Motto: "Order and Work"
Anthem: A Portuguesa (Portuguese)
The Portuguese Republic on the eve of World War I
|Common languages||Portuguese (in Continental Portugal, Madeira and Azores, official in the Portuguese Empire)|
|Government||Dominant-party [ citation needed ] parliamentary republic|
• 1911–1915 (first)
|Manuel de Arriaga|
• 1925–1926 (last)
• 1911 (first)
|João Pinheiro Chagas|
• 1925–1926 (last)
|António Maria da Silva|
|Legislature||Congress of the Republic|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Chamber of Deputies|
|5 October 1910|
|21 August 1911|
|29 May 1926|
|1911||92,391 km2 (35,672 sq mi)|
|1920||92,391 km2 (35,672 sq mi)|
|Currency|| Portuguese real (1910–1911)|
Portuguese escudo (1911–1926)
Part of a series on the
|History of Portugal|
The First Portuguese Republic (Portuguese : Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May 1926 coup d'état. The latter movement instituted a military dictatorship known as Ditadura Nacional (national dictatorship) that would be followed by the corporatist Estado Novo (new state) regime of António de Oliveira Salazar.
The sixteen years of the First Republic saw nine presidents and 44 ministries, and have been described as consisting of "continual anarchy, government corruption, rioting and pillage, assassinations, arbitrary imprisonment and religious persecution".
As far as the October 1910 Revolution is concerned, a number of valuable studies have been made, [ title missing ] This historian posited the Jacobin and urban nature of the revolution carried out by the Portuguese Republican Party (PRP) and claimed that the PRP had turned the republican regime into a de facto dictatorship. This vision clashes with an older interpretation of the First Republic as a progressive and increasingly democratic regime which presented a clear contrast to Salazar’s ensuing dictatorship.first among which ranks Vasco Pulido Valente’s polemical thesis.
A republican Constitution was approved in 1911, inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament.The constitution generally accorded full civil liberties, the religious liberties of Catholics being an exception.
The First Republic was intensely anti-clerical. The leaders of the Republic were secularists and, indeed, were following liberal tradition of disestablishing the powerful role the Catholic Church once held. Historian Stanley Payne points out, "The majority of Republicans took the position that Catholicism was the number one enemy of individualist middle-class radicalism and must be completely broken as a source of influence in Portugal." [ by whom? ] Scarcely had the provisional government been installed when it began devoting its entire attention to an anti-religious policy, in spite of the disastrous economic situation. On 10 October – five days after the inauguration of the Republic – the new government decreed that all convents, monasteries and religious orders were to be suppressed. All residents of religious institutions were expelled and their goods confiscated. The Jesuits were forced to forfeit their Portuguese citizenship. A series of anti-Catholic laws and decrees followed each other in rapid succession. On 3 November, a law legalizing divorce was passed and then there were laws to recognize the legitimacy of children born outside wedlock, authorize cremation, secularize cemeteries, suppress religious teaching in the schools and prohibit the wearing of the cassock. In addition, the ringing of church bells to signal times of worship was subjected to certain restraints, and the public celebration of religious feasts was suppressed. The government also interfered in the running of seminaries, reserving the right to appoint professors and determine curricula. This whole series of laws authored by Afonso Costa culminated in the law of Separation of Church and State, which was passed on 20 April 1911.Under the leadership of Afonso Costa, the justice minister, the revolution immediately targeted the Catholic Church: churches were plundered, convents were attacked and clergy were harassed.
The republicans were anticlerical and had a "hostile" approach to the issue of church and state separation, like that of the French Revolution, and the future Mexican Constitution of 1917 and Spanish Constitution of 1931.On 24 May 1911, Pope Pius X issued the encyclical Iamdudum which condemned the anticlericalism of the new republic for its deprivation of religious civil liberties and the "incredible series of excesses and crimes which has been enacted in Portugal for the oppression of the Church."
The PRP had to endure the secession of its more moderate elements, who formed conservative republican parties such as the Evolutionist Party and the Republican Union. In spite of these splits the PRP, led by Afonso Costa, preserved its dominance, largely due to a brand of clientelist politics inherited from the monarchy. [ clarification needed ] of this period of the Republic's existence, known as the ‘old’ Republic. Nevertheless, an essay [ title missing ] by Vasco Pulido Valente should be consulted, as should the attempt[ title missing ] to establish the political, social, and economic context made by M. Villaverde Cabral (1988).In view of these tactics, a number of opposition forces resorted to violence in order to enjoy the fruits of power. There are few recent studies
The Republic repelled a royalist attack on Chaves in 1912.
The PRP viewed the outbreak of the First World War as a unique opportunity to achieve a number of goals: putting an end to the twin threats of a Spanish invasion of Portugal and of foreign occupation of the colonies and, at the internal level, creating a national consensus around the regime and even around the party.These domestic objectives were not met, since participation in the conflict was not the subject of a national consensus and since it did not therefore serve to mobilise the population. Quite the opposite occurred: existing lines of political and ideological fracture were deepened by Portugal's intervention in the First World War. The lack of consensus around Portugal's intervention in turn made possible the appearance of two dictatorships, led by General Pimenta de Castro (January–May 1915) and Sidónio Pais (December 1917–December 1918).
Sidonismo, also known as Dezembrismo (Eng. Decemberism), aroused a strong interest among historians, largely as a result of the elements of modernity that it contained.António José Telo has made clear the way in which this regime predated some of the political solutions invented by the totalitarian and fascist dictatorships of the 1920s and 1930s. Sidónio Pais undertook the rescue of traditional values, notably the Pátria (Eng. Homeland), and attempted to rule in a charismatic fashion. A move was made to abolish traditional political parties and to alter the existing mode of national representation in parliament (which, it was claimed, exacerbated divisions within the Pátria) through the creation of a corporative Senate, the founding of a single party (the National Republican Party, unofficially called Partido Sidonista, "Sidonist Party"), and the attribution of a mobilising function to the Leader. The State carved out an economically interventionist role for itself while, at the same time, repressing working-class movements and leftist republicans. Sidónio Pais also attempted to restore public order and to overcome, finally, some of the rifts of the recent past, making the Republic more acceptable to monarchists and Catholics.
The vacuum of power created by Sidónio Pais' assassinationon 14 December 1918 led the country to a brief civil war. The monarchy's restoration was proclaimed in the north of Portugal, as the Monarchy of the North (Monarquia do Norte), on 19 January 1919 and, four days later, a monarchist insurrection broke out in Lisbon. A republican coalition government, led by José Relvas, coordinated the struggle against the monarchists by loyal army units and armed civilians. After a series of clashes the monarchists were definitively chased from Porto on 13 February 1919. This military victory allowed the PRP to return to government and to emerge triumphant from the elections held later that year, having won the usual absolute majority.
It was during this restoration of the "old" Republic that an attempted reform was carried out in order to provide the regime with greater stability. In August 1919 a conservative President was elected – António José de Almeida (whose Evolutionist party had come together in wartime with the PRP to form a flawed, because incomplete, Sacred Union) – and his office was given the power to dissolve Parliament. Relations with the Holy See, restored by Sidónio Pais, were preserved. The President used his new power to resolve a crisis of government in May 1921, naming a Liberal government (the Liberal party being the result of the postwar fusion of Evolutionists and Unionists) to prepare the forthcoming elections. These were held on 10 July 1921 with victory going, as was usually the case, to the party in power. However, Liberal government did not last long. On 19 October a military pronunciamento was carried out during which – and apparently against the wishes of the coup's leaders – a number of prominent conservative figures, including Prime Minister António Granjo, were assassinated. This event, known as the "night of blood"left a deep wound among political elites and public opinion. There could be no greater demonstration of the essential fragility of the Republic's institutions and proof that the regime was democratic in name only, since it did not even admit the possibility of the rotation in power characteristic of the elitist regimes of the nineteenth century.
A new round of elections on 29 January 1922 inaugurated a fresh period of stability, since the PRP once again emerged from the contest with an absolute majority. Discontent with this situation had not, however, disappeared. Numerous accusations of corruption, and the manifest failure to resolve pressing social concerns wore down the more visible PRP leaders while making the opposition's attacks more deadly. At the same time, moreover, all political parties suffered from growing internal faction-fighting, especially the PRP itself. The party system was fractured and discredited.This is clearly shown by the fact that regular PRP victories at the ballot box did not lead to stable government. Between 1910 and 1926 there were forty-five governments. The opposition of presidents to single-party governments, internal dissent within the PRP, the party's almost non-existent internal discipline, and its constant and irrational desire to group together and lead all republican forces made any government's task practically impossible. Many different formulae were attempted, including single-party governments, coalitions, and presidential executives, but none succeeded. Force was clearly the sole means open to the opposition if it wanted to enjoy the fruits of power.
By the mid-1920s the domestic and international scenes began to favour another authoritarian solution, wherein a strengthened executive might restore political and social order. Since the opposition's constitutional route to power was blocked by the various means deployed by the PRP to protect itself, it turned to the army for support. The armed forces, whose political awareness had grown during the war, and whose leaders had not forgiven the PRP for sending them to a war they did not want to fight, seemed to represent, to conservative forces, the last bastion of "order" against the "chaos" that was taking over the country. Links were established between conservative figures and military officers, who added their own political and corporative demands to the already complex equation. During 1925 there were two attempted military coups - on April 18 and July 19. The military prosecutor was general Oscar Carmona, who refused to fulfill his duties and advocated acquittal of coup plotters.
The Revolution of 28 May 1926 against the last Republican Party government of António Maria da Silva enjoyed the support of most army units and even of most political parties. As had been the case in December 1917, the population of Lisbon did not rise to defend the Republic, leaving it at the mercy of the army.There are few global and up-to-date studies of this turbulent third phase of the Republic's existence. Nevertheless, much has been written about the crisis and fall of the regime and the 28 May movement;.
The First Portuguese Republic was an unstable period in the History of Portugal. In a period of 16 years (1910–1926) Portugal had 8 Presidents of the Republic, 1 Provisional Government, 38 Prime Ministers and 1 Constitutional Junta:
The First Republic continues to be the subject of an intense debate which is impossible to summarise in these paragraphs. [ dubious ] Nevertheless, one can distinguish three main interpretations. For some historians, the First Republic was a progressive and increasingly democratic regime. For others, it was essentially a prolongation of the classical liberal regimes of the nineteenth century. A third group, finally, chooses to highlight the regime's revolutionary, Jacobin, and dictatorial nature.
Most historians have emphasized the failure and collapse of the republican dream by the 1920s. José Miguel Sardica in 2011 summarized the consensus of historians:
"[…] within a few years, large parts of the key economic forces, intellectuals, opinion-makers and middle classes changed from left to right, trading the unfulfilled utopia of a developing and civic republicanism for notions of "order," "stability" and "security." For many who had helped, supported or simply cheered the Republic in 1910, hoping that the new political situation would repair the monarchy’s flaws (government instability, financial crisis, economic backwardness and civic anomie), the conclusion to be drawn, in the 1920s, was that the remedy for national maladies called for much more than the simple removal of the king […] The First Republic collapsed and died as a result of the confrontation between raised hopes and meager deeds."
Sardica, however, also points up the lasting effects of the republican experiment:
"Despite its overall failure, the First Republic endowed twentieth-century Portugal with an insurpassable and enduring legacy—a renewed civil law, the basis for an educational revolution, the principle of separation between State and Church, the overseas empire (only brought to an end in 1975), and a strong symbolic culture whose materializations (the national flag, the national anthem and the naming of streets) still define the present-day collective identity of the Portuguese. The Republic’s prime legacy was indeed that of memory."
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães, GCTE, GCL, was a Portuguese political figure, the third and eighth President of Portugal.
Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da Silveira e Peyrelongue was a Portuguese lawyer, the first Attorney-General and the first elected President of the First Portuguese Republic, following the deposition of King Manuel II of Portugal and a Republican Provisional Government headed by Teófilo Braga.
Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva PaisCavC OA CavA was a Portuguese politician, military officer, and diplomat, who served as the fourth President of the First Portuguese Republic in 1918. One of the most divisive figures in modern Portuguese history, he was referred to by the writer Fernando Pessoa as the "President-King", a description that stuck in later years and symbolizes his regime.
António José de Almeida, GCTE, GCA, GCC, GCSE, son of José António de Almeida and his wife Maria Rita das Neves, was a Portuguese political figure. He served as the sixth President of Portugal from 1919 until 1923.
João do Canto e Castro da Silva Antunes, commonly known simply as João do Canto e Castro was a Portuguese Navy officer and the fifth President of Portugal, during the First Portuguese Republic. He also briefly served as 67th Prime Minister of Portugal
Afonso Augusto da Costa, GCTE, GCL was a Portuguese lawyer, professor and republican politician.
The Portuguese Republican Party was a Portuguese political party formed during the late years of monarchy that proposed and conducted the substitution of the Constitutional Monarchy by the Portuguese First Republic.
António Joaquim Granjo was a Portuguese lawyer and politician.
The 5 October 1910 revolution was the overthrow of the centuries-old Portuguese Monarchy and its replacement by the Portuguese First Republic. It was the result of a coup d'état organized by the Portuguese Republican Party.
The Democratic Party, officially known as the Portuguese Republican Party, was a Portuguese centre-left political party during the Portuguese First Republic. It was also the self-proclaimed successor to the original Portuguese Republican Party, which had been behind the revolution that established the Portuguese First Republic in 1910.
Integralismo Lusitano was a Portuguese integralist political movement, founded in Coimbra in 1914, that advocated traditionalism but not conservatism. It was against parliamentarism; instead, it favored decentralization, national syndicalism, the Roman Catholic Church, and the monarchy. It was especially active during the Portuguese First Republic. Lusitanian Integralism is a variant of integralism that evolved in Portugal; the term Lusitania is derived from the Latin term for Portugal.
João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa, commonly known as João Tamagnini Barbosa, or Tamagnini Barbosa, was a Portuguese military officer and politician of the Portuguese First Republic (1910–1926). He served as Minister of Interior, Colonies and Finances during the period known as "New Republic", after the coup d'état of the National Republican Party and the semi-dictatorial government of President/Prime Minister Sidónio Pais, followed by a brief participation in the provisional government of João do Canto e Castro after the assassination of Sidónio Pais.
Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso, commonly known as Alfredo de Sá Cardoso, or just Sá Cardoso, was a Portuguese republican politician of the Portuguese First Republic who served twice as Prime Minister of Portugal.
The Lisbon Regicide was the murder of King Carlos I of Portugal and the Algarves and his heir-apparent, Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, by assassins sympathetic to Republican interests and aided by elements within the Portuguese Carbonária, disenchanted politicians and anti-monarchists. The events occurred on 1 February 1908 at the Praça do Comércio along the banks of the Tagus River in Lisbon, commonly referred to by its antiquated name Terreiro do Paço.
José Maria de Alpoim Cerqueira Borges Cabral was a politician, member of the Progressive Party of Portugal, and later the Republican Party of Portugal, who held various roles during the last years of the constitutional monarchy in Portugal. He was a deputy in the Cortes, Counsel and Peer of the Realm, as well as holding positions in the Ministry of Justice, as well as roles in the First Portuguese Republic.
The Nationalist Republican Party was a right-wing republican party during the First Portuguese Republic. It was founded as a merger of the Republican Liberal Party, the Reconstitution Party and some elements of the old National Republican Party of Sidónio Pais. Initially with moderate conservative orientation, it drifted increasingly to the right, making concessions to Catholic constituencies towards the end of the First Republic.
The Monarchy of the North, officially the Kingdom of Portugal, was a short-lived revolution and monarchist government that occurred in the North of Portugal, in early 1919. The movement, also known as the Kingdom of Traulitânia, based in Porto, lasted from 19 January to 13 February 1919.
António Maria de Azevedo Machado Santos was a Portuguese Navy officer, remembered as the "Hero of the Rotunda" for his role in the 5 October 1910 revolution.