Flag of Azerbaijan

Last updated

Azerbaijan
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg
Names Azərbaycan bayrağı, Üçrəngli bayraq (The tricolour flag)
Use National flag and ensign
Proportion1:2
Adopted9 November 1918 (re-adopted on 5 February 1991)
DesignA horizontal tricolor of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star centered on a red band
Designed by Ali bey Huseynzade

The flag of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani : Azərbaycan bayrağı) is a horizontal tricolour featuring three equally sized fesses of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star in the center. The tricolour replaced an earlier design used by the Azerbaijan SSR. The blue symbolizes Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, the red stands for progress, and the green represents Islam. The official colors and size were adopted on 5 February 1991. [1] This flag was used from 9 November 1918 to 1920, when Azerbaijan was independent, and it was revived with slight variations on 5 February 1991. [2] The nickname for the flag is Üçrəngli Bayraq, which means The Tricolour Flag.

Azerbaijani language Turkic language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes also Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a term referring to two Turkic lects that are spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who live mainly in Transcaucasia and Iran. North Azerbaijani and South Azerbaijani have significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. ISO 639-3 groups the two lects as a "macrolanguage".

Tricolour (flag) flag with three bands of colour

A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution. The flags of France, Italy, Romania, Mexico, and Ireland were all first adopted with the formation of an independent republic in the period of the French Revolution to the Revolutions of 1848, with the exception of the Irish tricolour, which dates from 1848 but was not popularised until the Easter Rising in 1916 and adopted in 1919.

Fess heraldry

In heraldry, a fess or fesse is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the centre of the shield. Writers disagree in how much of the shield's surface is to be covered by a fess or other ordinary, ranging from one-fifth to one-third. The Oxford Guide to Heraldry states that earlier writers including Leigh, Holme, and Guillim favour one-third, while later writers such as Edmondson favour one-fifth "on the grounds that a bend, pale, or chevron occupying one-third of the field makes the coat look clumsy and disagreeable." A fess is likely to be shown narrower if it is uncharged, that is, if it does not have other charges placed on it, and/or if it is to be shown with charges above and below it; and shown wider if charged. The fess or bar, termed fasce in French heraldry, should not be confused with fasces.

Contents

The flag is referred to in the Constitution and mentioned two times in the national anthem. On land, the flag is used as the civil, state and war flag; at sea, it is used as the civil, state, and naval ensign, as well as the naval jack. [3] The flag also has official status in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. A presidential decree declared 9 November, the date when in 1918 this flag was adopted as the national flag of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, as the national Flag Day. [4]

Constitution of Azerbaijan constitution

The Constitution of Azerbaijan was adopted on 12 November 1995 by popular referendum. This Constitution was the first Constitution of independent Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic founded in 1918 and existed 23 months until 1920 was not able to adopt its constitution. Therefore, the history of Constitution building in Azerbaijan generally starts from the period of Azerbaijan being part of Soviet Union. The first Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR was adopted in 1921 and was in accordance with the Constitution of USSR. The last Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR was adopted on 21 April 1978 and also was in line and form of USSR Constitution. The first Constitution of independent Azerbaijan consists of 5 chapters, 12 sections and 147 articles. It was amended on 24 August 2002 and again on 18 March 2009. It carries the "highest legal force" in Azerbaijan as per article 147. The most recent amendments to the Constitution were approved after the Constitutional referendum held on 26 September 2016. In 2002, 31 amendments were made to 22 articles; in 2009, 41 amendments were made to 29 articles; and in 2016, 23 articles were amended and new 6 new articles were added.

War flag variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land

A war flag, also known as a military flag, battle flag, or standard, is a variant of a national flag for use by a country's military forces when on land. The nautical equivalent is a naval ensign. Under the strictest sense of the term, few countries today currently have proper war flags, most preferring to use instead their state flag or standard national flag for this purpose.

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic autonomous republic of Azerbaijan

The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The region covers 5,500 km2 (2,100 sq mi) with a population of 414,900, bordering Armenia to the east and north, Iran to the south and west, and Turkey to the northwest.

Design

Construction sheet of the Azerbaijani flag Flag of Azerbaijan (construction sheet).JPG
Construction sheet of the Azerbaijani flag

The national flag of Azerbaijan consists of three horizontal stripes of equal width, from top to bottom: light blue, red, and green. In the center are a white crescent and eight-pointed star. The basic description of the flag, along with the ratio, can be found in the Constitution of Azerbaijan, which was adopted 12 November 1995:

State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of three horizontal stripes of same width. Upper stripe is blue, middle stripe is red, and the lower one is green; in the middle of red stripe on both sides of the flag white crescent with eight-pointed star are depicted. Width of the flag constitutes half of its length. [5]

Further specifications of the national flag were detailed in the Presidential Decree "On the National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan" issued on 5 February 1991. [6] The ratio was kept at 1:2, which was used in the Soviet era. [7] Each stripe is one-third of the total height of the flag and extends the full length. The star and crescent were placed in a box that has a ratio of 3:4; the crescent is shifted one-sixtieth from the center. The outside diameter of both the crescent and the red inside circle intersects with the diameter of the star. The diameter of the star is one-sixth the height of the flag; the inscribed circle in this star is one-twelfth the height of the flag. [8] The flag is also described in the technical specification "AZS 001-2006. Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Bayrağı. Texniki şərtlər." published by the State Committee on Standardization, Metrology and Patents of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2006. [9]

The colors of the national flag are green, red, sky blue, and white. Exact specifications for its colors were issued in the 2004 decree "On the Rules of the National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan". The colors, later updated in 2013, specified in Pantone, are as follows: [10]

Pantone LLC is a U.S. corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey. The company is best known for its Pantone Matching System (PMS), a proprietary color space used in a variety of industries, primarily printing, though sometimes in the manufacture of colored paint, fabric, and plastics.

Color modelBlueRedGreen
Pantone [10] 306 CRed 032 C362 C
RGB [11] 0, 181, 226 (#00b5e2)239, 51, 64 (#ef3340)80, 158, 47 (#509e2f)

Symbolism

The state flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic made by the first President of the Azerbaijani National Council Mammed Amin Rasulzade and his wife. Displayed at the Museum of History of Azerbaijan. Flag of Azerbaijan Republic made by Mammad Amin Rasulzade.jpg
The state flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic made by the first President of the Azerbaijani National Council Mammed Amin Rasulzade and his wife. Displayed at the Museum of History of Azerbaijan.

The sky blue symbolizes Turkic Multinationalism, [12] the red is for the progress to establish a modern state and the development of democracy, [13] and green shows the nation's relation to the Muslim world. [6] In the middle of the flag, and appearing on both front and back, are a white crescent and an eight-pointed star. [14]

The first President of the Azerbaijani National Council Mammed Amin Rasulzade noted in his speech, at the parliament's session of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, that the colors relate to Turkic freedom, modernity, and Islamic culture. The composer of the anthem of Azerbaijan Uzeyir Hajibeyov includes in the song references to the meaning of the flag: blue for Azerbaijan's multinationalism, red for progress and culture, and green for Islam. [15]

According to historian Nasib Nasibli, Ali bey Huseynzade, one of the ideologists of Azerbaijan's independence, developed the combination based on colors used in 1895. [16]

While the crescent and star are typically seen as markers of Islam, some historians and researchers disagree about why an eight-pointed star is used on the flag of Azerbaijan. Fatali Khan Khoyski points to the eight letters in the word "Azerbaijan" as written in Arabic. [17] The eight points of the star are also thought to stand for the eight Turkic peoples of Azerbaijan. The problem is there are only seven Turkic peoples: Azeris, Ottomans, Jagatais, Tatars, Kipchaks, Selijuks, and Turkomans. It's possible the Kipchaks actually reflect two peoples, the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, which would make eight. The classification of Turkic peoples pre-Soviet era was different from what it is today. [18]

History

Pre-Soviet

In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War, several Khanates of the Caucasus were annexed to the Russian Empire . When the Russian Empire collapsed, Russian Azerbaijan declared its independence and joined the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, together with Georgia and Armenia. This unified state hardly lasted a year and was soon dissolved. Since the Republic was short-lived, it did not use any flags or symbols. Nevertheless, some historians consider a horizontal gold, black, and red tricolor, similar to that of the German flag but arranged differently, to have been flag of Transcaucasia. [19] The federation was dissolved on 26 May 1918, when Georgia declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence two days later, on 28 May 1918, as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, respectively.

Flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in 1918 (until 9 November) Flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918).svg
Flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in 1918 (until 9 November)
The first meeting of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, which raised the national flag for the first time on 7 December 1918. Azerbaijan Parlament.jpg
The first meeting of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, which raised the national flag for the first time on 7 December 1918.

After gaining independence, the blue-red-green tricolour was adopted by the government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan on 9 November 1918. [21]

Azerbaijan was the first modern democratic state in the Muslim world. [22] The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik 11th Soviet Red Army invaded it, establishing the Azerbaijan SSR on 28 April 1920. Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh, Azeris did not surrender their brief independence of 1918–20 quickly or easily. As many as 20,000 Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest. [23]

Transcaucasian SFSR

On 12 March 1922, the Azerbaijani SSR united with the Georgian SSR and the Armenian SSR under the Transcaucasian SFSR. On 30 December 1922 the Transcaucasian SFSR became one of the four Soviet republics that united to form the USSR. The flag of the republic had a hammer and sickle inserted into a star with initials ЗСФСР written in Russian sans-serif script. These letters stand for Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика. In 1936, the TSFSR was broken up into its three constituent regions, which were named the Azerbaijani SSR, the Georgian SSR, and the Armenian SSR.

Azerbaijan SSR

Flag of Soviet Azerbaijan 1952-1990. Ratio: 1:2 Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.svg
FIAV historical.svg Flag of Soviet Azerbaijan 1952–1990. Ratio: 1:2

During the Soviet rule, Azerbaijan SSR had eight different flags. Most of the flags only had slight differences. The adaptations were the result of the disastrous early years of the Soviet Union in the Caucasus. The first unofficial Soviet Azerbaijani flag was used when Russians conquered Baku on 28 April 1920. [23]

The first official flag was adopted in the first constitution, under Article 104, of the Azerbaijan SSR on 19 May 1921. During the time the state language of Azerbaijan SSR was the Azerbaijani Turkic, the alphabet was based on the Arabic script. Therefore, the words A.S.R. were written in Arabic. [24] The eighth and final flag of Soviet Azerbaijan was issued on 7 October 1952. The design was similar to that of the Soviet national flag with a horizontal blue band added on the bottom taking up one quarter of the height of the flag. Definition was as follows:

The national flag of Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic is a panel consisting of two horizontal bands of color: the upper red part of three quarters of the width and the bottom is blue, nearly one quarter the width of the flag with the image on the top left corner of the red band, at the flagpole and gold hammer and sickle, and above them a red five-pointed star framed by gold fringe. The ratio of width to length is 1:2. [7]

Nakhchivan ASSR

Regaining independence

National Flag Square in Bayil, Baku. National Flag Square e-citizen.jpg
National Flag Square in Bayil, Baku.

During the Soviet period, Jahid Hilaloglu raised the tricolor over Baku's Maiden Tower in 1956 showing his defiance towards the system. Hilaloglu was ultimately sentenced to four years of imprisonment and his supporter Chingiz Abdullayev was institutionalized. On 28 May 1952 during the Republic Day celebrations in Germany, Mammed Amin Rasulzade raised the tricolor and asked for anyone who can be entrusted to take the flag back to Azerbaijan. Gulmirza Bagirov ultimately brought it to Azerbaijan in secret in the 1970s; this flag was hung over his house in Maştağa on 20 January 1990. [16]

During the late 1980s, unrest in Soviet Azerbaijan, the tricolor Azerbaijan Democratic Republic flag was used in demonstrations calling for independence. [17] On 17 November 1990 on the first session of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, the 1918 Azerbaijani flag was adopted as the national flag of the autonomous state. [6] This flag was later adopted when the decree, "On change the name and national flag of Azerbaijan SSR", was issued on 29 November 1990. The decree was ratified on 5 February 1991 by the National Assembly of the Republic. The first constitution since independence was adopted on 12 November 1995 after a national vote; one of the articles which described the three-color flag of the republic. [6]

On 17 November 2007, the Azerbaijani President issued a decree "On creation of the National Flag Square" in Baku. [4] The square has a flag pole with a mass of 220 tons and a height of 162 meters. The flag that is flown on this pole has an area of 2,450 square meters; the size of the flag itself is 35 meters wide and 70 meters long and weighs 350 kilograms. [25] A museum dedicated to the national flag was also built at this flagpole. On 1 September 2010 the flag was officially raised to open the museum; subsequently this flag pole became the world's tallest unsupported flagpole, until being overtaken by the 165 meter Dushanbe Flagpole, Tajikistan. [26] In 2009, 9 November was officially declared the National Flag Day. This day is set aside to respect the flag, its history (the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic first adopted the current tricolour on 9 November 1918) and its symbolism. [4]

Display and use

National flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaidzhan flag.jpg
National flag of Azerbaijan

According to Law no. 683 of the Republic of Azerbaijan, dated 8 June 2004 (as amended on 1 September 2005), the national flag must be raised by the following: [3] [5]

OfficeBuildingsVehicles
President of Azerbaijan Yes check.svgYes check.svg
Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Yes check.svgYes check.svg
Speaker of the National Assembly Yes check.svgYes check.svg
Cabinet of Ministers Yes check.svg 
Constitutional Court of AzerbaijanYes check.svg 
Supreme Court of AzerbaijanYes check.svg 
Judicial-Legal Council of AzerbaijanYes check.svg 
Central Executive AuthoritiesYes check.svgYes check.svg
Prosecutor of the Central Bank of Azerbaijan Yes check.svgYes check.svg
Central Election Commission of AzerbaijanYes check.svg 
Chamber of the AzerbaijanYes check.svg 
Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan Yes check.svg 
Cabinet of Ministers of NakhichevanYes check.svg 
Supreme Court of NakhchivanYes check.svg 
Local executive authorities of NakhchivanYes check.svgYes check.svg
Commissioner for Human RightsYes check.svg 
Deputy Speaker of the National AssemblyYes check.svg 
Embassies in Azerbaijan Yes check.svg 
Consulates in AzerbaijanYes check.svg 
Vessels registered in the Commercial Maritime Code  Yes check.svg
Foreign vessels within Azerbaijani waters Yes check.svg
Border crossings of AzerbaijanYes check.svg 

The national flag must also be raised over the buildings, military courts and headquarters of military units and naval vessels of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the following cases: [3] [5]

Use in funerals

Traditionally, the flag of the Azerbaijan plays a role in military funerals, and occasionally in funerals of other civil servants (such as law enforcement officers, fire fighters, and Azerbaijani presidents).[ citation needed ]

Influence and derivatives

Bu gög boya gög moğoldan qalmış bir türk nişanı, Bir türk oğlu olmalı.

Yaşıl boya islamlığın sarsılmayan imanı, yürəklərə dolmalı.

Şu al boya azadlığın, təcəddüdün fərmanı, mədəniyyət bulmalı.

Jaffar Jabbarly, c. 1919 [27]

The expression by Mammed Amin Rasulzade (Azerbaijani : "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!"; "The flag once raised will never fall!") was the rallying cry of Azerbaijani independence in early 20th century. [28] In 1919, Jafar Jabbarli wrote "To Azerbaijani flag" poem in dedication to the state symbols of Azerbaijan. [27]

The national flag is also mentioned in the national anthem of Azerbaijan, "March of Azerbaijan" in the fifth and fifteenth sentences. [29] The unofficial English translations of the sentences come out to "With three color banner live happily!" and "To hold high your honored flag." [30]

See also

Related Research Articles

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Union republic of the Soviet Union

Azerbaijan, officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991. Created on 28 April 1920 when Soviet Russia brought pro-Soviet figures to power in the region, the first two years of the Azerbaijani SSR were as an independent country until incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR, along with the Armenian SSR and the Georgian SSR.

Azərbaycan marşı National anthem of Azerbaijan

"Azərbaycan Marşı" or the March of Azerbaijan, is the national anthem of Azerbaijan. The music was composed by Uzeyir Hajibeyov, with lyrics by poet Ahmad Javad. The government officially adopted the anthem in 1920 with the passage of the decree, "On the State Hymn of the Republic of Azerbaijan." In 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan's government officially restored "Azərbaycan Marşı" as the national anthem.

Flag of Armenia

The national flag of Armenia, the Armenian Tricolour, consists of three horizontal bands of equal width, red on the top, blue in the middle, and orange on the bottom. The Armenian Supreme Soviet adopted the current flag on 24 August 1990. On 15 June 2006, the Law on the National Flag of Armenia, governing its usage, was passed by the National Assembly of Armenia.

Flag of Georgia (country) flag of the country of Georgia

The flag of Georgia, also known as the Five Cross Flag, is one of the national symbols of Georgia. Originally a banner of the medieval Kingdom of Georgia, it was brought back to popular use in the late 20th and early 21st centuries during periods of the Georgian national revival. Prior to obtaining its official status in 2004, the flag was popularized by the United National Movement and served as one of the most recognisable symbols of the Rose Revolution.

National emblem of Azerbaijan coat of arms

The state emblem of Azerbaijan mixes traditional and modern symbols. The focal point of the emblem is the fire symbol, and this comes from the fact that Azerbaijan has many everlasting fires which also gives the name "land of eternal fire" – in representation of its original roots in Zoroastrianism. The fire symbol also represents the word الله, the Arabic name for God. It also represents Islam, the dominant religion of Azerbaijan.

Flag of Turkmenistan flag of the Asian country Turkmenistan

The national flag of Turkmenistan features a white crescent and five stars representing the five regions of the country. Placed upon a green field is a symbolic representation of the country's famous carpet industry. It was introduced as the flag of Turkmenistan on September 27, 1992 to replace the Soviet-era flag which consisted of a red background with two light blue bars in the middle. The modified version with a 2:3 ratio was adopted on January 24, 2001.

Flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic flag

The flag of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was a plain red flag with a golden hammer and sickle and a gold-bordered red star in its upper canton and an horizontal blue band on the bottom fourth.

Flag of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic flag

The flag of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted by the Kazakh government on 24 January 1953. This flag resembles the flag of the Soviet Union in a defaced form but with the three horizontal stripes consisted of the 2/9 (two-ninths) of the blue (azure) bar in lower part of flag and the hammer and sickle in the near centre.

Flag of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic flag

The flag of the Kirghiz SSR was adopted by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Kirghiz SSR decreed by its Decree on December 22, 1952. The 1978 constitution of the Kirghiz SSR states that the ratio of the flag is 1:2 with the blue/white/blue stripes in the middle taking ​13 of the flag height and the white stripes ​120 of flag height. The red, blue and white colors were derived from the Pan-Slavic colors.

Flag of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic flag

The flag of the Uzbek SSR was adopted by the Uzbek SSR on 29 August 1952. The red represents the "revolutionary struggle of the working masses", the hammer and sickle represents the peasants' and workers' union, and the red star is the symbol of the communist party. There is no official explanation for the symbolic meanings of other elements. However, in some material the white stripes represent cotton, the blue band represents Amu Darya and irrigation in general.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic historic state

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic. The ADR was founded by the Azerbaijani National Council in Tiflis on 28 May 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire. Its established borders were with Russia to the north, the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north-west, the First Republic of Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. It had a population of 2.86 million. Ganja was the temporary capital of the Republic as Baku was under Bolshevik control. The name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, was, prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918, exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran.

National Assembly (Azerbaijan)

The National Assembly, also transliterated as Milli Majlis, is the legislative branch of government in Azerbaijan. The unicameral National Assembly has 125 deputies: previously 100 members were elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies and 25 were members elected by proportional representation; as of the latest election, however, all 125 deputies are returned from single-member constituencies. Milli Majlis was the first secular republican parliament in the Muslim world.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Azerbaijan) Runs the diplomatic relations of the Republic of Azerbaijan with other states

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan is a Cabinet-level governmental agency in Azerbaijan Republic in charge of conducting and designing Azerbaijani Foreign policy.

Ministry of Justice (Azerbaijan) justice ministry of Azerbaijan

The Ministry of Justice of Azerbaijan is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Azerbaijan in charge of regulation of the justice system, overseeing the public prosecutor, maintaining the legal system and public order and instituting law reforms.

State Committee on Standardization, Metrology and Patents (Azerbaijan)

The State Committee on Standardization, Metrology and Patents of Azerbaijan Republic is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Azerbaijan in charge of Azerbaijani technical regulations, metrology, valuation of technical compliance, accreditation, quality standardsin Azerbaijan Republic. The committee is headed by Ramiz Hasanov.

Anthem of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic national anthem

The State Anthem of the Azerbaijan SSR was the anthem of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. It was created in 1944 and was used from 1945 to 1992.

Nakhichevansky Uyezd Place in Uyezd, Russia

The Nakhichevansky Uyezd was a district (uyezd) of the Erivan Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire. It bordered the governorate's Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd to the north, the Zangezursky Uyezd of the Elisabethpol Governorate to the east, and Persia to the south. It included most of the Nakhichevan exclave of present-day Azerbaijan and the southwesternmost part of the Syunik Province of present-day Armenia. Its administrative center was Nakhichevan.

Second cabinet of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic governed Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) between June 17, 1918 and December 7, 1918. It was formed after the first cabinet of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dissolved and was led by Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Fatali Khan Khoyski with the following composition:

Ahmed bey Pepinov Government minister of Azerbaijan

Ahmed bey Pepinov Omar oglu, also known as Ahmet bey Pepinov, was an Azerbaijani statesman of Meskhetian Turkish origin who served as Minister of Agriculture in the fifth cabinet of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, and was member of Parliament of Azerbaijan.

Abbasgulu bey Shadlinski Soviet military leader

Abbasgulu bey Khanbaba oglu Shadlinski was a Soviet military leader, revolutionary, and commander of a partisan detachment force called "Red camp", which played a significant role in establishment of the Soviet power in Armenia and Nakhchivan. The historian S.P.Aghayan called Shadlinski "the brave son of Azerbaijani people".

References

  1. "Article 23. Azerbaijan State Symbols". The Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  2. Whitney Smith. Flag Lore Of All Nations. — Millbrook Press, 2001. — P. 13. — ISBN   9780761317531
  3. 1 2 3 "National flag of Azerbaijan". CRW Flags. 17 June 1999. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
  4. 1 2 3 "Azerbaijan marks National Flag Day". Today.az. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  5. 1 2 3 Article 23.II of the Constitution "The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 2002. Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Флаг Азербайджана (in Russian). Geraldika.ru. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  7. 1 2 Конституция (Основной Закон) Азербайджанской Советской Социалистической Республики, принятая 21 апреля 1978 года внеочередной сессией Верховного Совета Азербайджанской ССР. — Баку, изд-во Верховного Совета Азербайджанской ССР, 1978, С.19
  8. 5 февраля 1991 года Верховный Совет Азербайджанской Республики Законом №14-XII утвердил изменение названия государства и Законом №17-XII утвердил изображение Государственного флага и Положение о Государственном флаге Азербайджанской Республики.
  9. "AZS 001-2006. Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Bayrağı. Texniki şərtlər" (in Azerbaijani). Azərbaycan Respublikasının Standartlaşdırma.
  10. 1 2 ""Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət bayrağının istifadəsi qaydaları haqqında" Azərbaycan Respublikasının Qanununda dəyişiklik edilməsi barədə" (in Azerbaijani). Azərbaycan Respublikasının Milli Məclisi.
  11. Find a PANTONE color.Pantone LLC. Pantone Color Picker [Retrieved 9 December 2009].
  12. "Azerbaijan State Symbols". Embassy of Azerbaijan to Canada. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  13. Complete Flags of The World, 1997, page 172, Dorling Kindersley
  14. "Azerbaijan State Symbols". Government of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  15. Hajibeyov, Y. (1919). "number of May 28,". One Year. Azerbaijan.
  16. 1 2 "What does the crescent and eight-pointed star on the national flag of Azerbaijan stand for?". Azerbaijan Press Agency. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  17. 1 2 Сабухи Ахмедов, Государственный флаг Азербайджанской Республики (in Russian), citing Мярданов М., Гулийев Я., Азярбайъан Республикасынын дювлят рямзляри. Б., 2001, pp. 74–75.
  18. Sache, Ivan. "Meaning of the flag of Azerbaijan". Intute. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
  19. "Закавказская Федерация (Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic)" (in Russian). Russian Centre of Vexillology and Heraldry. 30 May 2003. Archived from the original on 22 June 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
  20. Азербайджанская Демократическая Республика (1918―1920). Законодательные акты. (Сборник документов). — Баку, 1998, Page 196:
    Признать флагом Азербайджана флаг, изготовленный из красной материи с изображением белого полумесяца и белой восьмигранной звезды на красном фоне.
  21. "Article 23. Azerbaijan State Symbols". President of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  22. Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press, 1995. ISBN   0-231-07068-3, ISBN   978-0-231-07068-3 and Reinhard Schulze. A Modern History of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris, 2000. ISBN   978-1-86064-822-9, ISBN   978-1-86064-822-9. Citations are at Talk:Azerbaijan Democratic Republic#First or second.
  23. 1 2 Hugh Pope, "Sons of the conquerors: the rise of the Turkic world", New York: The Overlook Press, 2006, p. 116, ISBN   978-1-58567-804-4
  24. Джангировичем Салахлы, Чингизом. Ассамблея уставов и распоряжений рабоче-крестьянское правительство Азербайджанской ССР, № 5, Май 1921 (in Russian). рабоче-крестьянского правительства АзССР, №5. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
  25. Janmammadova, Aygun (7 September 2010). "Azerbaijan: Baku welcomes the world's highest flag… and a strong wind". Global Voices. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  26. Abbasov, Rafael (29 May 2010). "Tallest unsupported flagpole". Guinness World Record. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  27. 1 2 ""Azərbaycan bayrağına" (Cəfər Cabbarlı)". www.azadliq.org (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  28. "Dalğalanan bayraqlar" (in Azerbaijani). Medeniyyet. Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
  29. "Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət Himni" (in Azerbaijani). Kütləvi İnformasiya Vasitələrinin İnkişafına Dövlət Dəstəyi Konsepsiyası.[ permanent dead link ]
  30. "National Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the People's Republic of China.