Flag of Afghanistan

Last updated

Flag of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Flag of Taliban.svg
Use National flag and ensign IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg FIAV 111111.svg
Proportion1:2 [1] [2]
AdoptedOctober 27, 1997;23 years ago (1997-10-27)
August 15, 2021;33 days ago (2021-08-15)(Restoration of the Emirate)
DesignThe Shahada in black on a white field
Flag of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg
Use National flag and ensign FIAV normal.svgFIAV 111111.svg
AdoptedAugust 19, 2013;8 years ago (2013-08-19)
DesignThree vertical bands of black, red and green with the National Emblem in white centered on the red band and then slightly overlapping the black and green bands.

The flag of Afghanistan (Pashto : د افغانستان بیرغ; Dari : پرچم افغانستان) [3] is currently a disputed topic between the de facto Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and the de jure Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The country has had 25 flags since the first flag when the Hotak dynasty was established in 1709. During the 20th century alone, Afghanistan went through 19 national flags, more than any other country during that time period, [4] [5] and most of them had the colors black, red, and green.


Following the Fall of Kabul on 15 August 2021, there are two entities claiming to be the legitimate government of Afghanistan, each using a different flag. The Taliban-controlled Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which controls most of the country, uses a white field with a black Shahada . The internationally recognized Islamic Republic of Afghanistan uses the black, red, and green tricolour with the national emblem centered in white. This flag was used by the Afghan delegation at the 2020 Summer Paralympics which took place between 25 August and 5 September, after the fall of Kabul. [6] [7]

History of Afghanistan's tricolor flags

The inspiration of the Afghan tricolor in 1928
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Weimar-era German flag, from 1919
Flag of Afghanistan (1928).svg
Afghan flag from 1928

The black color represents its troubled 19th century history as a protected state, the red color represents the blood of those who fought for independence (specifically, the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919), and the green represents hope and prosperity for the future. [8] [9] Some have alternatively interpreted the black to represent history, the red to represent progress, and the green to represent either agricultural prosperity or Islam. [10] [11]

The tricolor was supposedly inspired by the Afghan King Amanullah Khan when visiting Europe with his wife in 1928. The original horizontal tricolor design was based on that of the flag of Germany. [12]

Almost every Afghan tricolor flag since 1928 has had the Emblem of Afghanistan in the center. Almost every emblem has had a mosque in it, which first appeared in 1901, and wheat, first appearing in 1928.

The last tricolor flag took its current form in 2002 with modifications later on in 2004 and 2013, with some variants containing differing colored emblems. [13]

Following the restoration of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan after the Fall of Kabul in 2021, protests took place in Jalalabad and other cities, where protesters were seen waving Afghan tricolor flags protesting its removal in defiance of Taliban rule, due to the reinstatement of the white Shahada flag and the abolishment of the former black, red, and green tricolor flag. [14]

The color video approximations (valid for flags 1928–1978 and 1980–2021) are listed below:

RGB 0/0/0211/32/17190/0/00/122/540/153/0255/255/255
Hex #000000#d32011#be0000#007a36#009900#FFFFFF
CMYK 0/0/0/1000/85/92/170/100/100/25100/0/56/52100/0/100/400/0/0/0

Other flags

Historical flags

FlagYears of useRatioGovernmentNotes
Black flag.svg 1709–17382:3 Hotak dynasty Flag of Hotak dynasty.
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg 174718422:3 Durrani Empire Flag flown under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his dynasty.
No official flag during this period.18421880 Emirate of Afghanistan Prior to 1880, the Barakzai dynasty did not use the flag associated with the Durranis, or any official alternative.
Flag of Afghanistan pre-1901.svg 1880–19012:3Emirate of AfghanistanFlag flown under the rule of Abdul Rahman Khan.
NF 1892 - 1919.svg 1901–19193:5Emirate of AfghanistanState and war flag flown under the rule of Habibullah Khan. Habibullah added to his father's flag a seal that is the precursor of the modern-day seal, containing the mosque.
Flag of Afghanistan (1919-1928).svg 1919–1926/292:3Emirate of AfghanistanFirst flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He expanded upon his father's flag by adding rays emanating from the seal in the form of an octagram. This new style of seal was common in the Ottoman Empire. Afghanistan became a kingdom in 1926.
Flag of Afghanistan (1926-1928).svg 1926–19282:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Second flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He replaced the octagram with a wreath and slightly modified the national seal. This mosque design in this seal would be adopted for most of Afghanistan's flags in the future. The mosque has a mihrab facing Mecca.
Flag of Afghanistan July 1928-September 1928.svg 19283:5Kingdom of AfghanistanThird flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah, introduced c. June 1928. The black, red, and green tricolor, respectively representing the past (previous flags), the bloodshed for independence (Third Anglo-Afghan War), and hope for the future, was probably influenced by Khan's visit abroad to Europe and especially Weimar Republic (black-red-gold) in 1927.
Flag of Afghanistan 1928-1929.svg 1928–19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanFourth flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah, introduced c. July 1928. It was the first vertical-tricolored flag which would be used throughout most of the remainder of the 20th century and in the present day. The new seal shows the sun rising over two snow-capped mountains, representing a new beginning for the kingdom. This seal also contained heaps of wheat, an icon that would be present on all future emblems of Afghanistan throughout different regimes. Notably, only the Soviet emblem had wheat at the time, and would in the future appear on many communist states' flags.
Flag of Afghanistan (1928-1929) (variant).svg 2:3A variant of the above flag with long thick sun rays, similar to the Japanese Rising Sun Flag, as well as a centered yellow star.
Flag of Afghanistan (17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929).svg 19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanA short-lived flag flown from January to October 1929.
Flag of Afghanistan (1919-1928).svg 19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanThis flag (same as the original 1919) was reported to be flown under the short-lived rule of Inayatullah Khan. [15]
Flag of Afghanistan 1929.svg 19292:3 Emirate of Afghanistan (1929) Flag flown under the brief rule of Habibullah Kalakani – a red, black, and white vertical tricolor, like the ones used by the Mongols during their occupation of Afghanistan in the 13th century. [16]
Flag of Afghanistan 1930s.svg 19292:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan During the rebellion of Kalakani, a similar flag was used in Herat in the rebellion of the Tajiks.
Flag of Ali Ahmad Khan's rebellion against Habibullah Kalakani.svg 19292:3Kingdom of AfghanistanTransitional Flag used by Ali Ahmad Khan's short-lived rival government in Jalalabad, in opposition to Kalakani.
Flag of Afghanistan 1929 to 1930.svg 1929 – March 27, 19302:3Kingdom of AfghanistanFirst flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah. The black, red, and green tricolor was re-established; the octogram seal borrowed from the first flag of King Amanullah replaced the sun and mountains seal, but the black-red-green vertical design was restored.
Flag of Afghanistan 1930.svg March 27, 1930 – July 16, 19732:3Kingdom of AfghanistanSecond flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah, it was also used by his son, Zahir Shah. The octagram rays were removed, and the seal enlarged – the mosque design is the same as introduced in the 1926 flag. In between the mosque and the seal is the year ١٣٤٨ (1348 of the lunar Islamic calendar, or 1929 AD of the Gregorian calendar) the year Mohammed Nadir Shah's dynasty began.
Flag of Afghanistan 1973.svg July 17, 1973 – May 8, 19742:3 Republic of Afghanistan First flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. It is identical to the previous flag, except that the year ١٣٤٨ was removed as Zahir Shah's monarchy ended.
Flag of Afghanistan 1974.svg May 9, 1974 – April 26, 19782:3Republic of AfghanistanSecond flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. The same colors were used, but the meanings reinterpreted: black for the obscure past, red for blood shed for independence, and green for prosperity from agriculture. In the canton is a new seal, with a golden eagle with spread wings, a pulpit ( minbar ) on the eagle's chest (for a mosque), wheat surrounding the eagle, and the sun's rays above the eagle (for the new republic).
Flag of Afghanistan (1978).svg April 27, 1978 – October 18, 19782:3 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan When the republic's president Mohammad Daoud Khan was killed in a coup, the new regime under the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) established a communist state. For a brief period of time, during the transition, the same flag design was kept, but no seal. A similar flag was used by the Junbish-e Milli party which controlled autonomous northern Afghanistan from 1992 to 1998.
Flag of Afghanistan (1978-1980).svg October 19, 1978 – April 21, 19801:2Democratic Republic of AfghanistanA radical change, this flag used a red field with a yellow seal in the canton, a common design for socialist states in the 20th century. It consisted of the PDPA's Khalq faction's emblem with wheat, a star at the top (representing the five ethnic groups of the nation), the term 'Khalq' in Arabic script in the center, and a subtitle reading 'Saur Revolution ١٣٥٧' and the full name of the state.
Flag of Afghanistan (1979).svg 19801:2Democratic Republic of AfghanistanAfter the overthrow of the Khalq faction by the Parcham faction during the Soviet invasion, the flag of the People's Democratic Party, featuring a cogwheel representing industry and an ear of wheat to represent agriculture, was additionally used as a national flag.
Flag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svg April 22, 1980 – November 29, 19871:2Democratic Republic of AfghanistanUnder the Fundamental Principles program of the new leadership under Babrak Karmal, the traditional black, red, and green tricolor was re-established, representing the past, blood shed for independence, and the Islamic faith, respectively. A new seal was designed, with a rising sun (a reference to the former name, Khorasan , meaning "Land of the Rising Sun"), a pulpit and a book (considered to be the Communist Manifesto or Capital by Karl Marx [ citation needed ]), ribbons with the national colors, a cogwheel for industry, and a red star for communism. The seal's ribbons and wheat has similarities to the then- East German and Romanian seals.
Flag of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg November 30, 1987 – April 26, 19921:2Republic of AfghanistanThe flag was changed as part of Mohammad Najibullah's National Reconciliation constitution changes. Same as the previous flag, except that in the national seal, the cogwheel is moved from the top to the bottom, the red star and the book are removed, and the green field curved to resemble the horizon.
Flag of Afghanistan (1992).svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg April 27, 1992 − December 6, 19921:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan This flag was used as a provisional flag after the fall of the Najibullah pro-Soviet regime. It appeared in many variants of which one is shown here. In the upper stripe is Arabic Allahu Akbar , ("God is the greatest"); the center stripe (now white, with the red entirely removed from the flag) contains the Shahada .
Flag of the Afghan interim government-in-exile (1988-1992).svg April 27, 1992 − December 6, 19921:2Islamic State of AfghanistanThis flag was used as another provisional flag after the fall of the Najibullah pro-Soviet regime.
Flag of Afghanistan (1992-1996; 2001).svg December 7, 1992 – September 27, 1996; September 27, 1996 – January 27, 2002 (Northern Alliance)1:2Islamic State of AfghanistanThe new Islamic government under Rabbani featured a flag change. The color scheme is similar to several Middle Eastern Muslim nations' flags. The emblem is the same as the monarchy-era emblem, but with the addition of the Shahada and swords representing the mujahideen's victory. It now shows the year ١۲۹٨ (1298), the solar Islamic calendar equivalent of AD 1919 of the Gregorian Calendar, the year of full independence. On the bottom part of the emblem was written "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت", Islamic State of Afghanistan.
Flag of Taliban.svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg October 27, 1997 – November 12, 20011:2 [1] [2] Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan In 1997, the Taliban introduced the Shahada in black on a white flag as the national flag of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. [2]
Flag of the Taliban (Variant).svg IFIS Variant.svg 1:2 [1] A variant flag was flown by the Taliban.
Flag of Afghanistan (2001-2002).svg November 13, 2001 – January 27, 20021:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan This flag was used by President Rabbani along with the national flag after the fall of the Taliban government. Same as the 1992 flag, but with Pashto and Dari texts.
Flag of Afghanistan (2002-2004).svg January 28, 2002 – June 27, 20021:2 Transitional Administration After the fall of the Taliban, the traditional black, red and green colors were restored and in a vertical pattern, just as the ones flown from 1928 to 1974. The center emblem is the classical emblem of Afghanistan – it is the same version as used in the 1992 flag, but with the swords removed.
Flag of Afghanistan (2002-2004, variant with golden arms).svg June 27, 2002 – October 9, 20041:2Transitional AdministrationThe Loya Jirga of spring 2002 voted the Afghan national flag with some changes including the Coat of Arms being gold instead of white, the year now dating "1380" under the mosque instead of "1348", in June 2002 Afghanistan officially changed its national flag from a white coat of arms in the center of the flag to a gold coat of arms which symbolizes the colour of a wheat wreath [17]
Flag of Afghanistan (2004-2013).svg October 9, 2004 – August 19, 20132:3 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Similar to the previous flag, but a different ratio and a slightly moderated emblem. "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت" Islamic State of Afghanistan has been replaced with simply "افغانستان" Afghanistan.
Flag of Afghanistan (2013-2021).svg August 19, 2013 – August 15, 2021; August 15, 2021 – present (used by the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan)2:3Islamic Republic of AfghanistanThis flag incorporates the tweaked national emblem with a larger ribbon and which overlaps into the black and green bars instead of being completely contained in the red bar. It continues to be used while in government in exile by the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan.
Flag of Afghanistan (Colored Emblem).svg 2:3A variant of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan flag exist with a colored emblem instead of white. [18]
Flag of Taliban.svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg August 15, 2021 – present1:2 [1] [2] Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan In 2021, the Taliban re-introduced the Shahada on a white flag.
Flag of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.svg IFIS Sinister.svg IFIS Equal.svg 1:2Flag variant with the name of the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" in Pashto, in script below the Shahada. [19] A Dari Persian version of the flag has also been observed, although less frequently.

See also


  1. De facto government since the Fall of Kabul (2021).
  2. Internationally recognized government.

Related Research Articles

Jalalabad City in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan

Jalalabad is the fifth-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 356,274, and serves as the capital of Nangarhar Province in the eastern part of the country, about 80 miles (130 km) from the capital Kabul. Jalalabad is located at the junction of the Kabul River and the Kunar River in a plateau to the south of the Hindu Kush mountains. It is linked by highways with Kabul to the west and the Pakistani city of Peshawar to the east including through the Khyber Pass.

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2002 interim state in Central Asia established by the Peshawar Accords

The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the government of Afghanistan, established by the Peshawar Accords on 26 April 1992 by many, but not all, Afghan mujahideen parties, after the fall of the communist government. Its power was limited due to civil war. From 1996, it became a government in exile when the Taliban took power of Kabul and established the mostly unrecognized Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The Islamic State was in control of the country again after the Taliban government was overthrown by the United States in 2001 after an invasion. In 2002 it was succeeded by the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan; the Taliban regained de facto control in August 2021.

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001) Former partially recognized government of Afghanistan

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was an Islamic state established in September 1996, when the Taliban began their governance of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul. At its peak, the Taliban government controlled approximately 90% of the country, while remaining regions in the northeast were held by the Northern Alliance, which maintained broad international recognition as a continuation of the Islamic State of Afghanistan. After the September 11 attacks and subsequent declaration of a "War on Terror" by the United States, international opposition to the regime drastically increased, with diplomatic recognition from the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan being rescinded. The Islamic Emirate ceased to exist on 17 December 2001 after being overthrown by the Northern Alliance, which had been bolstered by the ISAF coalition established after a U.S.-led invasion of the country two months prior. The Taliban continued to refer to itself as the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" in official communications when it was out of power from 2001 to 2021.

Flag of Saudi Arabia National flag

The flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since 15 March 1973. It is a green flag featuring in white an Arabic inscription and a sword. The inscription is the Islamic creed, or shahada: "There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah".

Emblem of Afghanistan Overview of the official symbols used by Afghan states

The National Emblem of Afghanistan is an official symbol of Afghanistan. Currently, the official emblem of the country is currently a disputed topic between the de facto Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and the de jure Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Panjshir Province Province of Afghanistan

Panjshir is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country containing the Panjshir Valley. The province is divided into seven districts and contains 512 villages. As of 2021, the population of Panjshir province was about 173,000. Bazarak serves as the provincial capital.

The Prime Minister of Afghanistan is a post within the cabinet of Afghanistan. The position was created in 1927 as an official appointed by the King of Afghanistan. The holder served mostly as an advisor, until the end of the Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1973. During the 1980s, the position was the head of government. The post was abolished after the US invasion, after which a presidential form of government was established which lasted from 2004 to 2021. After the US withdrawal and the re-establishment of the Taliban rule, the post was revived.

Afghan Independence Day

Afghan Independence Day is celebrated as a national holiday in Afghanistan on 19 August to commemorate the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 and relinquishment from protected state status. The treaty granted a complete neutral relation between Afghanistan and Britain. Afghanistan had become a British protectorate after the Treaty of Gandamak was signed (1879) in the Second Anglo-Afghan War.

The Cabinet of Afghanistan consists of the heads of all the government ministries.

An Islamic flag is a flag either representing an Islamic denomination or religious order, state, civil society, military force or other entity associated with Islam. Islamic flags have a distinct history due to the Islamic prescription on aniconism, making particular colours, inscriptions or symbols such as crescent-and-star popular choices. Since the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, flags with certain colours were associated with Islam according to the traditions. Since then, historical Caliphates, modern nation states, certain denominations as well as religious movements have adopted flags to symbolize their Islamic identity.

Afghanistan Cricket Board Governing body of cricket in Afghanistan

The Afghanistan Cricket Board is the official governing body of cricket in the Afghanistan. It is Afghanistan's representative at the International Cricket Council (ICC) and was an associate member of ICC from June 2013 until becoming a full member in June 2017. Before that it was an affiliate member and has been a member of that body since 2001. It is also a member of the Asian Cricket Council.

War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) Conflict between Western forces and the Taliban

The War in Afghanistan was a conflict that took place from 2001 to 2021 in Afghanistan. It started when the United States and its allies invaded Afghanistan and toppled the Taliban-ruled Islamic Emirate. The war ended with the Taliban regaining power after a 19 years and 8 months insurgency against allied NATO and Afghan Armed Forces. It was the longest war in United States history, surpassing the Vietnam War (1955–1975) by roughly five months.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province Islamic State branch in Central and South Asia

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province is an affiliate of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) active in South Asia and Central Asia. Some media sources also use the terms ISK, ISISK, IS–KP or Daesh–Khorasan in referring to the group. ISIL–KP has been active in Afghanistan and its area of operations includes Pakistan, Tajikistan and India where they claimed attacks, as well as Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Bangladesh where individuals have pledged allegiance to it. ISIL-KP and the Taliban consider each other enemies.

Military of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Combined military forces of Taliban-ruled Afghanistan

The military of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is currently made up of the Islamic Army of Afghanistan which is the in-turn the combined army and air forces of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. It was initially created in 1997 after the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan following the end of the Afghan Civil War. The defence force was dissolved in 2001 after the Taliban were deposed from power following the United States invasion of Afghanistan. In 2021, the Taliban retook Afghanistan after a successful offensive.

2021 (MMXXI) is the current year, and is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2021st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 21st year of the 3rd millennium, the 21st year of the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2020s decade.

Fall of Kabul (2021) Taliban capture of the capital of Afghanistan

Taliban forces took control of Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul on 15 August 2021 during a military offensive against the Afghan government that had begun in May 2021. The capture took place hours after President Ashraf Ghani fled the country. Most of the provincial capitals of Afghanistan had fallen in succession in the midst of a US troop withdrawal under a February 2020 US–Taliban agreement that concluded on 30 August 2021.

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Government of Afghanistan from 2004–2021

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was an Islamic republic that existed between 2004 and 2021 during the War in Afghanistan. It was established in 2004 after the 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan captured most of the country from the Taliban-led Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. It lost control of the majority of the country to the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in August 2021, culminating in the loss of Kabul on 15 August 2021.

Head of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan Supreme leader of Taliban-ruled Afghanistan

The Head of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is the supreme leader of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, the de facto government of Afghanistan.

The 2021 Afghan protests are ongoing protests in Afghanistan against the Taliban that started on 17 August 2021 following the Fall of Kabul to the Taliban on 15 August 2021. These protests have been by Islamic democrats and feminists. Both groups are against the treatment of women by the Taliban government, considering it as discriminatory and misogynistic. As led by the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan, the protesters also support decentralization, multiculturalism, and social justice.

This is the Home of the Brave National anthem of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

This is the Home of the Brave is a Pashto-language nasheed and the national anthem of Afghanistan. It is an a capella song, meaning it does not contain musical instruments, as instruments are considered haram by many Islamic scholars in Afghanistan.


  1. 1 2 3 4 Smith, Whitney (October 25, 1997). "New flags: Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan". The Flag Bulletin. XXXVI-5 (177).
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Flag and Emblem Law of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan".
  3. "Afghanistan Flag". Flags Corner. June 9, 2016. Archived from the original on November 17, 2016. Retrieved August 28, 2019.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  4. "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. August 11, 2021. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  5. Artimovich, Nick; McMillan, Joe; Macdonald, Ian (September 21, 2016). "Historical Flags (Afghanistan)". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  6. "Afghanistan flag represented at Tokyo 2020 Paralympics Opening Ceremony". Tokyo 2020.
  7. "Team Afghanistan - Profile | Tokyo 2020 Paralympics".
  8. Smith, Whitney (March 25, 2004). "Flag of Afghanistan". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  9. "Afghanistan Flag – colors & meaning – history & info". Facts.co. Archived from the original on June 23, 2018. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
  10. "Field Listing :: Flag Description". The World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on July 17, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  11. Leitão, João. "Flags of Asia – Meaning of the Asian country flags". Nomad Revelations. Archived from the original on October 3, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  12. Healy, Don (1994). "Evolutionary Vexillography: One Flag's Influence in Modern Design" (PDF). Raven. North American Vexillogical Association. 1: 41–64. doi:10.5840/raven199415. ISSN   1071-0043. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  13. "Afghanistan 2002–2004". www.crwflags.com. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  14. "Deadly protest in Jalalabad against removal of Afghan flag".
  15. Sache, Ivan (April 12, 2002). "Afghanistan January 1929 – October 1929". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  16. "Afghanistan January 1929 - October 1929". fotw.info. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  17. "Afghanistan 2002–2004".
  18. "The Flag of Afghanistan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  19. "Taliban flags proliferate as Afghan tricolour becomes resistance symbol". France24. August 23, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.