Modern Filipino translation:
Anthem: Marcha Nacional Filipina
Territory claimed by the Philippine Republic, most of which it occupied except Manila and parts of Mindanao.
|Official languages||Spanish, Tagalog (de-facto)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Miguel Malvar (Unofficial)|
|Prime Minister (President of the Council)|
|Historical era||Philippine Revolution|
|January 23, 1899|
• Dissolved [i]
|March 23, 1901|
|298,712 km2 (115,333 sq mi)|
Part of a series on the
|History of the Philippines|
The Philippine Republic (Spanish : República Filipina; in modern Filipino : Republikang Filipino), more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic (in modern Filipino : Unang Republika ng Pilipinas, lit. "First Republic of the Philippines") or the Malolos Republic (in modern Filipino : Republika ng Malolos), was a nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines. It was formally established with Emilio Aguinaldo as president by proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, succeeding the previous Revolutionary Government of the Philippines. It endured until the capture of Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901, in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic. The present-day Republic of the Philippines (Filipino : Republika ng Pilipinas) considers itself the Fifth Republic.
The First Philippine Republic was established after the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire (1896–1897) and the Spanish–American War between Spain and the United States (1898). Following the American victory at the Battle of Manila Bay, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines, issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898, and established successive revolutionary Philippine governments on June 18 and 23 of that year. In December, Sovereignty over the Philippines was transferred from Spain to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, making the United States formally the Philippines colonial power. The Malolos Constitution establishing the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed the following month. The Philippine–American War began in February 1899, eventually resulting in American victory.
The Philippine Republic is considered by Filipino historians to be the first proper constitutional republic in Asia [ failed verification ]Although there were several Asian republics predating the First Philippine Republic - for example, the Mahajanapadas of ancient India, the Lanfang Republic, the Republic of Formosa or the Republic of Ezo, and Aguinaldo himself had led a number of governments prior to Malolos, like those established at Tejeros and Biak-na-Bato which both styled themselves República de Filipinas ("Republic of the Philippines") - the Republic at Malolos was the first to frame a comprehensive constitution duly approved by a partially elected congress.
In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began against Spanish colonial rule. In 1897, Philippine forces led by Aguinaldo signed a ceasefire with the Spanish authorities and Aguinaldo and other leaders went into exile in Hong Kong. In April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out. The U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron, then in Hong Kong, sailed to the Philippines to engage the Spanish naval forces. On May 1, 1898, the U.S. Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay. Later in May, Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines, established a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898(formally established by decree on June 18 ), and on June 12, 1898, at Aguinaldo's ancestral home in Cavite, issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. Following the proclamation of independence Aguinaldo established a revolutionary government on June 23, 1898, under which the partly-elected and partly-appointed Malolos Congress convened on September 15 to write a constitution.
On December 10, 1898, the 1898 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish–American War and transferring the Philippines from Spain to the United States.
The Malolos Constitution written by the congress was proclaimed on January 22, 1899, creating what is known today as the First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as its president.The constitution was approved by delegates to the Malolos Congress on January 20, 1899, and sanctioned by Aguinaldo the next day. The convention had earlier elected Aguinaldo president on January 1, 1899, leading to his inauguration on January 23. Parts of the constitution gave Aguinaldo the power to rule by decree. The constitution was titled "Constitución política", and was written in Spanish.
When the First Philippine Republic was constituted on January 22, 1899 in Malolos, that municipality became the seat of government of the Philippine Republic, and was serving as such when hostilities erupted between U.S. and Filipino forces in the Second Battle of Manila on February 4.On February 4, 1899, armed conflict erupted in Manila between Philippine Republic forces and American forces occupying the city subsequent to the conclusion of the Spanish–American War. That day President Aguinaldo issued a proclamation ordering and commanding that "peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies, within the limits prescribed by the laws of war." The fighting quickly escalated into the Second Battle of Manila, with Philippine Republic forces being driven out of the city.
American forces pushing north from Manila after the outbreak of fighting captured Caloocan on February 10. 13.On March 29, as American forces threatened Malolos, the seat of government moved to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. On March 31, American forces captured Malolos, the initial seat of the Philippine Republic government, which had been gutted by fires set by withdrawing Philippine Republic forces. Emilio Aguinaldo and the core of the revolutionary government had by then moved to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. Peace negotiations with the American Schurman Commission during a brief ceasefire in April–May 1899 failed, and San Isidro fell to American forces on May 16. The Philippine Republic core government had moved by then to Bamban, Tarlac, and subsequently moved to Tarlac town. Aguinaldo's party had already left Tarlac, the last capital of the Philippine Republic, by the time American troops occupied it on November
American forces captured Calumpit, Bulacan on April 27 and, moving north, captured Apalit, Pampanga with little opposition on May 4 and San Fernando, Pampanga on May 5. This forced the seat of government to be shifted according to the demands of the military situation.
In October 1899 American forces were in San Fernando, Pampanga and the Philippine Republic was headquartered not far north of there, in Angeles. On October 12, an American offensive to the north forced the Philippine Republic to relocate its headquarters in November to Tarlac, and then to Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya.On November 13, under pressure by American forces, Aguinaldo and a party departed Bayombong by rail for Calasiao, Pangasinan, from where they immediately proceeded eastwards to Sta. Barbara in order to evade pursuing American forces. In Sta. Barbara, they joined a force of some 1200 armed men led by General Gregorio del Pilar.
On November 13, in a conference in Bayambang, Pangasinan, Aguinaldo decided to disperse his army and begin guerrilla war. From that point on, distance and the localistic nature of the fighting prevented him from exercising a strong influence on revolutionary or military operations. km south of the pass. After being notified by a rider of the outcome of the battle and the death of del Pilar, Aguinaldo ordered that camp be broken, and departed with his party for Cayan settlement.Recognizing that American troops blocked his escape east, he turned north and west on November 15, crossing the mountains into La Union province. Aguinaldo's party eluded pursuing American forces, passing through Tirad Pass near Sagada, Mountain Province where the Battle of Tirad Pass was fought on December 2 as a rear guard action to delay the American advance and ensure his escape. At the time of the battle, Aguinaldo and his party were encamped in Cervantes, about 10
Aguinaldo's party, traveling with del Pilar's force, reached Manaoag, Pangasinan on November 15. There, the force was split into vanguard and rear guard elements, with Aguinaldo and del Pilar in the vanguard.The vanguard force overnighted in Tubao, La Union, departed there on November 16, and was in Naguilian, La Union by November 19, where word was received that American forces had taken Santo Tomas and had proceeded to Aringay. Aguinaldo's force arrived in Balaoan, La Union on November 19, pushed on the next day, and arrived at the Tirad Pass, a natural choke point, on November 23. General del Pilar decided to place a blocking force in Tirad Pass to delay pursuing American forces while Aguinaldo's party moved on.
The Battle of Tirad Pass took place on December 2, 1899. 52 men of del Pilar's 60-man force were killed, including del Pilar himself. However, the Filipinos under del Pilar held off the Americans long enough for Aguinaldo's party to escape. Aguinaldo, encamped with his party about 10 km south of the pass in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, was apprised of the result of the battle by a rider, and moved on. The party reached Banane settlement on December 7, where Aguinaldo paused to consider plans for the future. On December 16, the party departed for Abra to join forces with General Manuel Tinio. The party traveled on foot through a pass at the summit of Mount Polis, and arrived at Ambayuan the next morning. The party pushed on to Banane, pursued closely by American forces. At this point, Aguinaldo's party consisted of one field officer, 11 line officers, and 107 men. The remainder of December 1899 was spent in continuous trek.
The party was at the border of Abra and Cagayan provinces on Aguinaldo's 31st birthday on March 23, 1900. The trek from place to place continued until about May 22, 1900, when Aguinaldo established a new headquarters in Tierra Virgen.On August 27, 1900, after American forces landed at Aparri, Cagayan, Aguinaldo concluded that Tierra Virgan had become untenable as a headquarters and decided to march to Palanan, Isabela. On December 6, 1900, the party reached Dumasari, and arrived in Palanan the following morning.
Aguinaldo remained in Palanan until his capture there by American forces with the aid of the native scouts on March 23, 1901.Following his capture, Aguinaldo announced allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines.
Executive power was exercised by the President, through his cabinet secretaries. The incumbent president of the Revolutionary Republic initially assumed the presidency. Presidents were elected by the legislature to terms of four years and is eligible for reelection.
1. Confer civil and military employment in accordance to the law; 2. Appoint Secretaries of Government; 3. Direct diplomatic and commercial relations with other powers; 4. Ensure the swift and complete administration of justice in the entire territory; 5. Pardon lawbreakers in accordance to the law, subject to the provisions relating to the Secretaries of Government; 6. Preside over national solemnities, and welcome accredited envoys and representatives of foreign powers.
The constitution established a Council of Government (Cabinet), composed of a President and seven Secretaries. The following individuals were appointed to Cabinet positions:
|President of the Cabinet||Apolinario Mabini||January 2 – May 7, 1899|
|Pedro Paterno||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
|Secretary of Foreign Affairs||Apolinario Mabini||October 1, 1898 – May 7, 1899|
|Secretary of the Interior||Teodoro Sandico||January 2 – May 7, 1899|
|Secretary of Finance||Mariano Trías||January 2 – May 7, 1899|
|Hugo Ilagan||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
|Severino de las Alas||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
|Secretary of War and Marine||Baldomero Aguinaldo||July 15, 1898 – May 7, 1899|
|Mariano Trías||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
|Secretary of Justice||Gregorio Araneta||September 2, 1898 – May 7, 1899|
|Secretary of Welfare||Gracio Gonzaga||January 2 – May 7, 1899|
|Felipe Buencamino||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
|Maximo Paterno||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
|Secretary of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce||León María Guerrero||May 7 – November 13, 1899|
The following are the executive departments: Foreign Relations, Interior, Finance, War and the Navy, Public Instruction, Public Works and Communications, Agriculture, Industries and Commerce.
Legislative power was exercised by an Assembly of Representatives initially composed by members of the Revolutionary Government and subsequently elected to four year terms and organized in the form and manner determined by law and referred to at various points in the constitution as the National Assembly. It specified that assembly members would be chosen by election, but left the manner of the election to be later specified by law. The assembly was initially composed of the former members of the Malolos Congress and had powers and responsibilities detailed in Title IV of the constitution.
Municipal and provincial governments under the Republic had quickly reorganized upon Aguinaldo's decrees of June 18 and 20, 1898.The Malolos Constitution cited on Article 82 the organization of provincial and popular assemblies which had the power of taxation.
The government also claimed jurisdiction over the overseas territory of Palaos (Modern day Palau) and the Sulu archipelago. Both areas are represented in the Congress by representatives appointed by President Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo sent a letter to the Sultan of Sulu requesting that the islands be part of the First Philippine Republic, but the letter was ignored.
Provisional Law on the Judiciary was issued on March 7, 1899, in accordance to the provisions of the 1899 Malolos Constitution providing that the Chief Justice shall be chosen by the National Assembly with the concurrence of the president and secretaries of the government. Aguinaldo appointed Apolinario Mabini to be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines on August 23, 1899; however, the appointment did not materialize because of the Philippine–American War.
The Supreme Court included Gracio Gonzaga serving as president; Juan Arceo and Felix Ferrer as Chamber Presidents; and Deogracias Reyes, Juan Tongco, Pablo Tecson and Ygnacio Villamor serving as Associate Justices
One of the important laws passed by the Malolos Congress was the law providing for a national loan to buoy up the national budget in which the Republic was trying to balance. The loan, worth 20 million pesos, was to be paid in 40 years with an annual interest of six percent. The law was decreed by Aguinaldo on November 30, 1898. [ clarification needed ][ page needed ]
When Philippine independence was declared on June 12, 1898, the Philippine Revolutionary Army was renamed the Philippine Republican Army. Aguinaldo then appointed Antonio Luna as Director or Assistant Secretary of War by September 28, 1898, and the Philippines first military school, the Academia Militar was established in Malolos.
When the Republic was inaugurated on January 23, Luna had succeeded Artemio Ricarte as the Commanding General of the Republican Army. With such powers at hand, Luna attempted to transform the weak, undisciplined revolutionary army into a disciplined regular army for the service of the Republic.
This section needs additional citations for verification .(January 2021)
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary, statesman, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest president of the Philippines (1899–1901) and the first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).
The Philippine Revolutionary Army later renamed Philippine Republican Army, was the official armed forces of the First Philippine Republic from its formation in 1899 to its final defeat in 1901.
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The Philippine Revolution, called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities of the Spanish East Indies, under the Spanish Empire.
Gregorio Hilario del Pilar y Sempio was a Filipino general of the Philippine Revolutionary Army during the Philippine–American War.
Miguel Malvar y Carpio was a Filipino general who served during the Philippine Revolution and, subsequently, during the Philippine–American War. He assumed command of the Philippine revolutionary forces during the latter, following the capture of resistance leader Emilio Aguinaldo by the Americans in 1901. According to some historians, he could have been listed as one of the presidents of the Philippines but is currently not recognized as such by the Philippine government.
The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed by Filipino revolutionary forces general Emilio Aguinaldo on 12 June 1898 in Cavite el Viejo, Philippines. It asserted the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.
The Malolos Congress, formally known as the National Assembly, was the legislative body of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines. Members were chosen in Malolos Congress elections held from June 23 to September 10, 1898. The assembly consisted of elected delegates chosen by balloting in provincial assemblies and appointed delegates chosen by the president to represent regions under unstable military and civilian conditions. The Revolutionary Congress was opened on September 15, 1898 at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan. President Emilio Aguinaldo presided the opening session of the assembly.
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until the People Power Revolution in 1986. A limited version of this office, officially known as the President of the Council of Government, existed temporarily in 1899 during the First Philippine Republic.
Antonio Narciso Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta was a Filipino army general who fought in the Spanish–American War, Philippine Revolution, and Philippine–American War before his assassination in 1899.
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection (1899–1902), was an armed conflict between Filipino revolutionaries and the government of the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following the Philippines being acquired by the United States from Spain. This article lists significant events from before, during, and after that war, with links to other articles containing more detail.
Listed here are the heads of state and government of the Philippines, from the Spanish occupation up to the current Republic.
The sovereignty of the Philippines refers to the status of the Philippines as an independent nation. This article covers sovereignty transitions relating to the Philippines, with particular emphasis on the passing of sovereignty from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1898), signed on December 10, 1898 to end the Spanish–American War. US President William McKinley asserted the United States' sovereignty over the Philippines on December 21, 1898 through his Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation.
The Hong Kong Junta was an organization formed as a revolutionary government in exile by Filipino revolutionaries after the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato on December 15, 1897. It was headed by Emilio Aguinaldo and included high-level figures in the Philippine revolution against Spanish rule who accompanied Aguinaldo into exile in the Crown Colony of Hong Kong from the Philippines.
Fighting erupted between forces of the United States and those of the Philippine Republic on February 4, 1899, in what became known as the 1899 Battle of Manila. On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against the United States. The war officially ended on July 2, 1902, with a victory for the United States. However, some Philippine groups—led by veterans of the Katipunan, a Philippine revolutionary society—continued to battle the American forces for several more years. Among those leaders was General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member who assumed the presidency of the proclaimed Tagalog Republic, formed in 1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups, including the Moro, Bicol and Pulahan peoples, continued hostilities in remote areas and islands, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913.
The following lists events that happened during 1899 in the Philippine Republic.
Pedro Tongio Liongson was a member of the Malolos Congress which wrote the constitution of the First Philippine Republic in 1899 and served as First Director of Military Justice in the Republic's army during the Philippine–American War of 1899–1901. A trained lawyer and judge, Col. Liongson figured in and left his mark on a number of historic events in the Philippines.
Pablo Ocampo Tecson was an officer in the Revolutionary Army serving under Gen. Gregorio del Pilar and a representative to the Malolos Congress. He was elected the Governor General of Bulacan immediately following the Philippine–American War. Tecson later served as Insular Secretary of the Philippine Bureau of Agriculture.
Salvador Estrella was a Filipino general who fought in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. For his courage in battle, he earned the moniker "red blooded."