Five-pin billiards

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Five-pins game at the European Carom Billiards Championships 2015. Carambolage-EM 2015-Tag 5-04 (LezFraniak).jpg
Five-pins game at the European Carom Billiards Championships 2015.

Five-pin billiards or simply five-pins or 5-pins (Italian: [biliardo dei] cinque birilli; [1] Spanish: [billar de] cinco quillas), is today usually a carom billiards form of cue sport, though sometimes still played on a pocket table. In addition to the customary three balls of most carom games, it makes use of a set of five upright pins (skittles) arranged in a "+" pattern at the center of the table. The game is popular especially in Italy (where it originated) and Argentina, but also in some other parts of Latin America and Europe, with international, televised professional tournaments (for the carom version only). It is sometimes referred to as Italian five-pins or Italian billiards (Italian: biliardo all'italiana), [2] or as italiana (in Italian and Spanish). A variant of the game, goriziana or nine-pins, adds additional skittles to the formation. A related pocket game, with larger pins, is played in Scandinavia and is referred to in English as Danish pin billiards, with a Swedish variant that has some rules more similar to the Italian game.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, and together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a regional or a traditional language in these countries, where Italians do not represent a historical minority. In the case of Romania, Italian is listed by the Government along 10 other languages which supposedly receive a "general protection", but not between those which should be granted an "advanced or enhanced" one. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish, known in the Middle Ages as Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Carom billiards billiards games played on cloth-covered pocketless tables

Carom billiards, sometimes called carambole billiards or simply carambole, is the overarching title of a family of cue sports generally played on cloth-covered, 1.5-by-3.0-metre pocketless tables, which often feature heated slate beds. In its simplest form, the object of the game is to score points or "counts" by caroming one's own cue ball off both the opponent's cue ball and the object ball(s) on a single shot. The invention as well as the exact date of origin of carom billiards is somewhat obscure but is thought to be traceable to 18th-century France.



Until the late 1980s, the game (with some rules differences) was a form of pocket billiards, known in English as Italian skittle pool, [3] and was principally played in pubs, with an object ball that was smaller than the two cue balls. [2] Professional and regulated amateur play today exclusively uses pocketless tables and equal-sized balls. Professional competition began in 1965, [1] and play is centered in billiard parlors, with players competing in provincial, regional, and national federations. [2] The pocket version is still favored by some in amateur play.

Equipment and setup

Five-pins table, showing the location of the pins. Five-pins table layout.gif
Five-pins table, showing the location of the pins.

The regulation game is played on a pocket less [4] normal 5 by 10 ft (1.5 by 3.0 m) carom billiards table, with standardized playing surface dimensions of 1.42 by 2.84 m (approximately 4-2/3 by 9-1/3 ft), plus/minus 5 mm (approx. 0.2 in), from cushion to cushion. [5] The slate bed of the table must be heated to about 5 degrees C (9 degrees F) above room temperature, which helps to keep moisture out of the cloth to aid the balls rolling and rebounding in a consistent manner, and generally makes the table play "faster". [3] [6] In informal play, an unheated table is often used.

Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing. Human comfort can extend beyond this range depending on humidity, air circulation and other factors. In certain fields, like science and engineering, and within a particular context, room temperature can mean different agreed-on ranges. In contrast, ambient temperature is the actual temperature of the air in any particular place, as measured by a thermometer. It may be very different from usual room temperature, for example an unheated room in winter.

Like most other carom games, five-pins requires three standard [7] [Note 1] carom billiard balls of equal diameter: a red object ball , a cue ball for the first player or team, and another cue ball for the second player or team. [2] Ball sets vary by manufacturer, but typically are white for first and yellow for second (they may be plain or spotted), or plain white for first and white with a spot for second. The balls are 61.5 mm (2-3/8 [2.4] in) in diameter and weigh between 205 and 220 g (7.2 and 7.8 oz); 7.5 oz is average). [7] [8] [Note 2] [Note 3] The white (or plain white) cue ball is given to the starting player, who may place it anywhere on the head side of the table (without disturbing the pins)—i.e., anywhere unobstructed between the head rail and the center string . The red object ball is placed at the center of the foot spot (i.e., the intersection of the foot string and the long string . The yellow (or spotted white) cue ball of the opponent is placed on the long string, in a position that can be labelled the "foot rail spot", 10 cm (approx. 4 in) from the foot rail . [9] [Note 4] [10]

As the name implies, the game makes use of five upright pins called skittles in English (so-called since at least 1634), [3] birilli (singular birillo) in Italian and quillas in Spanish, which look like miniature bowling pins, 25 mm (0.98 in) tall, and with 7 mm (0.28 in) round, flat-bottomed bases. [8] [Note 5] There are traditionally four white pins, and one red. [2] The red pin is placed on the center spot (the exact middle of the table both lengthwise and widthwise), and the four white pins are placed equidistant from the red in a square diamond pattern around it. Two whites are aligned along the center string with the head and foot spot s, as well as the rail diamonds in the center of the head and foot rails, and with the red object ball, and red pin. Meanwhile, the other two whites are placed on the center string , aligned with the diamonds in the center of the long rails, and again with the red pin. The whites are spaced just far enough away from the red that a cue ball can pass between the pins without touching any of them.[ citation needed ] The final pattern looks like a "+" (plus sign), as shown in the adjacent diagram. This arrangement of pins on the table is referred to as the "castle". Tables have the precise castle positions for the pins, and for the starting positions of the balls, permanently marked, as they must be placed back into position before every shot if any have been knocked over or moved. [11]

Ten-pin bowling sport

Ten-pin bowling is a type of bowling in which a bowler rolls a bowling ball down a wood or synthetic lane toward ten pins positioned in a tetractys at the far end of the lane. The objective is to knock down all ten pins on the first roll of the ball, or failing that, on the second roll.

Equidistant point that is at the same distance to every object in a given set

A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.

Each player uses a cue stick to shoot the appropriate cue ball; average cue length is 140 cm (about 55 in.) [2] A bridge stick ( rest ) may be used to reach long shots. [12]

A cue stick, is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the cue ball. Cues are tapered sticks, typically about 57–59 inches long and usually between 16 and 21 ounces (450–600 g), with professionals gravitating toward a 19-ounce (540 g) average. Cues for carom tend toward the shorter range, though cue length is primarily a factor of player height and arm length. Most cues are made of wood, but occasionally the wood is covered or bonded with other materials including graphite, carbon fiber or fiberglass. An obsolete term for a cue, used from the 16th to early 19th centuries, is billiard stick.


Though there are variants in Central and South America, the Italian five-pins rules are the best codified. Because the Italian-rules championships organized by the Italian Federation of Billiard Sport (FIBiS) are international, televised events, and often hosted outside of Italy, the FIBiS rules are the global de facto standard, [2] and have been incorporated into the rules promulgated by the Union Mondiale de Billard.


The goal of the game is to earn a required number of points, before one's opponent does, by using one's cue ball to cause the opponent's cue ball to knock over pins (and to not do so with one's own cue ball), and by contacting the red object ball with either cue ball, after one's own cue ball has contacted that of the opponent, and/or by causing the object ball to knock over pins, again after one's own cue ball has contacted that of the opponent. [13]


The game is played by two players or by two teams (a pair of doubles partners most commonly, but also larger teams). Determining who goes first can be done by any means ( lag usually, but also coin toss, tournament stipulations about player order, etc.). Each player or team is assigned one of the two cue balls; this is the only cue ball they may hit with the cue stick. The first player or team always uses the (plain) white cue ball, the opponent the other ball. Unlike in many games, shots are always taken in rotation – the same player or team never shoots twice in a row even if they have scored (other than if the opponent fouled before actually shooting when their turn came up, such as by moving one of the balls accidentally). Play continues until one player or team wins by being the first to achieve or exceed a specific number of points (usually 50 or 60), either agreed upon beforehand by the players, or set by tournament organizers. [2] [13] In informal play, the number is often lower, such as 25.

In order to score, the incoming player or team must stroke the assigned cue ball (sometimes called the battente or "clapper") to carom off the opponent's cue ball (sometimes called the "receiver")—usually directly, but off a cushion is permitted and very common—with the goal of secondarily having the opponent's cue ball, directly or by way of rebounding off a cushion, next hit the pins and/or the red object ball (sometimes called the pallino ("bullet") or "jack", terms common to several other games, such as bocce). [2]

Unlike in the major carom game three-cushion billiards, there is no requirement to hit one or more cushions at any time. [2]


Knocking over pins, by any of the acceptable prescribed manners, earns cumulative points as follows: [2] [14]

The acceptable means of knocking over pins include any that result from hitting the opponent's object ball first with one's own, and not hitting the pins with one's own cue ball. For example, one can simply send the opponent's cue ball into the pins, send the opponent's cue ball into the red object ball and have the object ball hit the pins, or hit the opponent's cue ball and then the object ball with one's own cue ball and send the object ball into the pins. [16] [Note 6] [17] [Note 7]

The object ball itself is also worth points: [2] [16] [18]


The game has some fouls unique to its ruleset, as well as the usual fouls of billiards games. All fouls nullify any points the shooter would have earned on the foul shot, and award the opponent free points (which vary depending on the type of foul). [2] [17]

Because of the particularity of the first-listed foul above, players watch the game carefully, and tournaments have referees. Any points earned by the shooter on a foul shot are awarded to the opponent (except when, as noted above, pin value is not calculated). An extra 2 points go to the opponent if the object ball was correctly hit on an otherwise foul stroke (in addition to being awarded the 3 or 4 points the object ball was worth).[ citation needed ] Ball-in-hand on fouls is not entirely free; the incoming shooter after a ball-in-hand foul can only place his/her cue ball on the opposite half of the table from the other cue ball, and must shoot from the end (short part) not side of the table. [2] The cue ball does not have to be placed in the kitchen (behind the head string), just within the proper half of the table.[ citation needed ]


A fairly easy three-rail bank shot on the castle. Five-pins 3-rail bank.gif
A fairly easy three-rail bank shot on the castle.
A challenging two-rail kick shot at the castle. Five-pins 2-rail kick.gif
A challenging two-rail kick shot at the castle.
A daring masse shot on the castle, from a snookered position. A kick shot would almost certainly be a higher-probability shot selection. Five-pins Masse.gif
A daring massé shot on the castle, from a snookered position. A kick shot would almost certainly be a higher-probability shot selection.

Five-pins integrates some of the target-shooting aspects of pool, snooker, etc. (perhaps via the influence of English billiards) into carom billiards, which is otherwise oriented at scoring carom points.

Safety play and cue ball control are essential when attempting to score, with the goal of leaving the balls in such a position that the incoming opponent is hooked ( snookered ) and will have a difficult bank , kick , or massé shot to perform.

Because kicks and banks are so common, players must be more skilled at these shots than they would need to be for most forms of pool (other than one-pocket and bank pool) and carom billiards. The game also requires a good understanding of carom angles and the effects of " English " (sidespin) on the cue ball.

World Championship 5 Pins National Teams

Organized by the Union Mondiale de Billard (UMB), and inaugurated in 2019, the World Championship 5 Pins National Teams is an international event. Italy won the first edition for national teams of 5 pins in Lugano (Switzerland).

World 5 Pins National Teams Champions

2019 Lugano, Switzerland Flag of Italy.svg  Italy

World Five-pins Championship

Organized by the Italian Federation of Billiard Sport (FIBiS), and inaugurated in 1965, the World Five-pins Championship (Campionato del Mondo "5 Birilli") is an international event, hosted to date in various places in Italy, Argentina, Switzerland and Spain. It is semi-annual; many years since its inception have not featured such a tournament. As of early 2008, there have been twenty such tournaments. There are various divisions, including youth, women, men, teams, and a one-on-one open championship. [1]

World Open Champions

Note: In several years, events were not held.
1965 Santa Fe, Argentina Manuel Gómez Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1968 Bell Ville, Argentina Anselmo Berrondo Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay
1975 Campione d'Italia, Italy Domenico Acanfora Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1978 Bell Ville, Argentina Ricardo Fantasia Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1979 Pesaro, Italy Attilio Sessa Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1980 Necochea, Argentina Néstor Gómez Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1982 Loano, Italy Néstor Gómez Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1983 Marcos Juárez, Argentina Miguel Ángel Borrelli Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1985 Spoleto, Italy Giampiero Rosanna Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1987 Milan, Italy Carlo Cifalà Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1989 Chiasso, Switzerland Gustavo Torregiani Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1990 Brescia, Italy Gustavo Torregiani Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1992 Arezzo, Italy Giampiero Rosanna Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1993 Bolivar, Argentina Fabio Cavazzana Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1995 Fiuggi, Italy Gustavo Zito Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1998 Ferrara, Italy David Martinelli Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1999 Necochea, Argentina Gustavo Zito Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
2003 Legnano, Italy Crocefisso Maggio Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
2006 Seville, Spain Michelangelo Aniello Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
2008 Sarteano di Siena, Italy Andrea Quarta Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
2009 Villa María, Argentina Gustavo Torregiani Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
2015 Milan, Italy Matteo Gualemi Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
2017 Necochea, Argentina Alejandro Martinotti Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina

Five-pins Pro World Cup

Also organized by FIBiS, the Five-pins Pro World Cup (World Cup Pro "5 Birilli"), was a semi-annual event begun in 1993, and discontinued after 1997. In only one year (1993) were both the Pro World Cup and the World Championships held. The event was a one-on-one invitational championship, without other divisions. [1]

Pro World Cup Champions

Note: In 1995, the event was not held.
1993 Cannes, France Salvatore Mannone Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1994 Saint-Vincent, Italy Gustavo Adrian Zito Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina [19] [Note 8]
1996 Saint-Vincent, Italy David Martinelli Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1997 Todi, Italy Gustavo Adrian Zito Flag of Italy.svg  Italy

Nine-pin variant (goriziana)

A professionally competitive version known as goriziana (or nine-pins, 9-pins, nine-pin billiards, etc.) adds four additional outer pins to the "+" pattern, and has a more complicated scoring system. Goriziana itself also has multiple amateur rules variants.

Five-pins is a major plot point of the Italian-produced, English-language drama/romance film Bye Bye Baby , which stars Brigitte Nielsen as a professional player. The movie does not focus on five-pins, but does demonstrate many aspects of the game clearly in a few sequences.

See also


  1. While UMB, the International Olympic Committee-recognized world carom billiards authority, permits balls as small as 61.0 mm, no major manufacturer produces such balls any longer, and the de facto standard is 61.5 mm. Amusingly, the cited document has a "cm" for "mm" typographical error, which would result in beachball sizes.
  2. The cited document repeats the "cm" for "mm" typographical error of the parent general carom billiards rules.
  3. The English-language version of this document confusingly refers to the opponent's cue ball as the object ball, and the red object ball as simply the red ball. As this usage does not conform with standard billiards terminology in English, it has been abandoned in this article, which when referring to "the object ball" means the red ball.
  4. The translated Italian name for this spot is the "top spot", but this name makes no sense in English, as the metaphoric "head" or "top" of the table in Italian is the reverse of the usage in English. Also, the Appendix referred to in this document is absent; however the next-cited source, a different version of the rules document, in Italian, provides the missing diagrams.
  5. Due to this use of extraneous objects, five-pins could be said to vestigially be a form of obstacle billiards, as well as a carom billiards game.
  6. The English-language version is poorly worded in this section with regard to pin scoring, though it is clarified in Section 6.
  7. The rather lacking English translation of these rules seems to contradict itself with regard to the striking-pins-with-own-cue-ball foul; in particular III-21-4 does not agree with III-21-6, but this appears to be a typographical error, as the various copies of Italian-language rules from UMB and FIBiS do not share this inconsistency.
  8. The published FIBiS records list Zito as representing Argentina in this particular instance. He started representing Italy in 1995.

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Eight-ball Pool game popular in much of the world

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Bar billiards

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English billiards Cue sport

English billiards, called simply billiards in the United Kingdom, where it originated, and in many former British colonies such as Australia, is a cue sport that combines the aspects of carom billiards and pocket billiards. Two cue balls and a red object ball are used. Each player or team uses a different cue ball. It is played on a billiards table with the same dimensions as a snooker table and points are scored for cannons and pocketing the balls. English billiards has also, but less frequently, been referred to as "the English game", "the all-in game" and (formerly) "the common game".

Straight pool

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Golf billiards is a pocket billiards game usually played for money. Unlike the majority of such games, it allows more than two people to play without compromises or rule changes. The game borrows from the outdoor game of golf, which is historically related to the cue sports. It is usually played on 10–foot or 12–foot snooker tables as their size and structure are more appropriate.

Russian pyramid

Russian pyramid, also known as Russian billiard is a form of pocket billiards played on a table similar to a snooker table. It is popular across Eastern Europe as well as countries of the former Soviet Union/Eastern Bloc. A variant with colored balls modeled on those of pool is known as Russian pool. In Western countries, the game is known as pyramid billiards, or simply pyramid within professional circle.

Pool (cue sports) family of cue sports

Pool is a classification of cue sports played on a table with six pockets along the rails, into which balls are deposited. Each specific pool game has its own name; some of the better-known include eight-ball, eightball pool and its variant blackball, nine-ball, ten-ball, seven-ball, straight pool, one-pocket, and bank pool.

Four-ball billiards

Four-ball billiards or four-ball carom is a carom billiards game, played on a pocketless table with four billiard balls, usually two red and two white, one of the latter with a spot to distinguish it. Each player is assigned one of the white balls as a cue ball. A point is scored when a shooter's cue ball caroms on any two other balls in the same shot. Two points are scored when the shooter caroms on each of the three object balls in a single shot. A carom on only one ball results in no points, and ends the shooter's inning.

Chinese eight-ball, is an American, two-player pool game which combines the play of eight-ball with the shooting style of carom billiards games, and is thus a pool–carom hybrid game, like English billiards. It is similar in game mechanics, if not exact rules, to Russian pyramid, but using typical American pool equipment.

Bank pool is a pool game that has as its most fundamental requirement that all scoring shots in the game must be made by banking a called ball off a cushion and into a called pocket. While the game has multiple variations, the predominant version through much of its history was played with a full fifteen-ball rack, of which the winning player was required to legally pocket eight balls. A shortened version of the game using nine balls of which the players must legally pocket five for the win, often called "nine-ball banks," gained popularity in the 1990s and 2000s and is the subject of international professional competition and televised matches.

The following is a glossary of traditional English-language terms used in the three overarching cue sports disciplines: carom billiards referring to the various carom games played on a billiard table without pockets; pool, which denotes a host of games played on a table with six pockets; and snooker, played on a large pocket table, and which has a sport culture unto itself distinct from pool. There are also hybrid pocket/carom games such as English billiards.

Rotation (pool)

Rotation, sometimes called rotation pool or 61, is a pocket billiards game, requiring a standard pool table, cue ball and triangular rack of fifteen pool balls, in which the lowest-numbered object ball on the table must be always struck by the cue ball first, to attempt to pocket numbered balls for points. Rotation is somewhat similar to nine-ball, but its scoring system is based on points, similar to that of straight pool. However, unlike straight pool, rotation is not a call-pocket game.

Bottle pool

Bottle pool, also known as bottle-billiards and bottle pocket billiards, is a hybrid billiards game combining aspects of both carom billiards and pocket billiards. Played on a standard pool table, the game uses just two object balls, a cue ball, and a 6¾ inch (171 mm) tall, narrow-necked bottle called a shake bottle or tally bottle, traditionally made from leather, that is placed on the table and used as a target for caroms. Those unfamiliar with the game sometimes mistakenly use its name as a synonym for the very different game of kelly pool. Bottle pool has been described as combining "elements of billiards, straight pool and chess under a set of rules that lavishly rewards strategic shot making and punishes mistakes with Sisyphean point reversals."

Carom billiards and pocket billiards (pool) are two types of cue sports or billiards-family games, which as a general class are played with a stick called a cue which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth-covered billiard table bounded by rubber cushions attached to the confining rails of the table.

Goriziana or nine-pin billiards is a carom billiards game, especially popular in Italy.

Danish pin billiards

Danish billiards or keglebillard, sometimes called Danish five-pin billiards, is the traditional cue sport of Denmark, and the game remains predominantly played in that country. It makes use of a 5 × 10 ft six-pocket table, three billiard balls, and five pins, which are considerably larger than those used in the similar and internationally standardized game of five-pin billiards.

Kaisa (cue sport)

Kaisa or karoliina is a cue sport mainly played in Finland. The game originated in Russia, where it is still played to some extent. Kaisa equipment is similar to Russian pyramid from the 68 mm balls, small pockets barely large enough for a ball to enter, and the long and heavy cue sticks. Kaisa tables are usually 10 feet long and thus 2 feet shorter than official tournament Russian pyramid tables which are 12 feet long. It is a two-player or -team game. As with many carom billiards games, both players have their own cue balls used to shoot at the other balls, and usually differentiated by one cue ball having a dot or other marking on it. In all, five balls are used: the yellow object ball, two red object balls, and the two white cue balls. The game is played to 60 points, in a rather elaborate scoring system, reminiscent of those used in snooker and English billiards, with points being awarded for various types of shots. Like both Russian and English billiards, which are also played on large pocket billiards tables, kaisa is a hybrid of carom and pocket billiards game styles. Kaisa is principally a recreational game, without professional players. However, the first kaisa world championship tournament was held in April 2010. Participants came from 33 countries, and the main tournament was held in Kotka. A Finnish player, Marko Rautiainen, won the championship title. Amateur competition in Finland is widespread and popular, with matches being shown on a dedicated Web show on

Pin billiards may refer to any of a fairly large number of billiard games that uses a pin, or a set of "pins" or "skittles". The earliest form of billiards, ground billiards, was played with a single pin called the "king". Table billiards kept the king until the mid-18th century. There are billiard games played with as many as thirteen pins.


  1. 1 2 3 4 Sezione Stecca: Organigramma della Sezione - Attività agonistica - Calendari - Regolamento Tecnico Sportivo, 2004–2005 Archived 2007-06-28 at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd› (in Italian), Federazione Italiana Biliardo Sportivo, 2004, Italy.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Biliardo all'italiana manual at Wikibooks, accessed February 1, 2007. ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  3. 1 2 3 Shamos (1993) , pp. 124, 215
  4. Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 11 ("Article 11 - Billiard [table], cushion, cloth"), Section 3
  5. Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 11 ("Article 11 - Billiard [table], cushion, cloth"), Section 4
  6. Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 11 ("Article 11 - Billiard [table], cushion, cloth"), Section 9
  7. 1 2 Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 12 ("Balls, Chalk"), Section 2
  8. 1 2 Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 12 ("Balls, Pins, Chalk"), Section 1
  9. Anonymous (1997) , Article 25 ("Starting position, cue-ball"), Section 1
  10. "Regolamento di Gioco Specialità' '5 Birilli' - '9 Birilli Goriziana e Tutti Doppi'" ‹See Tfd› (in Italian), Federazione Italiana Biliardo Sportivo, October 2003, Italy. An HTML version ‹See Tfd› (in Italian) is also available, from a FIBiS affiliate.
  11. Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 13 ("Marking of the spots and position lines")
  12. Anonymous (1997) , Chapter II ("Equipment"), Article 14 ("Billiard cue, rake"), Section 2
  13. 1 2 Anonymous (1997) , Chapter III ("Goal of the Game, the Match"), Article 21 ("Goal of the game"), Section 2
  14. Anonymous (1997) , Chapter III ("Goal of the Game, the Match"), Article 22 ("Allocation of the points"), Section 1
  15. FIBiS: Regolamento gioco 5 birilli goriziana operativo dal 1 settembre 2013 ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  16. 1 2 3 Anonymous (1997) , Chapter III ("Goal of the Game, the Match"), Article 21 ("Goal of the game"), Section 4
  17. 1 2 Anonymous (1997) , Chapter III ("Goal of the Game, the Match"), Article 21 ("Goal of the game"), Section 6
  18. 1 2 Anonymous (1997) , Chapter III ("Goal of the Game, the Match"), Article 22 ("Allocation of the points"), Section 2
  19. Sezione Stecca Archived 2007-06-28 at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd› (in Italian), op. cit.


  • Anonymous (1997). World Rules of Carom Billiard (PDF). Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium: Union Mondiale de Billard.
  • Shamos, Michael Ian (1993). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. New York, NY: Lyons & Burford. ISBN   1-55821-219-1.