were not the heir or firstborn of the Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. This title went to the legitimate sons of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte at the time of the decree. Later Felipe de Iturbide became as Mexican Prince at birth months later.

Regency of the Mexican Empire

The Regency of the Mexican Empire was a period of transition in the history of the Mexican monarchy in the absence of the Emperor of Mexico and presided by a president of the same during the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823) and the Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867). The regency is the government of a State during the minor age, absence or incapacity of its legitimate prince.

María de Jesús de las Angustias Juana Nepomuceno de Iturbide y Huarte was daughter of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte who received the title of Mexican Princess during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress. She was better known as Isis.

Ángel María José Ignacio Francisco Xavier de Iturbide y Huarte was the second son of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María Huarte who received the title of Mexican Prince during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress.

José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arregui was the father of Agustín de Iturbide who received the title of Prince of the Union during the First Mexican Empire by the Constituent Congress.

References

  1. Porvenir De México y Juicio Sobre Su Estado Político En 1821 Y 1851, Volumen1 Por Luis Gonzaga Cuevas
  2. "Primer Imperio Mexicano". La Guía. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  3. Michael S. Werner (2001). Concise Encyclopedia of Mexico. Taylor & Francis. pp. 308–9.
  4. The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780–1824
  5. Digital UANL Studies of the General History of Mexico. VOLUME V
  6. Christon I. Archer (2007). The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780–1824. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 220.
  7. Quirarte, Martín (1978). Visión Panorámica de la Historia de México (11th ed.). Mexico: Librería Porrúa Hnos.

Further reading