|Names||Η Γαλανόλευκη (I Galanolefki, 'The Blue and White'), Η Κυανόλευκη (I Kyanolefki, 'The Azure and White')|
|Use|| National flag and ensign |
|Adopted||22 December 1978 (Naval Ensign 1822–1978, National Flag 1969–70; 1978–present)|
|Design||Nine horizontal stripes, in turn blue and white; a white Greek cross throughout a blue canton.|
The national flag of Greece, popularly referred to as the "blue and white" (Greek : Γαλανόλευκη, Galanólefki) or the "sky blue and white" (Κυανόλευκη, Kyanólefki), is officially recognised by Greece as one of its national symbols and has nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. There is a blue canton in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolises Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the prevailing religion of Greece. The blazon of the flag is Azure, four bars Argent; on a canton of the field a Greek cross throughout of the second. The official flag ratio is 2:3. The shade of blue used in the flag has varied throughout its history, from light blue to dark blue, the latter being increasingly used since the late 1960s. It was officially adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus on 13 January 1822.
According to popular tradition, the nine stripes represent the nine syllables of the phrase Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος ("Freedom or Death"), the five blue stripes for the syllables Ελευθερία and the four white stripes ή Θάνατος. The nine stripes are also said to represent the letters of the word "freedom" (Greek: ελευθερία). There is also a different theory, that the nine stripes symbolise the nine Muses, the goddesses of art and civilisation (nine has traditionally been one of the numbers of reference for the Greeks).
White and blue have been interpreted as symbolising the colours of the sky and sea.
The origins of today's national flag with its cross-and-stripe pattern are a matter of debate. Every part of it, including the blue and white colors, the cross, as well as the stripe arrangement can be connected to very old historical elements; [ citation needed ]however, it is difficult to establish "continuity", especially as there is no record of the exact reasoning behind its official adoption in early 1822.
It has been suggested by some Greek historians that the current flag derived from an older design, the virtually identical flag of the powerful Cretan Kallergis family. This flag was based on their coat of arms, whose pattern is supposed to be derived from the standards of their claimed ancestor, Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas (963–969 AD). This pattern (according to not easily verifiable descriptions) included nine stripes of alternating blue and white, as well as a cross, assumed to be placed on the upper left.Although the use of alternating blue and white - or silver - stripes on (several centuries-old) Kallergis' coats of arms is well documented, no depiction of the above described pattern (with the nine stripes and the cross) survives.
Flags as they are known today did not exist in antiquity. Instead, a variety of emblems and symbols ( σημεῖον , sēmeîon; pl.σημεῖᾰ, sēmeîa) were used to denote each state and were for example painted on the hoplite shields. The closest analogue to a modern flag were the vexillum -like banners used by ancient Greek armies, such as the so-called phoinikis, a cloth of deep red, suspended from the top of a staff or spear. It is not known to have carried any device or decoration though.
The Byzantines, like the Romans before them, used a variety of flags and banners, primarily to denote different military units. These were generally square or rectangular, with a number of streamers attached.Most prominent among the early Byzantine flags was the labarum . In the surviving pictorial sources of the middle and later Empire, primarily the illustrated Skylitzes Chronicle, the predominating colours are red and blue in horizontal stripes, with a cross often placed in the centre of the flag. Other common symbols, prominently featuring on seals, were depictions of Christ, the Virgin Mary and saints, but these represent personal rather than family or state symbols. Western European-style heraldry was largely unknown until the last centuries of the Empire.
There is no mention of any "state" flag until the mid-14th century, when a Spanish atlas, the Conosçimiento de todos los reynos depicts the flag of "the Empire of Constantinople" combining the red-on-white Cross of St George with the "tetragrammatic cross" of the ruling house of the Palaiologoi, featuring the four betas or pyrekvola ("fire-steels") on the flag quarters representing the imperial motto Βασιλεύς Βασιλέων Βασιλεύων Βασιλευόντων ("King of Kings Reigning over those who Rule"). The tetragrammatic cross flag, as it appears in quarters II and III in this design, is well documented. In the same Spanish atlas this "plain" tetragrammatic cross flag is presented as (among other places in the Empire) "the Flag of Salonika" and "the real Greece and Empire of the Greeks (la vera Grecia e el imperio de los griegos)". The (quartered) arrangement that includes the Cross of St. George is documented only in the Spanish atlas, and most probably combines the arms of Genoa (which had occupied Galata) with those of the Byzantine Empire, and was most probably flown only in Constantinople. Pseudo-Kodinos records the use of the "tetragrammatic cross" on the banner (phlamoulon) borne by imperial naval vessels, while the megas doux displayed an image of the emperor on horseback.
During the Ottoman rule several unofficial flags were used by Greeks, usually employing the Byzantine double-headed eagle (see below), the cross, depictions of saints and various mottoes. [ citation needed ] and was used from 1431 until 1639, when this privilege was greatly limited by the Sultan.[ citation needed ] Similar flags were used by other local leaders. The closest to a Greek "national" flag during Ottoman rule was the so-called "Graeco-Ottoman flag" (Γραικοθωμανική παντιέρα), a civil ensign Greek Orthodox merchants (better: merchants from the Greek-dominated Orthodox millet ) were allowed to fly on their ships, combining stripes with red (for the Ottoman Empire) and blue (for Orthodoxy) colours. After the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Greek-owned merchant ships could also fly the Russian flag.The Christian Greek sipahi cavalry employed by the Ottoman Sultan were allowed to use their own, clearly Christian flag, when within Epirus and the Peloponnese. It featured the classic blue cross on a white field with the picture of St. George slaying the dragon,
During the uprising of 1769 the historic blue cross on white field was used again by key military leaders who used it all the way to the revolution of 1821. It became the most popular Revolution flag, and it was argued that it should become the national flag. The "reverse" arrangement, white cross on a blue field, also appeared as Greek flag during the uprisings. This design had apparently been used earlier as well, as a local symbol (a similar 16th or 17th century flag has been found near Chania).
A military leader, Yiannis Stathas, used a flag with white cross on blue on his ship since 1800. The first flag featuring the design eventually adopted was created and hoisted in the Evangelistria monastery in Skiathos in 1807. Several prominent military leaders (including Theodoros Kolokotronis and Andreas Miaoulis) had gathered there for consultation concerning an uprising, and they were sworn to this flag by the local bishop.
Prior and during the early days of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829), a large variety of flags was designed, proposed and used by various Greek intellectuals in Western Europe, local leaders, chieftains and regional councils. Aside from the cross, many of these flags featured saints, the phoenix (symbolising the rebirth of the Greek nation), mottoes such as "Freedom or Death" (Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος) or the fasces-like emblems of the Philiki Etaireia , the secret society that organised the uprising.
Because the European monarchies, allied in the so-called "Concert of Europe", were suspicious towards national or social revolutionary movements such as the Etaireia, the First Greek National Assembly, convening in January 1822, took steps to disassociate itself from the Etaireia's legacy and portray nascent Greece as a "conventional", ordered nation-state. As such not only were the regional councils abolished in favour of a central administration, but it was decided to abolish all revolutionary flags and adopt a universal national flag. The reasons why the particular arrangement (white cross on blue) was selected, instead of the more popular blue cross on a white field, remain unknown.
On 15 March 1822, the Provisional Government, by Decree Nr. 540, laid down the exact pattern: white cross on blue (plain) for the land flag; nine alternate-coloured stripes with the white cross on a blue field in the canton for the naval ensign; and blue with a blue cross on a white field in the canton for the civil ensign (merchant flag).On 30 June 1828, by decree of the Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias, the civil ensign was discontinued, and the cross-and-stripes naval ensign became the national ensign, worn by both naval and merchant ships. This design became immediately very popular with Greeks and in practice was often used simultaneously with the national (plain cross) flag.
On 7 February 1828 the Greek flag was internationally recognised for the first time by receiving an official salutation from British, French, and Russian forces in Nafplio, then the capital of Greece.
After the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece in 1832, the new king, Otto, added the royal Coat of Arms (a shield in his ancestral Bavarian pattern topped by a crown) in the centre of the cross for military flags (both land and sea versions).The decree dated 4 (16) April 1833 provided for various maritime flags such as the war flag or naval ensign (set at 18:25), pennant, royal standard (set at 7:10) and civil ensign (i.e. the naval ensign without coat of arms). A royal decree dated 28 August 1858 provided for details on the construction and dimensions concerning the flags described in the 1833 decree and other flags. After Otto's abdication in 1862, the royal coat of arms was removed.
In 1863, the 17-year old Danish prince William was selected as Greece's new king, taking on the name George I. A royal decree dated 28 December 1863 introduced crowns into the various flags in place of the coat of arms.Similar arrangements were made for the royal flags, which featured the coat of arms of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg on a square version of the national flag. A square version of the land flag with St. George in the centre was adopted on 9 April 1864 as the Army's colours. The exact shape and usage of the flags was determined by Royal Decree on 26 September 1867. By a new Royal Decree, on 31 May 1914, the various flags of Greece and its military were further regulated. By this decree, the flag with the crown was adopted for use as a state flag by ministries, embassies and civil services, while the sea flag (without the crown) was allowed for use by private citizens.
On 25 March 1924, with the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic, the crowns were removed from all flags.On 20 February 1930, the national flag's proportions were established at a 2:3 ratio, with the arms of the cross being "one fifth of the flag's width". The land version of the national flag was to be used by ministries, embassies, and in general by all civil and military services, while the sea flag was to be used by naval and merchant vessels, consulates and private citizens. On 10 October 1935, Georgios Kondylis declared that the monarchy had been restored. By decree of 7 November 1935, the 31 May 1914 decree was restored. Thereby, the crown was restored on the various flags. The crown was again removed by the military dictatorship in 1967, following the aborted counter-coup and subsequent self-exile of King Constantine II on 13 December. The sea flag was established as the sole national flag in 1969, using a very dark shade of blue, and on 18 August 1970, the flag ratio was changed to 7:12.
After the restoration of democracy in August 1974, the land flag was restored for a while (per Law 48/1975 and Presidential Decree 515/1975, on effect on 7 June 1975) until 1978.
Several Greek researchershave attempted to establish a continuity of usage and significance of the blue and white colours, throughout Greek history.
Usages cited include the pattern of blue and white formations included on the shield of Achilles,the apparent connection of blue with goddess Athena, some of Alexander the Great's army banners, possible blue and white flags used during Byzantine times, supposed coats of arms of imperial dynasties and noble families, uniforms, emperors' clothes, patriarchs' thrones etc., 15th century versions of the Byzantine Imperial Emblems and, of course, cases of usage during the Ottoman rule and the Greek revolution.
On the other hand, the Great Greek Encyclopedia notes in its 1934 entry on the Greek flag that "very many things have been said for the causes which lead to this specification for the Greek flag, but without historical merit".
In 1978 the sea flag was adopted as the sole national flag, with a 2:3 ratio.The flag is used on both land and sea is also the war and civil ensign, replacing all other designs surviving until that time. No other designs and badges can be shown on the flag. To date, no specification of the exact shade of the blue colour of the flag has been issued. Consequently, in practice hues may vary from very light to very dark. The Greek Flag Day is on 27 October.
The old land flag is still flown at the Old Parliament building in Athens, site of the National Historical Museum, and can still be seen displayed unofficially by private citizens.
The use of the Greek flag is regulated by Law 851.More specifically, the law states that:
The government has not specified exactly which shade of blue should be used for the flag, and as such flags with many varying shades exist. In the most recent legislation regarding the national flag, the colours mentioned are:
Law 851/1978, Regarding the National Flag, Article 1, Clause 1
Because of the use of the word 'cyan' (Greek : κυανός, Kyanos), which can also mean 'blue' in Greek, the exact shade of blue remains ambiguous. Although it implies the use of a light shade of blue, such as on the flag of the United Nations, the colours of the Greek flag tend to be darker, especially during the dictatorship and in recent years, with the exception of the years of the rule of King Otto, when a very light shade of blue was used. Consequently, the shade of blue is largely left to the flagmakers to decide, as shown in the table below.
|White color||Blue color||Source||Year||URL|
|White||#ffffff||0% - 0% - 0% - 0%||286 C||#005bae||100% - 60% - 0% - 5%||Album des Pavillons||2000|
|White||#ffffff||285||#2175d8||2008 Summer Olympics Flag Manual||2008|
|White||#ffffff||Reflex Blue||#004C98||2012 Summer Olympics Flag Manual||2012|
Law 851/1978 sets the general outline for when the specific days on which the flag should be raised. Raising the flag on national or local public holidays is mandatory for everyone, from 8am until sunset.For national holidays, this applies country-wide, but on local ones it only applies to those areas where the said holiday is being celebrated. Additionally, the flag may also be flown on days of national mourning, half-mast. The Minister of the Interior has the authority to proclaim flag days if they are not already proclaimed, and proclaiming regional flag days is vested with the elected head of each regional unit (formerly prefectures).
|25 March||25th of March||Anniversary of the traditional start date for the Greek War of Independence.|
|28 October||Ochi Day (No Day)||Anniversary of the refusal to accept the Italian ultimatum in 1940.|
|17 November||Polytechnic Day||Anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising against the military junta (school holiday).|
Although 17 November is not an official national holiday, Presidential Decree 201/1998 states that respects are to be paid to the flag on that particular day.
The War flag (equivalent to regimental colours) of the Army and the Air Force is of square shape, with a white cross on blue background. On the centre of the cross the image of Saint George is shown on Army war flags and the image of archangel Michael is shown on Air Force war flags.
In the Army war flags are normally carried by infantry, tank and special forces regiments and battalions, by the Evelpidon Military Academy, the Non-Commissioned Officers Academy and the Presidential Guard when in battle or in parade.However, flying a war flag in battle is unlikely with current warfare tactics.
The current naval and civil ensigns are identical to the national flag.
The simple white cross on blue field pattern is also used as the Navy's jack and as the base pattern for naval rank flags. These flags are described in Chapter 21 (articles 2101–30) of the Naval Regulations. A jack is also flown by larger vessels of the Hellenic Coast Guard.
Units of Naval or Coast Guard personnel in parade fly the war ensign in place of the war flag.
In the past a war flag was assigned to the former semi-military Hellenic Gendarmerie, which was later merged with Cities Police to form the current Hellenic Police. The flag was similar to the Army war flag but showing Saint Irene in place of Saint George.
Since the Fire Service and the Hellenic Police are considered civilian agencies, they are not assigned war flags. They use the National Flag instead.Identical rules were applied to the former Cities Police. However, recently the Police Academy has been assigned a war flag, and they paraded for the first titme with this flag on Independence Day, March 25, 2011. The flag is similar to the Army war flag, with the image of St George replaced with that of Artemius of Antioch.
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Throughout the history of Greece, various heads of state have used different flags. The designs differ according to the historical era they were used in and in accordance with the political scene in Greece at the time. The first flag to be used by a head of state of Greece was that of King Otto of Greece.
Following the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece in 1832, the 17-year old Bavarian prince Otto was selected as king for the newfound monarchy. A royal decree dated 4 (16) April 1833 prescribed a number of maritime flags, including the royal standard. This flag, set at a 7:10 ratio, was a variant of the Greek white-cross-on-blue and featured the ancestral coat of arms of the Wittelsbach dynasty at its centre. The construction and dimensions of this flag was further described by a decree dated 28 August 1858, which also changed the proportions of the flag from 7:10 to 3:2. Following Otto's abdication in 1862, the Wittelsbach coat of arms would subsequently be removed.
In 1863, the 17-year old Danish prince William was selected as Greece's new king, taking on the name George I. A royal decree dated 28 December 1863 prescribed that the king's standard would retain the same dimensions and basic design of the previous flag. At the flag's centre, the royal coat of arms of the new dynasty (Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg) would feature. By a new royal decree of 3 June 1914, the distinguishing flags to be utilised by the various members of the royal family were described. The king's flag was defined as being square in shape and, as in previous flags, featured the coat of arms of the king on a Greek white-cross-on-blue. As the king at the time, Constantine I, was made a field marshal the previous year, the coat of arms on his flag featured a heraldic representation of the Marshal's baton in twos, crossed behind his coat of arms.
With the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic in 1924, the king's flag was made redundant. In 1930, a presidential decree described the president's flag as being a square version of the usual cross flag, devoid of any distinguishing markings.
On 10 October 1935, Georgios Kondylis declared that the monarchy had been restored and the 3 June 1914 decree was restored by decree of 7 November 1935. This flag, and the flags of other members of the royal family, was replaced the following year with new designs. Unlike previous designs, all flags now featured the coat of arms of the dynasty at its centre and would be distinguished by the number of crowns present at each of the four corners of the flags: The flag of the king featured a crown on each of the corners of the flag. This was the last design of a royal standard to be adopted prior to the eventual formal abolition of the monarchy in 1973.
The president's flag is currently prescribed by Presidential Decree 274/1979.
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One of the most recognisable (other than the cross) and beloved Greek symbols, the double-headed eagle, is not a part of the modern Greek flag or coat of arms (although it is officially used by the Greek Army, the Church of Greece, the Cypriot National Guard and the Church of Cyprus, and was incorporated in the Greek coat of arms in 1926 [ citation needed ] is that, upon independence, an effort was made for political — and international relations — reasons to limit expressions implying efforts to recreate the Byzantine Empire. Yet another theory[ citation needed ] is that this symbol was only connected with a particular period of Greek history (Byzantine) and a particular form of rule (imperial). More recent research [ citation needed ] has justified this view, connecting this symbol only to personal and dynastic emblems of Byzantine Emperors.). One suggested explanation
Some Greek sources have attempted to establish links with ancient symbols: the eagle was a common design representing power in ancient city-states, while there was an implication of a "dual-eagle" concept in the tale that Zeus left two eagles fly east and west from the ends of the world, eventually meeting in Delphi, thus proving it to be the centre of the earth. However, there is virtually no doubt that its origin is a blend of Roman and Eastern influences. Indeed, the early Byzantine Empire inherited the Roman eagle as an imperial symbol. During his reign, Emperor Isaac I Comnenus (1057–59) modified it as double-headed, influenced by traditions about such a beast in his native Paphlagonia in Asia Minor (in turn reflecting possibly much older local myths). Many modifications followed in flag details, often combined with the cross. After the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantine Greeks in 1261, two crowns were added (over each head) representing — according to the most prevalent theory — the newly recaptured capital and the intermediate "capital" of the empire of Nicaea. There has been some confusion about the exact use of this symbol by the Byzantines; it appears that, at least originally, it was more a "dynastic" and not a "state" symbol (a term not fully applicable at the time, anyway), and for this reason, the colours connected with it were clearly the colours of "imperial power", i.e., red and yellow/gold.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire nonetheless, the double-headed eagle remained a strong symbol of reference for the Greeks. Most characteristically, the Orthodox Church continues to use the double-headed eagle extensively as a decorative motif, and has also adopted a black eagle on yellow/gold background as its official flag.
After the Ottoman conquest, however, this symbol also found its way to a "new Constantinople" (or Third Rome), i.e. Moscow. Russia, deeply influenced by the Byzantine Empire, saw herself as its heir and adopted the double-headed eagle as its imperial symbol. It was also adopted by the Serbs, the Montenegrins, the Albanians and a number of Western rulers, most notably in Germany and Austria.
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a given nation. It is flown by the government of that nation, but usually can also be flown by its citizens. A national flag is typically designed with specific meanings for its colours and symbols, which may also be used separately from the flag as a symbol of the nation. The design of a national flag is sometimes altered after the occurrence of important historical events. The burning or destruction of a national flag is a greatly symbolic act.
The flag of France is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue, white, and red. It is known to English speakers as the French Tricolour or simply the Tricolour. The Tricolour has become one of the most influential flags in history, with its three-colour scheme being copied by many other nations, both in Europe and the rest of the world, and, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica has historically stood "in symbolic opposition to the autocratic and clericalist royal standards of the past as well as to the totalitarian banners of modern communism and fascism."
The flag of Sweden consists of a yellow or gold Nordic cross on a field of blue. The Nordic cross design traditionally represents Christianity. The design and colours of the Swedish flag are believed to have been inspired by the present coat of arms of Sweden of 1442, which is blue divided quarterly by a cross pattée of gold, and modelled on the Danish flag. Blue and yellow have been used as Swedish colours at least since Magnus III's royal coat of arms of 1275.
The flag of Finland, also called Siniristilippu, dates from the beginning of the 20th century. On a white background, it features a blue Nordic cross, which represents Christianity.
The national flag of Romania is a tricolor with vertical stripes, beginning from the flagpole: blue, yellow and red. It has a width-length ratio of 2:3.
The flag of Poland consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red. The two colours are defined in the Polish constitution as the national colours. A variant of the flag with the national coat of arms in the middle of the white stripe is legally reserved for official use abroad and at sea. A similar flag with the addition of a swallow-tail is used as the naval ensign of Poland.
The flag of the Kingdom of Thailand shows five horizontal stripes in the colours red, white, blue, white and red, with the central blue stripe being twice as wide as each of the other four. The design was adopted on 28 September 1917, according to the royal decree issued by Rama VI. Since 2016, that day is a national day of importance in Thailand celebrating the flag.
The state flag of the Republic of Moldova is a vertical tricolour of blue, yellow, and red, charged with the coat of arms of Moldova on the center bar. The obverse is mirrored. The flag ratio is 1:2. Until further provisions, the State Flag of Moldova is used as the national flag and ensign as well, that is, civil, state and war flag and ensign.
The flag of Portugal is a rectangular bicolour with a field divided into green on the hoist, and red on the fly. The lesser version of the national coat of arms is centered over the colour boundary at equal distance from the upper and lower edges. On 30 June 1911, less than a year after the downfall of the constitutional monarchy, this design was officially adopted for the new national flag of the First Portuguese Republic, after selection by a special commission whose members included Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro, João Chagas and Abel Botelho.
The flag of Spain, as it is defined in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, consists of three horizontal stripes: red, yellow and red, the yellow stripe being twice the size of each red stripe. Traditionally, the middle stripe was defined by the more archaic term of gualda, and hence the popular name la Rojigualda (red-weld).
The Ottoman Empire used a variety of flags, especially as naval ensigns, during its history. The star and crescent came into use in the second half of the 18th century. A buyruldu (decree) from 1793 required that the ships of the Ottoman Navy were to use a red flag with the star and crescent in white. In 1844, a version of this flag, with a five-pointed star, was officially adopted as the Ottoman national flag. The decision to adopt a national flag was part of the Tanzimat reforms which aimed to modernize the Ottoman state in line with the laws and norms of contemporary European states and institutions.
In military organizations, the practice of carrying colours, standards or guidons, both to act as a rallying point for troops and to mark the location of the commander, is thought to have originated in Ancient Egypt some 5,000 years ago. The Roman Empire also made battle standards a part of their vast armies. It was formalized in the armies of Europe in the High Middle Ages, with standards being emblazoned with the commander's coat of arms.
The following is a list of historical military colours, standards and guidons in different countries that do not exist today.
A war flag, also known as a military flag, battle flag, or standard, is a variant of a national flag for use by a country's military forces when on land. The nautical equivalent is a naval ensign. Under the strictest sense of the term, few countries today currently have proper war flags, most preferring to use instead their state flag or standard national flag for this purpose.
A French ensign is the flag flown at sea to identify a vessel as French. Several such ensigns have existed over the years as well as terrestrial flags based on the ensign motif.
The coat of arms of Greece comprises a white Greek cross on a blue escutcheon, surrounded by two laurel branches. It has been in use in its current form since 1975. Prior to the adoption of the current coat of arms, Greece used a number of different designs, some of which were not heraldic; the first heraldic design was introduced in 1832 and its main element, the blue shield with the white cross, has been the base for all other national coats of arms since then. The origin of the design is unclear, but it is most likely a heraldic representation of the Greek national flag adopted in 1822, which featured a white cross on a blue field.
This article is a vexillological summary of all flags and symbols in current use by the island nation of Malta. More information on the history of the various flags and emblems, as well as on their equivalents which are no longer in use, is found on the specific articles, linked to in the subtitle headings.
The Cross of Burgundy or the Cross of Saint Andrew, a saw-toothed (raguly) form of St. Andrew's cross, was first used in the 15th century as an emblem by the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled a large part of eastern France and the Low Countries as effectively an independent state. The Burgundian Low Countries were inherited by the Habsburgs, who adopted the flag at the extinction of the Valois ducal line and continued to use it as one of their many symbols up to the 18th century. With the Burgundian Habsburgs coming to power in Spain in the 16th century, the emblem served as a naval ensign of the Spanish Empire up to 1701, and up to 1843 as the land battle flag, acquiring a global impact throughout Europe and the Americas in the possessions of the Spanish crowns of Castile and Aragon. It is found nowadays in different continents and still appears on regimental colours, badges, shoulder patches and company guidons. The use of the emblem in a variety of contexts, in a number of European countries and in the Americas, reflects the historical extent of Burgundian, Habsburg, and Spanish territories.
Military aircraft insignia are insignia applied to military aircraft to identify the nation or branch of military service to which the aircraft belongs. Many insignia are in the form of a circular roundel or modified roundel; other shapes such as stars, crosses, squares, or triangles are also used.
The historical flag of the Socialist Republic of Romania, nicknamed "The Tricolour" was the official flag of Romania under its communist regime from 1948 to 1989. It was a tricolor with vertical stripes, beginning from the flagpole: blue, yellow and red with the emblem on the center. It had a width-length ratio of 2:3. The flag remained in use until the Romanian Revolution of 1989 when the flag used from 1918-1947 was restored.