Five-pin billiards or simply five-pins or 5-pins (Italian: [biliardo dei] cinque birilli; italiana (in Italian and Spanish). A variant of the game, goriziana or nine-pins, adds additional skittles to the formation. A related pocket game, with larger pins, is played in Scandinavia and is referred to in English as Danish pin billiards, with a Swedish variant that has some rules more similar to the Italian game.Spanish: [billar de] cinco quillas), is today usually a carom billiards form of cue sport, though sometimes still played on a pocket table. In addition to the customary three balls of most carom games, it makes use of a set of five upright pins (skittles) arranged in a "+" pattern at the center of the table. The game is popular especially in Italy (where it originated) and Argentina, but also in some other parts of Latin America and Europe, with international, televised professional tournaments (for the carom version only). It is sometimes referred to as Italian five-pins or Italian billiards (Italian: biliardo all'italiana), or as
Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, and together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a regional or a traditional language in these countries, where Italians do not represent a historical minority. In the case of Romania, Italian is listed by the Government along 10 other languages which supposedly receive a "general protection", but not between those which should be granted an "advanced or enhanced" one. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.
Spanish, known in the Middle Ages as Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Carom billiards, sometimes called carambole billiards or simply carambole, is the overarching title of a family of cue sports generally played on cloth-covered, 1.5-by-3.0-metre pocketless tables, which often feature heated slate beds. In its simplest form, the object of the game is to score or "counts" by one's own off both the opponent's cue ball and the on a single shot. The invention as well as the exact date of origin of carom billiards is somewhat obscure but is thought to be traceable to 18th-century France.
Until the late 1980s, the game (with some rules differences) was a form of pocket billiards, known in English as Italian skittle pool,and was principally played in pubs, with an object ball that was smaller than the two cue balls. Professional and regulated amateur play today exclusively uses pocketless tables and equal-sized balls. Professional competition began in 1965, and play is centered in billiard parlors, with players competing in provincial, regional, and national federations. The pocket version is still favored by some in amateur play.
The regulation game is played on a 5 by 10 ft (1.5 by 3.0 m) carom billiards table, with standardized playing surface dimensions of 1.42 by 2.84 m (approximately 4-2/3 by 9-1/3 ft), plus/minus 5 mm (approx. 0.2 in), from to cushion. The slate of the table must be heated to about 5 degrees C (9 degrees F) above room temperature, which helps to keep moisture out of the cloth to aid the balls rolling and rebounding in a consistent manner, and generally makes the table play "faster". In informal play, an unheated table is often used.less normal
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing. Human comfort can extend beyond this range depending on humidity, air circulation and other factors. In certain fields, like science and engineering, and within a particular context, room temperature can mean different agreed-on ranges. In contrast, ambient temperature is the actual temperature of the air in any particular place, as measured by a thermometer. It may be very different from usual room temperature, for example an unheated room in winter.
Like most other carom games, five-pins requires three standard mm (2-3/8 [2.4] in) in diameter and weigh between 205 and 220 g (7.2 and 7.8 oz); 7.5 oz is average). The white (or plain white) cue ball is given to the starting player, who may place it anywhere on the head side of the table (without disturbing the pins)—i.e., anywhere unobstructed between the and the . The red object ball is placed at the center of the (i.e., the intersection of the and the . The yellow (or spotted white) cue ball of the opponent is placed on the long string, in a position that can be labelled the "foot rail spot", 10 cm (approx. 4 in) from the .carom billiard balls of equal diameter: a red , a for the first player or team, and another cue ball for the second player or team. Ball sets vary by manufacturer, but typically are white for first and yellow for second (they may be plain or spotted), or plain white for first and white with a spot for second. The balls are 61.5
As the name implies, the game makes use of five upright pins called skittles in English (so-called since at least 1634), 25 mm (0.98 in) tall, and with 7 mm (0.28 in) round, flat-bottomed bases. There are traditionally four white pins, and one red. The red pin is placed on the (the exact middle of the table both lengthwise and widthwise), and the four white pins are placed equidistant from the red in a square diamond pattern around it. Two whites are aligned along the center string with the and s, as well as the rail diamonds in the center of the head and foot rails, and with the red object ball, and red pin. Meanwhile, the other two whites are placed on the , aligned with the diamonds in the center of the long rails, and again with the red pin. The whites are spaced just far enough away from the red that a cue ball can pass between the pins without touching any of them.[ citation needed ] The final pattern looks like a "+" (plus sign), as shown in the adjacent diagram. This arrangement of pins on the table is referred to as the "castle". Tables have the precise castle positions for the pins, and for the starting positions of the balls, permanently marked, as they must be placed back into position before every shot if any have been knocked over or moved.birilli (singular birillo) in Italian and quillas in Spanish, which look like miniature bowling pins,
Ten-pin bowling is a type of bowling in which a bowler rolls a bowling ball down a wood or synthetic lane toward ten pins positioned in a tetractys at the far end of the lane. The objective is to knock down all ten pins on the first roll of the ball, or failing that, on the second roll.
A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.
Each player uses a cue stick to shoot the appropriate cue ball; average cue length is 140 cm (about 55 in.) A ( ) may be used to reach long shots.
A cue stick, is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the . Cues are tapered sticks, typically about 57–59 inches long and usually between 16 and 21 ounces (450–600 g), with professionals gravitating toward a 19-ounce (540 g) average. Cues for carom tend toward the shorter range, though cue length is primarily a factor of player height and arm length. Most cues are made of wood, but occasionally the wood is covered or bonded with other materials including graphite, carbon fiber or fiberglass. An obsolete term for a cue, used from the 16th to early 19th centuries, is billiard stick.
Though there are variants in Central and South America, the Italian five-pins rules are the best codified. Because the Italian-rules championships organized by the Italian Federation of Billiard Sport (FIBiS) are international, televised events, and often hosted outside of Italy, the FIBiS rules are the global de facto standard,and have been incorporated into the rules promulgated by the Union Mondiale de Billard.
The goal of the game is to earn a required number of points, before one's opponent does, by using one's cue ball to cause the opponent's cue ball to knock over pins (and to not do so with one's own cue ball), and by contacting the red object ball with either cue ball, after one's own cue ball has contacted that of the opponent, and/or by causing the object ball to knock over pins, again after one's own cue ball has contacted that of the opponent.
The game is played by two players or by two teams (a pair of doubles partners most commonly, but also larger teams). Determining who goes first can be done by any means (usually, but also coin toss, tournament stipulations about player order, etc.). Each player or team is assigned one of the two cue balls; this is the only cue ball they may hit with the cue stick. The first player or team always uses the (plain) white cue ball, the opponent the other ball. Unlike in many games, shots are always taken in rotation – the same player or team never shoots twice in a row even if they have scored (other than if the opponent fouled before actually shooting when their turn came up, such as by moving one of the balls accidentally). Play continues until one player or team wins by being the first to achieve or exceed a specific number of points (usually 50 or 60), either agreed upon beforehand by the players, or set by tournament organizers. In informal play, the number is often lower, such as 25.
In order to score, the incoming player or team mustthe assigned cue ball (sometimes called the battente or "clapper") to off the opponent's cue ball (sometimes called the "receiver")—usually directly, but off a cushion is permitted and very common—with the goal of secondarily having the opponent's cue ball, directly or by way of rebounding off a cushion, next hit the pins and/or the red object ball (sometimes called the pallino ("bullet") or "jack", terms common to several other games, such as bocce).
Unlike in the major carom game three-cushion billiards, there is no requirement to hit one or more cushions at any time.
Knocking over pins, by any of the acceptable prescribed manners, earns cumulative points as follows:
The acceptable means of knocking over pins include any that result from hitting the opponent's object ball first with one's own, and not hitting the pins with one's own cue ball. For example, one can simply send the opponent's cue ball into the pins, send the opponent's cue ball into the red object ball and have the object ball hit the pins, or hit the opponent's cue ball and then the object ball with one's own cue ball and send the object ball into the pins.
The object ball itself is also worth points:
The game has someunique to its ruleset, as well as the usual fouls of billiards games. All fouls nullify any points the shooter would have earned on the foul shot, and award the opponent free points (which vary depending on the type of foul).
Because of the particularity of the first-listed foul above, players watch the game carefully, and tournaments have referees. Any points earned by the shooter on a foul shot are awarded to the opponent (except when, as noted above, pin value is not calculated). An extra 2 points go to the opponent if the object ball was correctly hit on an otherwise foul stroke (in addition to being awarded the 3 or 4 points the object ball was worth).[ citation needed ] Ball-in-hand on fouls is not entirely free; the incoming shooter after a ball-in-hand foul can only place his/her cue ball on the opposite half of the table from the other cue ball, and must shoot from the end (short part) not side of the table. The cue ball does not have to be placed in the (behind the head string), just within the proper half of the table.[ citation needed ]
Five-pins integrates some of the target-shooting aspects of pool, snooker, etc. (perhaps via the influence of English billiards) into carom billiards, which is otherwise oriented at scoring carom points.
and are essential when attempting to score, with the goal of leaving the balls in such a position that the incoming opponent is ( ) and will have a difficult , , or shot to perform.
Because kicks and banks are so common, players must be more skilled at these shots than they would need to be for most forms of pool (other than one-pocket and bank pool) and carom billiards. The game also requires a good understanding ofand the effects of " " (sidespin) on the cue ball.
Organized by the Union Mondiale de Billard (UMB), and inaugurated in 2019, the World Championship 5 Pins National Teams is an international event. Italy won the first edition for national teams of 5 pins in Lugano (Switzerland).
Organized by the Italian Federation of Billiard Sport (FIBiS), and inaugurated in 1965, the World Five-pins Championship (Campionato del Mondo "5 Birilli") is an international event, hosted to date in various places in Italy, Argentina, Switzerland and Spain. It is semi-annual; many years since its inception have not featured such a tournament. As of early 2008, there have been twenty such tournaments. There are various divisions, including youth, women, men, teams, and a one-on-one open championship.
|1965||Santa Fe, Argentina||Manuel Gómez|
|1968||Bell Ville, Argentina||Anselmo Berrondo|
|1975||Campione d'Italia, Italy||Domenico Acanfora|
|1978||Bell Ville, Argentina||Ricardo Fantasia|
|1979||Pesaro, Italy||Attilio Sessa|
|1980||Necochea, Argentina||Néstor Gómez|
|1982||Loano, Italy||Néstor Gómez|
|1983||Marcos Juárez, Argentina||Miguel Ángel Borrelli|
|1985||Spoleto, Italy||Giampiero Rosanna|
|1987||Milan, Italy||Carlo Cifalà|
|1989||Chiasso, Switzerland||Gustavo Torregiani|
|1990||Brescia, Italy||Gustavo Torregiani|
|1992||Arezzo, Italy||Giampiero Rosanna|
|1993||Bolivar, Argentina||Fabio Cavazzana|
|1995||Fiuggi, Italy||Gustavo Zito|
|1998||Ferrara, Italy||David Martinelli|
|1999||Necochea, Argentina||Gustavo Zito|
|2003||Legnano, Italy||Crocefisso Maggio|
|2006||Seville, Spain||Michelangelo Aniello|
|2008||Sarteano di Siena, Italy||Andrea Quarta|
|2009||Villa María, Argentina||Gustavo Torregiani|
|2015||Milan, Italy||Matteo Gualemi|
|2017||Necochea, Argentina||Alejandro Martinotti|
Also organized by FIBiS, the Five-pins Pro World Cup (World Cup Pro "5 Birilli"), was a semi-annual event begun in 1993, and discontinued after 1997. In only one year (1993) were both the Pro World Cup and the World Championships held. The event was a one-on-one invitational championship, without other divisions.
|1993||Cannes, France||Salvatore Mannone|
|1994||Saint-Vincent, Italy||Gustavo Adrian Zito|
|1996||Saint-Vincent, Italy||David Martinelli|
|1997||Todi, Italy||Gustavo Adrian Zito|
A professionally competitive version known as goriziana (or nine-pins, 9-pins, nine-pin billiards, etc.) adds four additional outer pins to the "+" pattern, and has a more complicated scoring system. Goriziana itself also has multiple amateur rules variants.
Five-pins is a major plot point of the Italian-produced, English-language drama/romance film Bye Bye Baby , which stars Brigitte Nielsen as a professional player. The movie does not focus on five-pins, but does demonstrate many aspects of the game clearly in a few sequences.
Cue sports, also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as .
Eight-ball is a pool game popular in much of the world, and the subject of international professional and amateur competition. Played on a pool table with six pockets, the game is so universally known in some countries that beginners are often unaware of other pool games and believe the word "pool" itself refers to eight-ball. The game has numerous variations, mostly regional. Standard eight-ball is the second most competitive professional pool game, after nine-ball, and for the last several decades ahead of straight pool. Unlike nine-ball, ten-ball, or seven-ball where the game's name reflects the number object balls used, eight-ball uses all fifteen object balls.
Bar billiards is a form of billiards which developed from the French/Belgian game billiard russe, of Russian origin. Bar billiards in its current form started in the UK in the 1930s when Englishman, David Gill, saw billiard russe being played in Belgium and persuaded the Jelkes company of Holloway Road in London to make a similar table.
English billiards, called simply billiards in the United Kingdom, where it originated, and in many former British colonies such as Australia, is a cue sport that combines the aspects of carom billiards and pocket billiards. Two and a red are used. Each player or team uses a different cue ball. It is played on a billiards table with the same dimensions as a snooker table and points are scored for and pocketing the balls. English billiards has also, but less frequently, been referred to as "the English game", "the all-in game" and (formerly) "the common game".
Straight pool, also called 14.1 continuous or simply 14.1, is a type of pool game. It was the common sport of championship competition until it was overtaken by faster-playing games like nine-ball.
Golf billiards is a pocket billiards game usually played for money. Unlike the majority of such games, it allows more than two people to play without compromises or rule changes. The game borrows from the outdoor game of golf, which is historically related to the cue sports. It is usually played on 10–foot or 12–foot snooker tables as their size and structure are more appropriate.
Russian pyramid, also known as Russian billiard is a form of pocket billiards played on a table similar to a snooker table. It is popular across Eastern Europe as well as countries of the former Soviet Union/Eastern Bloc. A variant with colored balls modeled on those of pool is known as Russian pool. In Western countries, the game is known as pyramid billiards, or simply pyramid within professional circle.
Pool is a classification of cue sports played on a table with six pockets along the , into which balls are deposited. Each specific pool game has its own name; some of the better-known include eight-ball, eightball pool and its variant blackball, nine-ball, ten-ball, seven-ball, straight pool, one-pocket, and bank pool.
Four-ball billiards or four-ball carom is a carom billiards game, played on a pocketless table with four billiard balls, usually two red and two white, one of the latter with a spot to distinguish it. Each player is assigned one of the white balls as a . A is scored when a shooter's cue ball s on any two other balls in the same . Two points are scored when the shooter caroms on each of the three object balls in a single shot. A carom on only one ball results in no points, and ends the shooter's .
Chinese eight-ball, is an American, two-player pool game which combines the play of eight-ball with the shooting style of carom billiards games, and is thus a pool–carom hybrid game, like English billiards. It is similar in game mechanics, if not exact rules, to Russian pyramid, but using typical American pool equipment.
Bank pool is a pool game that has as its most fundamental requirement that all scoring shots in the game must be made by a called ball off a and into a called pocket. While the game has multiple variations, the predominant version through much of its history was played with a full fifteen-ball , of which the winning player was required to legally pocket eight balls. A shortened version of the game using nine balls of which the players must legally pocket five for the win, often called "nine-ball banks," gained popularity in the 1990s and 2000s and is the subject of international professional competition and televised matches.
The following is a glossary of traditional English-language terms used in the three overarching cue sports disciplines: carom billiards referring to the various games played on a billiard table without ; pool, which denotes a host of games played on a table with six pockets; and snooker, played on a large pocket table, and which has a sport culture unto itself distinct from pool. There are also hybrid pocket/carom games such as English billiards.
Rotation, sometimes called rotation pool or 61, is a pocket billiards game, requiring a standard pool table, and triangular rack of fifteen pool balls, in which the lowest-numbered on the table must be always struck by the cue ball first, to attempt to numbered balls for . Rotation is somewhat similar to nine-ball, but its scoring system is based on points, similar to that of straight pool. However, unlike straight pool, rotation is not a call-pocket game.
Bottle pool, also known as bottle-billiards and bottle pocket billiards, is a hybrid billiards game combining aspects of both carom billiards and pocket billiards. Played on a standard pool table, the game uses just two , a cue ball, and a 6¾ inch (171 mm) tall, narrow-necked bottle called a or tally bottle, traditionally made from leather, that is placed on the table and used as a target for . Those unfamiliar with the game sometimes mistakenly use its name as a synonym for the very different game of kelly pool. Bottle pool has been described as combining "elements of billiards, straight pool and chess under a set of rules that lavishly rewards strategic shot making and punishes mistakes with Sisyphean point reversals."
Carom billiards and pocket billiards (pool) are two types of cue sports or billiards-family games, which as a general class are played with a stick called a cue which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth-covered billiard table bounded by rubber attached to the confining of the table.
Goriziana or nine-pin billiards is a carom billiards game, especially popular in Italy.
Danish billiards or keglebillard, sometimes called Danish five-pin billiards, is the traditional cue sport of Denmark, and the game remains predominantly played in that country. It makes use of a 5 × 10 ft six-pocket table, three billiard balls, and five , which are considerably larger than those used in the similar and internationally standardized game of five-pin billiards.
Kaisa or karoliina is a cue sport mainly played in Finland. The game originated in Russia, where it is still played to some extent. Kaisa equipment is similar to Russian pyramid from the 68 mm balls, small pockets barely large enough for a ball to enter, and the long and heavy cue sticks. Kaisa tables are usually 10 feet long and thus 2 feet shorter than official tournament Russian pyramid tables which are 12 feet long. It is a two-player or -team game. As with many carom billiards games, both players have their own used to shoot at the other balls, and usually differentiated by one cue ball having a dot or other marking on it. In all, five balls are used: the yellow , two red object balls, and the two white cue balls. The game is played to 60 , in a rather elaborate scoring system, reminiscent of those used in snooker and English billiards, with points being awarded for various types of shots. Like both Russian and English billiards, which are also played on large pocket billiards tables, kaisa is a hybrid of carom and pocket billiards game styles. Kaisa is principally a recreational game, without professional players. However, the first kaisa world championship tournament was held in April 2010. Participants came from 33 countries, and the main tournament was held in Kotka. A Finnish player, Marko Rautiainen, won the championship title. Amateur competition in Finland is widespread and popular, with matches being shown on a dedicated Web show on blip.tv.
Pin billiards may refer to any of a fairly large number of billiard games that uses a , or a set of "pins" or "s". The earliest form of billiards, ground billiards, was played with a single pin called the "king". Table billiards kept the king until the mid-18th century. There are billiard games played with as many as thirteen pins.