Flag of Afghanistan

Last updated

Flag of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Flag of Taliban.svg
Use National flag and ensign IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg FIAV 111111.svg
Proportion1:2 [1] [2]
AdoptedOctober 27, 1997;23 years ago (1997-10-27)
August 15, 2021;33 days ago (2021-08-15)(Restoration of the Emirate)
DesignThe Shahada in black on a white field
Flag of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg
Use National flag and ensign FIAV normal.svgFIAV 111111.svg
Proportion2:3
AdoptedAugust 19, 2013;8 years ago (2013-08-19)
DesignThree vertical bands of black, red and green with the National Emblem in white centered on the red band and then slightly overlapping the black and green bands.

The flag of Afghanistan (Pashto : د افغانستان بیرغ; Dari : پرچم افغانستان) [3] is currently a disputed topic between the de facto Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and the de jure Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The country has had 25 flags since the first flag when the Hotak dynasty was established in 1709. During the 20th century alone, Afghanistan went through 19 national flags, more than any other country during that time period, [4] [5] and most of them had the colors black, red, and green.

Contents

Following the Fall of Kabul on 15 August 2021, there are two entities claiming to be the legitimate government of Afghanistan, each using a different flag. The Taliban-controlled Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which controls most of the country, uses a white field with a black Shahada . The internationally recognized Islamic Republic of Afghanistan uses the black, red, and green tricolour with the national emblem centered in white. This flag was used by the Afghan delegation at the 2020 Summer Paralympics which took place between 25 August and 5 September, after the fall of Kabul. [6] [7]

History of Afghanistan's tricolor flags

The inspiration of the Afghan tricolor in 1928
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Weimar-era German flag, from 1919
Flag of Afghanistan (1928).svg
Afghan flag from 1928

The black color represents its troubled 19th century history as a protected state, the red color represents the blood of those who fought for independence (specifically, the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919), and the green represents hope and prosperity for the future. [8] [9] Some have alternatively interpreted the black to represent history, the red to represent progress, and the green to represent either agricultural prosperity or Islam. [10] [11]

The tricolor was supposedly inspired by the Afghan King Amanullah Khan when visiting Europe with his wife in 1928. The original horizontal tricolor design was based on that of the flag of Germany. [12]

Almost every Afghan tricolor flag since 1928 has had the Emblem of Afghanistan in the center. Almost every emblem has had a mosque in it, which first appeared in 1901, and wheat, first appearing in 1928.

The last tricolor flag took its current form in 2002 with modifications later on in 2004 and 2013, with some variants containing differing colored emblems. [13]

Following the restoration of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan after the Fall of Kabul in 2021, protests took place in Jalalabad and other cities, where protesters were seen waving Afghan tricolor flags protesting its removal in defiance of Taliban rule, due to the reinstatement of the white Shahada flag and the abolishment of the former black, red, and green tricolor flag. [14]

The color video approximations (valid for flags 1928–1978 and 1980–2021) are listed below:

BlackRedRedGreenGreenWhite
RGB 0/0/0211/32/17190/0/00/122/540/153/0255/255/255
Hex #000000#d32011#be0000#007a36#009900#FFFFFF
CMYK 0/0/0/1000/85/92/170/100/100/25100/0/56/52100/0/100/400/0/0/0

Other flags

Historical flags

FlagYears of useRatioGovernmentNotes
Black flag.svg 1709–17382:3 Hotak dynasty Flag of Hotak dynasty.
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg 174718422:3 Durrani Empire Flag flown under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his dynasty.
No official flag during this period.18421880 Emirate of Afghanistan Prior to 1880, the Barakzai dynasty did not use the flag associated with the Durranis, or any official alternative.
Flag of Afghanistan pre-1901.svg 1880–19012:3Emirate of AfghanistanFlag flown under the rule of Abdul Rahman Khan.
NF 1892 - 1919.svg 1901–19193:5Emirate of AfghanistanState and war flag flown under the rule of Habibullah Khan. Habibullah added to his father's flag a seal that is the precursor of the modern-day seal, containing the mosque.
Flag of Afghanistan (1919-1928).svg 1919–1926/292:3Emirate of AfghanistanFirst flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He expanded upon his father's flag by adding rays emanating from the seal in the form of an octagram. This new style of seal was common in the Ottoman Empire. Afghanistan became a kingdom in 1926.
Flag of Afghanistan (1926-1928).svg 1926–19282:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Second flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He replaced the octagram with a wreath and slightly modified the national seal. This mosque design in this seal would be adopted for most of Afghanistan's flags in the future. The mosque has a mihrab facing Mecca.
Flag of Afghanistan July 1928-September 1928.svg 19283:5Kingdom of AfghanistanThird flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah, introduced c. June 1928. The black, red, and green tricolor, respectively representing the past (previous flags), the bloodshed for independence (Third Anglo-Afghan War), and hope for the future, was probably influenced by Khan's visit abroad to Europe and especially Weimar Republic (black-red-gold) in 1927.
Flag of Afghanistan 1928-1929.svg 1928–19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanFourth flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah, introduced c. July 1928. It was the first vertical-tricolored flag which would be used throughout most of the remainder of the 20th century and in the present day. The new seal shows the sun rising over two snow-capped mountains, representing a new beginning for the kingdom. This seal also contained heaps of wheat, an icon that would be present on all future emblems of Afghanistan throughout different regimes. Notably, only the Soviet emblem had wheat at the time, and would in the future appear on many communist states' flags.
Flag of Afghanistan (1928-1929) (variant).svg 2:3A variant of the above flag with long thick sun rays, similar to the Japanese Rising Sun Flag, as well as a centered yellow star.
Flag of Afghanistan (17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929).svg 19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanA short-lived flag flown from January to October 1929.
Flag of Afghanistan (1919-1928).svg 19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanThis flag (same as the original 1919) was reported to be flown under the short-lived rule of Inayatullah Khan. [15]
Flag of Afghanistan 1929.svg 19292:3 Emirate of Afghanistan (1929) Flag flown under the brief rule of Habibullah Kalakani – a red, black, and white vertical tricolor, like the ones used by the Mongols during their occupation of Afghanistan in the 13th century. [16]
Flag of Afghanistan 1930s.svg 19292:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan During the rebellion of Kalakani, a similar flag was used in Herat in the rebellion of the Tajiks.
Flag of Ali Ahmad Khan's rebellion against Habibullah Kalakani.svg 19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanTransitional Flag used by Ali Ahmad Khan's short-lived rival government in Jalalabad, in opposition to Kalakani.
Flag of Afghanistan 1929 to 1930.svg 1929 – March 27, 19302:3Kingdom of AfghanistanFirst flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah. The black, red, and green tricolor was re-established; the octogram seal borrowed from the first flag of King Amanullah replaced the sun and mountains seal, but the black-red-green vertical design was restored.
Flag of Afghanistan 1930.svg March 27, 1930 – July 16, 19732:3Kingdom of AfghanistanSecond flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah, it was also used by his son, Zahir Shah. The octagram rays were removed, and the seal enlarged – the mosque design is the same as introduced in the 1926 flag. In between the mosque and the seal is the year ١٣٤٨ (1348 of the lunar Islamic calendar, or 1929 AD of the Gregorian calendar) the year Mohammed Nadir Shah's dynasty began.
Flag of Afghanistan 1973.svg July 17, 1973 – May 8, 19742:3 Republic of Afghanistan First flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. It is identical to the previous flag, except that the year ١٣٤٨ was removed as Zahir Shah's monarchy ended.
Flag of Afghanistan 1974.svg May 9, 1974 – April 26, 19782:3Republic of AfghanistanSecond flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. The same colors were used, but the meanings reinterpreted: black for the obscure past, red for blood shed for independence, and green for prosperity from agriculture. In the canton is a new seal, with a golden eagle with spread wings, a pulpit ( minbar ) on the eagle's chest (for a mosque), wheat surrounding the eagle, and the sun's rays above the eagle (for the new republic).
Flag of Afghanistan (1978).svg April 27, 1978 – October 18, 19782:3 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan When the republic's president Mohammad Daoud Khan was killed in a coup, the new regime under the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) established a communist state. For a brief period of time, during the transition, the same flag design was kept, but no seal. A similar flag was used by the Junbish-e Milli party which controlled autonomous northern Afghanistan from 1992 to 1998.
Flag of Afghanistan (1978-1980).svg October 19, 1978 – April 21, 19801:2Democratic Republic of AfghanistanA radical change, this flag used a red field with a yellow seal in the canton, a common design for socialist states in the 20th century. It consisted of the PDPA's Khalq faction's emblem with wheat, a star at the top (representing the five ethnic groups of the nation), the term 'Khalq' in Arabic script in the center, and a subtitle reading 'Saur Revolution ١٣٥٧' and the full name of the state.
Flag of Afghanistan (1979).svg 19801:2Democratic Republic of AfghanistanAfter the overthrow of the Khalq faction by the Parcham faction during the Soviet invasion, the flag of the People's Democratic Party, featuring a cogwheel representing industry and an ear of wheat to represent agriculture, was additionally used as a national flag.
Flag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svg April 22, 1980 – November 29, 19871:2Democratic Republic of AfghanistanUnder the Fundamental Principles program of the new leadership under Babrak Karmal, the traditional black, red, and green tricolor was re-established, representing the past, blood shed for independence, and the Islamic faith, respectively. A new seal was designed, with a rising sun (a reference to the former name, Khorasan , meaning "Land of the Rising Sun"), a pulpit and a book (considered to be the Communist Manifesto or Capital by Karl Marx [ citation needed ]), ribbons with the national colors, a cogwheel for industry, and a red star for communism. The seal's ribbons and wheat has similarities to the then- East German and Romanian seals.
Flag of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg November 30, 1987 – April 26, 19921:2Republic of AfghanistanThe flag was changed as part of Mohammad Najibullah's National Reconciliation constitution changes. Same as the previous flag, except that in the national seal, the cogwheel is moved from the top to the bottom, the red star and the book are removed, and the green field curved to resemble the horizon.
Flag of Afghanistan (1992).svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg April 27, 1992 − December 6, 19921:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan This flag was used as a provisional flag after the fall of the Najibullah pro-Soviet regime. It appeared in many variants of which one is shown here. In the upper stripe is Arabic Allahu Akbar , ("God is the greatest"); the center stripe (now white, with the red entirely removed from the flag) contains the Shahada .
Flag of the Afghan interim government-in-exile (1988-1992).svg April 27, 1992 − December 6, 19921:2Islamic State of AfghanistanThis flag was used as another provisional flag after the fall of the Najibullah pro-Soviet regime.
Flag of Afghanistan (1992-1996; 2001).svg December 7, 1992 – September 27, 1996; September 27, 1996 – January 27, 2002 (Northern Alliance)1:2Islamic State of AfghanistanThe new Islamic government under Rabbani featured a flag change. The color scheme is similar to several Middle Eastern Muslim nations' flags. The emblem is the same as the monarchy-era emblem, but with the addition of the Shahada and swords representing the mujahideen's victory. It now shows the year ١۲۹٨ (1298), the solar Islamic calendar equivalent of AD 1919 of the Gregorian Calendar, the year of full independence. On the bottom part of the emblem was written "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت", Islamic State of Afghanistan.
Flag of Taliban.svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg October 27, 1997 – November 12, 20011:2 [1] [2] Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan In 1997, the Taliban introduced the Shahada in black on a white flag as the national flag of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. [2]
Flag of the Taliban (Variant).svg IFIS Variant.svg 1:2 [1] A variant flag was flown by the Taliban.
Flag of Afghanistan (2001-2002).svg November 13, 2001 – January 27, 20021:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan This flag was used by President Rabbani along with the national flag after the fall of the Taliban government. Same as the 1992 flag, but with Pashto and Dari texts.
Flag of Afghanistan (2002-2004).svg January 28, 2002 – June 27, 20021:2 Transitional Administration After the fall of the Taliban, the traditional black, red and green colors were restored and in a vertical pattern, just as the ones flown from 1928 to 1974. The center emblem is the classical emblem of Afghanistan – it is the same version as used in the 1992 flag, but with the swords removed.
Flag of Afghanistan (2002-2004, variant with golden arms).svg June 27, 2002 – October 9, 20041:2Transitional AdministrationThe Loya Jirga of spring 2002 voted the Afghan national flag with some changes including the Coat of Arms being gold instead of white, the year now dating "1380" under the mosque instead of "1348", in June 2002 Afghanistan officially changed its national flag from a white coat of arms in the center of the flag to a gold coat of arms which symbolizes the colour of a wheat wreath [17]
Flag of Afghanistan (2004-2013).svg October 9, 2004 – August 19, 20132:3 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Similar to the previous flag, but a different ratio and a slightly moderated emblem. "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت" Islamic State of Afghanistan has been replaced with simply "افغانستان" Afghanistan.
Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg August 19, 2013 – August 15, 2021; August 15, 2021 – present (used by the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan)2:3Islamic Republic of AfghanistanThis flag incorporates the tweaked national emblem with a larger ribbon and which overlaps into the black and green bars instead of being completely contained in the red bar. It continues to be used while in government in exile by the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan.
Flag of Afghanistan (Colored Emblem).svg 2:3A variant of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan flag exist with a colored emblem instead of white. [18]
Flag of Taliban.svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg August 15, 2021 – present1:2 [1] [2] Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan In 2021, the Taliban re-introduced the Shahada on a white flag.
Flag of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg 1:2Flag variant with the name of the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" in Pashto, in script below the Shahada. [19] A Dari Persian version of the flag has also been observed, although less frequently.

See also

Notes

  1. De facto government since the Fall of Kabul (2021).
  2. Internationally recognized government.

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References

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