Flavius Aetius

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Flavius Aetius
Diptych Aetius.jpg
Possible relief of Aetius, [1] although the sarcophagus has also been thought to depict Stilicho (d. 408 AD), and can be dated even earlier between 387–390 AD, during the reign of Theodosius I [2]
Nickname(s) Last of the Romans
Bornc. 391 AD
Durostorum
DiedSeptember 21, 454 AD
Ravenna
Buried
Unknown, Possibly the Stilicho Sarcophagus
Allegiance Western Roman Empire
Service/branch Roman army
Years of service405–454
Rank Magister Militum
Commands heldTribunis Partis Militaris
Cura Palatii
Magister Militum per Gallias
Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae (Junior)
Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae (Senior)
Magnificus vir Parens Patriciusque Noster
Consul
Battles/wars Siege of Arelate (426)
Frankish War of 428
Norican Campaign of 430
Siege of Arelate (431)
Frankish War of 432
Battle of Rimini
Visigothic War of 436
Burgundian Revolt of 435
Siege of Narbona (436)
Sack of Worms (436)
Battle of Mons Colubrarius
Battle of Vicus Helena
Battle of the Catalaunian Plains
Invasion of Italy (452)
Spanish Campaign of 453

Flavius Aetius ( /ˈflviəsˈʃiəs/ ; Latin : Flavius Aetius [flaːwius a.etius] ; [3] 391–454), dux et patricius , commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. He was an able military commander and the most influential man in the Western Roman Empire for two decades (433454). He managed policy in regard to the attacks of barbarian federates settled throughout the Western Roman Empire. Notably, he mustered a large Roman and allied ( foederati ) army to stop the Huns in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, ending the devastating Hunnic invasion of Attila in 451.

<i>Dux</i> dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops

Dux is Latin for "leader" and later for duke and its variant forms.

The patricians were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the early Republic, but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders, and by the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance.

Roman Empire Period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–395 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. An Iron Age civilization, it had a government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors.

Contents

He has often been called "the last of the Romans". Edward Gibbon refers to him as "the man universally celebrated as the terror of Barbarians and the support of the Republic" for his alleged victory at the Catalaunian Plains.

Edward Gibbon English historian and Member of Parliament

Edward Gibbon FRS was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 and is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its polemical criticism of organised religion.

Biography

Origins and family

Aetius was born at Durostorum in Moesia Secunda (modern Silistra, Bulgaria), around 391. [4] His father, Flavius Gaudentius, was a Roman general and described as a native of the Roman province of Scythia, [5] although some have interpreted this as a topos and used to describe a Gothic origin. [6] Aetius' mother, whose name is unknown, was a wealthy aristocratic woman of Italian ancestry. [7] Before 425 Aetius married the daughter of Carpilio, [8] who gave him a son, also named Carpilio. [9] Later he married Pelagia, widow of Bonifacius, from whom he had a son, Gaudentius. It is possible that he had also a daughter, whose husband, Thraustila, avenged Aetius' death by killing emperor Valentinian III. [10]

Silistra Place in Bulgaria

Silistra is a city in northeastern Bulgaria. The city lies on the southern bank of the lower Danube river, and is also the part of the Romanian border where it stops following the Danube. Silistra is the administrative center of the Silistra Province and one of the important cities of the historical region of Southern Dobruja.

Bulgaria country in Southeast Europe

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

Flavius Gaudentius was the father of the Roman magister militum Flavius Aetius and married to an Italian noblewoman. He is described as a native of the Roman province Scythia.

Early years and service under Joannes

Western Roman Empire in 395 Western Roman Empire.png
Western Roman Empire in 395

As a boy, Aetius was at the service of the imperial court, enrolled in the military unit of the Protectores Domestici and then elevated to the position of tribunus praetorianus partis militaris, setting him up for future political eligibility. [11] Between 405 and 408 he was kept as hostage at the court of Alaric I, king of the Visigoths. [12] In 408 Alaric asked to keep Aetius as a hostage, but was refused, as Aetius was sent to the court of Uldin, king of the Huns, where he would stay throughout much of the reign of Charaton, Uldin's successor. [13] According to some early historians, Aetius's upbringing amongst militaristic peoples gave him a martial vigour not common in Roman generals of the time. [12] [14]

Hostage person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against certain acts of war

A hostage is a person who is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.

Alaric I King of the Visigoths

Alaric I was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son of chieftain Rothestes. He is best known for his sack of Rome in 410, which marked a decisive event in the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

Visigoths Gothic tribe

The Visigoths were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period. The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups who had invaded the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD.

In 423 the Western Emperor Honorius died. The most influential man in the West, Castinus, chose as his successor Joannes, a high-ranking officer. Joannes was not part of the Theodosian dynasty and he did not receive the recognition of the eastern court. [15] The Eastern Emperor Theodosius II organised a military expedition westward, led by Ardaburius and his son Aspar, to put his cousin, the young Valentinian III (who was a nephew of Honorius), on the western throne. Aetius entered the service of the usurper as cura palatii and was sent by Joannes to ask the Huns for assistance. [16] Joannes lacked a strong army and fortified himself in his capital, Ravenna, where he was killed in the summer of 425. Shortly afterwards, Aetius returned to Italy with a large force of Huns to find that power in the west was now in the hands of Valentinian III and his mother Galla Placidia. After fighting against Aspar's army, Aetius managed to compromise with Galla Placidia. He sent back his army of Huns and in return obtained the rank of comes et magister militum per Gallias, the commander in chief of the Roman army in Gaul. [17]

Honorius (emperor) Roman emperor (395-423)

Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. During his reign, Rome was sacked for the first time in almost 800 years.

Flavius Castinus held the position of patricius in the court of Roman Emperor Honorius at the time of the Emperor's death, and most likely for some time before. He also served as consul for the year 424.

Joannes Roman usurper (423–425) against Valentinian III

Ioannes, known in English as Joannes or even John, was a Roman usurper (423–425) against Valentinian III.

First Gallic campaigns

In 426, Aetius arrived in southern Gaul and took command of the field army. [18] At that time Arelate, an important city in Narbonensis near the mouth of the Rhone, was under siege from the Visigoths, led by their king Theodoric I. Aetius defeated Theodoric, lifted the siege of Arelate, and drove the Visigoths back to their holdings in Aquitania. [19] In 428 he fought the Salian Franks, defeating their king Chlodio and recovering some territory they had occupied along the Rhine. [20] In 429 he was elevated to the rank of magister militum; this was probably the iunior of the two offices of comes et magister utriusque militiae, as the senior is known to have been the patrician Flavius Constantinus Felix, the most influential man in those years, and a supporter of Galla Placidia. [21] In 430 the Visigoths led by Anaolsus attacked Arelate again but were defeated by Aetius. [19] [22] In May 430, Aetius and the Army accused Felix of plotting against him and had him, his wife, and a deacon killed. Once Felix was dead, Aetius was the highest ranking amongst the magistri militiae, even if he had not yet been granted the title of patricius or the senior command. During late 430s and 431 Aetius was in Raetia and Noricum, defeating the Bacaudae in Augusta Vindelicorum, re-establishing Roman rule on the Danube frontier, and campaigning against the Juthungi. [23] In 431 he returned to Gaul, where he received Hydatius, bishop of Aquae Flaviae, who complained about the attacks of the Suebes. Aetius then defeated the Franks, recapturing Tournacum and Cambriacum. [24] He then sent Hydatius back to the Suebes in Hispania. [25]

Theodoric I King of the Visigoths

Theodoric I was the King of the Visigoths from 418 to 451. An illegitimate son of Alaric, Theodoric is famous for his part in defeating Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451, where he was killed on June 20.

Salian Franks

The Salian Franks, also called the Salians, were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.

Chlodio

Chlodio also Clodio, Clodius, Clodion, Cloio or Chlogio, was a king of the Franks who attacked and apparently then held Roman-inhabited lands and cities in the Silva Carbonaria and as far south as the river Somme, apparently starting from a Frankish base which was also technically within the Roman empire. He is known from very few records, but it is thought that he might be an ancestor of the Merovingian dynasty, and possibly a descendant of the Salian Franks reported by Roman sources in the 4th century.

War with Bonifacius

Coin of Bonifacius Comes Africae (422-431 CE). Bonifatius Comes Africae 422-431CE.jpg
Coin of Bonifacius Comes Africae (422-431 CE).

While Aetius was campaigning in Gaul, there was an ongoing power struggle among Aetius, Felix, Bonifacius, and the emperor Valentinian's mother and regent Galla Placidia. In 427 while Bonifacius was away as governor ( comes ) of Africa, Felix caused him to fall into disfavour with Placidia. Bonifacius was eventually returned to favor by Placidia, but only after Felix had sent Sigisvult and two other armies against him when Aetius warned him of Felix's intentions. In 429, the Vandals exploited this power struggle and crossed over to Africa. [27]

After the execution of Felix in 430, Aetius and Bonifacius remained as the empire's most influential generals, both constantly vying for the favor of Placidia. In 432 Aetius held the consulate, but Bonifacius was recalled to Italy and received warmly by Placidia. Bonifacius was given the rank of patrician and made the senior comes et magister utriusque militiae, while Aetius was stripped of his military command. [28] Aetius, believing his fall now imminent, marched against Bonifacius and fought him at the Battle of Rimini. [28] Bonifacius won the battle but was mortally wounded, dying a few months later. Aetius escaped to Pannonia and traveled to the court of his friend, Rua, the king of the Huns. With their help he returned to power, receiving the title of comes et magister utriusque militiae . Aetius then had Bonifacius' son-in-law, Sebastianus, who had succeeded Bonifacius as magister militum, exiled from Italy to Constantinople, bought the properties of Bonifacius, and married his widow Pelagia. [29]

Campaigns against Burgundians, Bacaudae, and Visigoths

The Monza Cathedral Diptych, which may have been commissioned on Aetius' first consulship. It may also depict Stilicho. Stilicho.jpg
The Monza Cathedral Diptych, which may have been commissioned on Aetius' first consulship. It may also depict Stilicho.

From 433 to 450, Aetius was the dominant personality in the Western Empire, obtaining the rank of magnificus vir parens patriusque noster (5 September 435) and playing the role of "protector" of Galla Placidia and Valentinian III while the Emperor was still young. [30] At the same time he continued to devote attention to Gaul. In 436, the Burgundians of King Gundacar were defeated and obliged to accept peace by Aetius and Avitus; however, the following year he sent Hunnic foederati to destroy them. [31] Allegedly 20,000 Burgundians were killed in a slaughter which probably became the basis of the Nibelungenlied, a German epic. [32] That same year Aetius was probably in Armorica with Litorius to suppress a rebellion of the Bacaudae under a certain Tibatto. The year 437 saw his second consulship and the wedding of Valentinian and Licinia Eudoxia in Constantinople; it is probable that Aetius attended the ceremony that marked the beginning of the direct rule of the Emperor. At that time his general Litorius had broken the siege of Narbona and had turned the war in favor of the Romans. The following two years were occupied by a campaign against the Suebi and by the war against the Visigoths; in 438 Aetius won a major battle (probably the Battle of Mons Colubrarius), but in 439 the Visigoths defeated and killed Litorius and his Hunnic Foederati. [33] Aetius returned to Gaul after Vetericus had stabilized the situation, and defeated the Visigoths and obtained a treaty. [34] On his return to Italy, he was honoured by a statue erected by the Senate and the People of Rome by order of the Emperor; this was probably the occasion for the panegyric written by Merobaudes. [35]

In 443, Aetius settled the remaining Burgundians in Sapaudia, south of Lake Geneva. His most pressing concern in the 440s was with problems in Gaul and Iberia, mainly with the Bacaudae. He settled the Alans around Valence in 440 and along the Loire including Aurelianum in 442 to contain unrest in Armorica. [36]

In Spain, Aetius was slowly losing his grip on the situation. In 441 he appointed Asturius Magister Militum per Hispanias, in order to put down the Bacaudae in Tarraconensis. He was recalled and Merobaudes defeated the Bacaudae of Aracellitanus in 443. In 445 the Romans had the Vandals attack Turonium in Gallaecia, followed by Vitus who campaigned with a combined force of Romans and Goths in 446, but was ultimately defeated. [37]

The Bacaudae in Armorica revolted again in 447 or 448, and were put down by the Alans of Goar. As a result, the leader of the revolt Eudoxius fled to the court of Attila the Hun. [38] In 449 the Bacaudae in Spain revolted and sacked Tyriasso, Caesaragusta, and Illerdensus. The Suebi also entered Tarraconensis to assist Basilius and his revolt. [39]

In 445 Majorian defeated a Frankish siege of Turonum, which was followed by a Frankish attack under Clodio in the region of Atrebatum, in Belgica Secunda. [40] The foederati were stopped in an ambush near Vicus Helena, where Aetius directed the operations while his commander Majorian (later Emperor) fought with the cavalry. [41] However, by 450 Aetius had already returned to good terms with the Franks. In 449 Chlodio died, and the patricius supported his younger son Merovaeus's claim to the throne. Aetius adopted him as his own son and sent him from Rome, where he had been an ambassador, to the Frankish court with many presents. [42]

Hunnic Invasions of Gaul and Italy

The possible path of the Hun forces in their invasion of Gaul, leading up to the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains Attila in Gaul 451CE.svg
The possible path of the Hun forces in their invasion of Gaul, leading up to the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains

Before 449 Aetius had signed an agreement with the Huns, allowing some of them to settle in Pannonia, along the Sava River; he also sent to Attila, the king of the Huns, a man called Constantius as a secretary. In 449, Attila was angry over an alleged theft of a golden plate, and Aetius sent him an embassy under Romulus to calm him; Attila sent him a dwarf, Zerco, as a present, whom Aetius gave back to his original owner, Aspar. [43]

However, the good terms between Romans and Huns did not last, as Attila wanted to attack Gaul; he knew that Aetius was a serious obstacle to his enterprise, and tried to have him removed, but in 451, when the Huns attacked, Aetius was still the commander of the Roman army in Gaul. [44] The large Hunno-German army [45] captured several cities, and proceeded towards Aurelianum.

Aetius, with the help of the influential Gallo-Roman senator Avitus, convinced the Visigoths of king Theodoric I to join him against the external menace; he also succeeded in persuading Sambida (who was falsely accused of planning to join the Huns), the Armoricans, the Salian Franks, some of the Saxons, and the Burgundians of Sapaudia to join his forces. Then the joint Roman and Visigothic army moved to relieve the besieged city of Aurelianum, forcing the Huns to abandon the siege and retreat to open country. [46]

On June 20, 451 [47] Aetius and Theodoric engaged Attila and his allies at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. [48] Theodoric died in the battle, and Aetius suggested his son Thorismund retreat to Tolosa to secure his throne, and persuaded Merovaeus to return to the lands of the Franks; for this reason it is said that Aetius kept all of the battlefield loot for his army. [49]

Attila returned in 452 to again press his claim of marriage to Honoria; Aetius was unable to block Attila's advance through the Julian Alps. Instead, he chose to garrison Aquileia against Attila's onslaught. [50] Attila invaded and ravaged Italy, sacking numerous cities and razing Aquileia completely, allegedly leaving no trace of it behind. Valentinian III fled from the court at Ravenna to Rome; Aetius remained in the field but lacked the strength to offer battle, instead positioning his army at Bononia to block the roads through the Apennines to Ravenna and Rome. [51] Edward Gibbon however says Aetius never showed his greatness more clearly in managing to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the Po, where he met an embassy including the prefect Trygetius, the ex-consul Gennadius Avienus, and Pope Leo I. After the meeting he turned his army back, having gained neither Honoria's hand nor the territories he desired. Ancient and medieval historians tended to give Pope Leo and supernatural forces credit for halting Attila, [52] [53] [54] but a number of practical factors may have also induced Attila to retreat: his army was unable to obtain sufficient food and was suffering from disease, Aetius' army was busy harassing the Huns, and finally Marcian had sent forces north of the Danube to attack the homelands of the Huns and their vassals under a separate Aetius. [55]

Assassination

Although in 453 Aetius had been able to betroth his son Gaudentius to Valentinian's daughter Placidia, Valentinian felt intimidated by Aetius, who had once supported Joannes against him and who, Valentinian believed, wanted to place his son upon the imperial throne. The Roman senator Petronius Maximus and the chamberlain Heraclius were therefore able to enlist Valentinian in a plot to assassinate Aetius. The ancient historian Priscus of Panium reports that on September 21, 454, while Aetius was at court in Ravenna delivering a financial account, Valentinian suddenly leaped from his seat and declared that he would no longer be the victim of Aetius's drunken depravities. He held Aetius responsible for the empire's troubles and accused him of trying to steal the empire from him. When Aetius attempted to defend himself from the charges, Valentinian drew his sword and together with Heraclius, struck Aetius on the head, killing him. [56] Later, when Valentinian boasted that he had done well in disposing of Aetius, someone at court responded, "Whether well or not, I do not know. But know that you have cut off your right hand with your left." [57] Edward Gibbon credits Sidonius Apollinaris with this famous observation. [58]

Maximus expected to be made patrician in place of Aetius, but was blocked by Heraclius. Seeking revenge, Maximus arranged with two Hun friends of Aetius, Optila and Thraustila, to assassinate both Valentinian III and Heraclius. On March 16, 455, Optila stabbed the emperor in the temple as he dismounted in the Campus Martius and prepared for a session of archery practice. As the stunned emperor turned to see who had struck him, Optila finished him off with another thrust of his blade. Meanwhile, Thraustila stepped forward and killed Heraclius. Most of the soldiers standing close by had been faithful followers of Aetius, and none lifted a hand to save the emperor. [59]

Legacy

Military legacy

Aetius is generally viewed as a great military commander--indeed, he was held in such high esteem by the Eastern Roman Empire that he became known as the last true Roman of the west. Traditionally, historians also consider the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains as decisively important, crippling Attila by destroying his aura of invincibility. [60] Gibbon eloquently states this view:

[Attila's] retreat across the Rhine confessed the last victory which was achieved in the name of the Western Roman Empire.". [61]

Certainly Aetius' military legacy is defined by Châlons, even though he effectively ruled the western empire from 433–454, and attempted to stabilize its European borders under a deluge of barbarians, including foremost, Attila and the Huns.

One of his greatest achievements was the assembling of the coalition against Attila. On this Arther Ferrill says:

After he secured the Rhine, Attila moved into central Gaul and put Orléans under siege. Had he gained his objective, he would have been in a strong position to subdue the Visigoths in Aquitaine, but Aetius had put together a formidable coalition against the Hun. The Roman leader had built a powerful alliance of Visigoths, Alans and Burgundians, uniting them with their traditional enemy, the Romans, for the defense of Gaul. Even though all parties to the protection of the Western Roman Empire had a common hatred of the Huns, it was still a remarkable achievement on Aetius' part to have drawn them into an effective military relationship.

While J. B. Bury viewed Aetius as a great military commander, and giant figure of history, he did not consider the battle itself to be particularly decisive. He argues that Aetius attacked the Huns when they were already retreating from Orléans (so the danger to Gaul was departing anyway); and he declined to renew the attack on the Huns next day, precisely in order to preserve the balance of power. (Others suggest that the Huns may have abandoned the siege of Orléans because Aetius's armies were advancing on them.) Bury suggests that the German victory over the Huns at the Battle of Nedao, three years later, was more important. This determined that there would be no long-term Hunnic Empire in Europe, which Bury thinks would have been unlikely even if they had crushed the Germans on that occasion. For Bury, the result of the battle of the Catalaunian Plains determined chiefly that Attila spent his last year looting Italy, rather than Gaul.

Modern authors typically overlook the battle and focus on the greater impact of Aetius' career, and he is generally seen as one of the greatest Roman military commanders of all time, as well as an excellent diplomat and administrator. Meghan McEvoy states that the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains is more a testament to his political aptitude than his military skill due to his foresight in the ability to provision treaties and obligations. [62] John Julius Norwich caustically referred to the assassination of Valentinian III by his own guards as an act that Valentinian brought on himself by his foolish execution of Aetius, the "Empire's greatest commander." [63] Hugh Elton notes that Aetius and his army were one of the most effective Roman armies to have existed, with its speed and mobility pointing to a highly efficient logistical and manpower resupply system not directly evidenced by the sources. [64] It is generally seen that the rapid fragmentation and collapse of the West after his death was a testament to his ability to hold the empire together. [65]

Controversies

Aetius' legacy has been filled with controversy somewhat similar to that of Stilicho as both left the Empire significantly weaker when they died. Like Stilicho's critics pointing towards his inability or unwillingness to deal with usurpation in Britain, Gaul and Spain, and the Rhine crossing of 406, critics of Aetius point towards the civil wars from 427-433 that allowed for the Vandal crossing to Africa and its eventual loss, and Aetius' inability to retake Carthage. Hughes attempts to address this, pointing out that Flavius Constantinus Felix was responsible for the war that allowed for the Vandal crossing, and that the Romans did attempt to deal with it on several occasions, including Bonifatius in 429-432, Aspar from 430-435, and Aetius in 441. [66] Heather states that the rise of Attila ultimately led to the loss of Africa as the Eastern Roman army and navy, which was bearing the brunt of the cost for the expedition, had to be recalled to the Balkans. [67] Halsall argues that the black mark on Aetius' career was his mixed success in Spain, where the majority of the province was lost by 449, although he later rectified this. [68] Hughes states that:

"Stilicho and Aetius, who certainly knew each other, although they were from different generations, were responding to the specific, and vastly different, problems with which they were faced. Neither could find all of the answers." [69]

Still, the loss of the Empire's tax base in North Africa remains a black mark on his career in the eyes of many modern historians.

Genesis of Arthurian Legend

Aetius is generally considered to be the Roman consul to whom the Groans of the Britons was addressed, sometime between 447 and 454 AD. This request for military aid can be viewed as a preamble to the thousand year literary cycle, which evolved the island's legendary Arthurian heritage, the most significant part of what is now collectively referred to as the Matter of Britain.

Aetius is the antagonist in a scenario named "Battle of the Catalaunian Fields" in the "Attila the Hun" campaign of the game Age of Empires II: The Conquerors.

Aetius is the protagonist of several operas titled Ezio (Italian for Aetius), as well as Verdi's opera Attila .

Aetius is protagonist of two biographical novels by polish historical writer Teodor Parnicki: Aecjusz, ostatni Rzymianin (1937, title means Aetius, The Last Roman) and Śmierć Aecjusza (1966, title means The Death of Aetius). Both novels are ambivalent portraits of Flavius Aetius, and the complicated Roman history during the barbarian invasions of the fifth century.

In the 1954 film Attila Aetius is played by Henri Vidal, as an honest soldier reluctantly serving the corrupt Roman court. The character dies in his climactic battle with the Huns.

Aetius is played by Powers Boothe in the 2001 American TV Miniseries Attila . Here he is portrayed as an antagonist whose methods are contrasted with Attila, a former mentor and friend to Attila who becomes his nemesis. At the same time, he is depicted as the only general capable of keeping the empire standing and facing Attila as an equal.

Aetius is portrayed as the heroic 'Last of the Romans' in William Napier's Attila trilogy (2005), uniting the Romans and the Goths in one final, titanic battle to stop the Huns in their tracks, in the epochal Battle of the Catalaunian Fields.

While he does not appear in person, Aetius' battle with Attila is documented in detail in Jack Whyte's book The Eagle , during a conversation between King Arthur and Seur Clothar.

Aetius, Galla Placidia and Stilicho all appear as central characters in Jose Gomez-Rivera's historical novel Flavius Aetius: The Last Conqueror, published in 2004.

Aetius, Attila and Theodoric all appear in Michael Curtis Ford's fourth novel entitled The Sword of Attila, published by Thomas Dunne Books in 2005.

Aetius, Attila, Honoria, Leo and others figure in Louis de Wohl's vivid historical novel Throne of the World (1946), later republished with the alternative title Attila the Hun.

Aetius is an important supporting character in Thomas B. Costain's 1959 novel The Darkness and the Dawn , as are Attila and Valentinian III. The novel also includes an account of the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.

The movie 476 A.D. Chapter One: The Last Light of Aries, about the period of Flavius Aetius and his victory over Attila the Hun at the Battle of Châlons, as well as following the events leading to the End of the Roman Empire on September 4, 476 A.D, was released in 2014, by Ivan Pavletic.

Aetius is portrayed by Michael Nardone in the final episode of the 2016 History Channel docudrama Barbarians Rising , set during the campaign against the Huns.

See also

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451 Year

Year 451 (CDLI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Marcianus and Adelfius. The denomination 451 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

The 440s decade ran from January 1, 440, to December 31, 449.

Olybrius Western Roman Emperor

Olybrius was Western Roman Emperor from April or May 472 until his death; his rule was not recognised as legitimate by the Eastern Roman Empire. He was in reality a puppet ruler put on the throne by Ricimer, a Roman general of Germanic descent, and was mainly interested in religion, while the actual power was held by Ricimer and his nephew Gundobad.

Valentinian III 5th-century emperor of the Western Roman Empire

Valentinian III was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455. His reign was marked by the ongoing dismemberment of the Western Empire.

Foederati were foreign states, client kingdoms, or barbarian tribes to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance. The term was also used, especially under the Roman Empire for groups of "barbarian" mercenaries of various sizes, who were typically allowed to settle within the Roman Empire.

Battle of the Catalaunian Plains battle

The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, also called the Battle of the Campus Mauriacus, Battle of Châlons, Battle of Troyes or the Battle of Maurica, took place on June 20, 451 AD, between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against the Huns and their vassals commanded by their king Attila. It was one of the last major military operations of the Western Roman Empire, although Germanic foederati composed the majority of the coalition army. Whether the battle was strategically conclusive is disputed: the Romans possibly stopped the Huns' attempt to establish vassals in Roman Gaul. However, the Huns successfully looted and pillaged much of Gaul and crippled the military capacity of the Romans and Visigoths. The Hunnic Empire was later dismantled by a coalition of their Germanic vassals at the Battle of Nedao in 454.

<i>Magister militum</i> position

Magister militum was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great. Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates.

Bonifacius Roman general and governor

ComesBonifatius was a Roman general and governor of the Diocese of Africa. He campaigned against the Visigoths in Roman Gaul and the Vandals in Roman North Africa. An ally of Galla Placidia, Bonifacius engaged in Roman civil wars on her behalf against the generals Flavius Felix in 427-429 and Flavius Aetius in 432. Although he defeated the latter at the Battle of Rimini, Bonifacius suffered a fatal wound and was succeeded by his son-in-law Sebastianus as patricius of the Western Roman Empire.

Placidia Roman empress

Placidia was the wife of Olybrius, unrecognized Western Roman Emperor. Her full name is uncertain. The Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: The reign by reign record of the rulers of Imperial Rome (1995) by Chris Scarre gives her name as Galla Placidia Valentiniana or Galla Placidia the Younger, based on naming conventions for women in ancient Rome.

The Sack of Aquileia occurred in 452, and was carried out by the Huns under the leadership of Attila.

<i>Attila</i> (miniseries) 2001 television miniseries directed by Dick Lowry

Attila is a 2001 American television miniseries set during the waning days of the Western Roman Empire, in particular during the invasions of the Huns in Europe.

Sangiban was a fifth-century Alan king at the time of Attila's invasion of Gaul (451). He was the successor of Goar as king of the Alan foederati settled in the region around Aurelianum. According to Jordanes, Sangiban had promised Attila before the Battle of Châlons to open the city gates and deliver Aurelianum to the Huns. Suspecting this, the Romans and Visigoths put Sangiban in the center of the line opposing the Huns, where they could prevent him from defecting. Thus the Alans bore the main brunt of the Hunnic assault, while the Goths were able to flank the Huns and ultimately drive them back.

Litorius was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire serving as Magister militum per Gallias from 435 until his death mainly in Gaul under magister militum Flavius Aetius. Litorius is noted for being the last Roman commander in the ancient Roman military history to perform of pagan rites and the consultation of auspices before a battle.

References

  1. Hughes, Ian. Aetius: Attila's Nemesis. List of Plates, 1
  2. John Beckwith (1993) [1979]. Early Christian and Byzantine Art. Second Edition, new impression. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN   0-300-05296-0, pp 45-46.
  3. The ae in Latin Aetius was disyllabic, not diphthongal.
  4. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, p. 4
  5. Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin (1980). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Volume 2, AD 395-527. Cambridge University Press. p. 493. ISBN   978-0-521-20159-9.
  6. Thomas J. Craughwell, How the Barbarian Invasions Shaped the Modern World, Fair Winds, 2008, p.60 Google book
  7. Jordanes, Getica, 176; Merobaudes, Carmina, iv, 42-43, and Panegyrici, ii, 110-115, 119-120; Gregory of Tours, ii.8; Zosimus, v.36.1; Chronica gallica 452, 100. Cited in Jones, p. 21.
  8. Carpilio had been a comes domesticorum, commander of the imperial guard (Gregory of Tours, ii.8).
  9. Carpilio went to Attila for an embassy (Cassiodorus, Variae, i.4.11) and remained at their court as an hostage for some time (Priscus, fr. 8).
  10. Gregory of Tours, ii.8; Priscus, fr. 8; Cassiodorus, Variae, i.4.11; John of Antioch, fr. 201.3 and 204; Marcellinus comes, s.a. 432; Sidonius Apollinaris, Carmina, v.205; Hydatius, 167; Merobaudes, Carmina, iv (poem composed for the first birthday of Gaudentius); Additamenta ad chron. Prosperi Hauniensis, s.a. 455 (only source to cite Thraustila as son-in-law of Aetius). Cited in Jones, p. 21.
  11. Gregory of Tours, ii.8; Jones, p. 21.
  12. 1 2 Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire. XIII.I. p 241
  13. Gregory of Tours, ii.8; Merobaudes, Carmina, iv, 42-46, and Panegyrici, ii.1-4 and 127-143; Zosimus, v.36.1
  14. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume I, Chap. XXXV (Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1952), p. 559.
  15. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, 26-27.
  16. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, 30
  17. Cassiodorus, Chronica, s.a. 425; Gregory of Tours, ii.8; Philostorgius, xii.4; Prosp. s.a. 425; Chronica gallica 452, 100; Jordanes, Romana, 328; Jones, p. 22; Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, 31-33.
  18. Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire. XIII.I. p 243
  19. 1 2 Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire. XIII.I. p 242
  20. Philostorgius, xii.4; Prosp. s.a. 425 and 428; Chronica Gallia 452, 102 (s.a. 427); Cassiodorus, Chronica, s.a. 428. Cited in Jones, p. 22.
  21. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, p.76
  22. Merobaudes, Pan. 1.10 (Vollmer, ad loc.), Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, p.76
  23. Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire. XIII.I. p 244, Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, p.82
  24. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, p.83
  25. Prosperus of Tirus, s.a. 429 e 430; John of Antioch, fr. 201; Hydatius, 92, 93 and 94 (s.a. 430), 95 and 96 (s.a. 431), 98 (s.a. 432); Chronica Gallia 452, 106 (s.a. 430); Jordanes, Getica, 176; Sidonius Apollinaris, Carmina, vii.233. Cited in Jones, pp. 22-23.
  26. CNG Coins
  27. Procopius of Caesarea, Bellum Vandalicum, i.3.14-22, 28-29; John of Antioch, fr. 196; Theophanes, AM 5931; Hydatius, 99; Prosperus, s.a. 427. Cited in Jones, p. 23.
  28. 1 2 Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire. XIII.I. p 248
  29. CIL, v, 7530; Prosperus, s.a. 432; Chronica Gallica a. 452, 109 and 111 (s.a. 432), 112 (s.a. 433), 115 (s.a. 434); Chronica Gallica a. 511, 587; Additamenta ad chron. Prosperi Hauniensis, s.a. 432; Hydatius, 99; Marcellinus comes, s.a. 432; John of Antioch, fr. 201.3. Cited in Jones, pp. 23-24.
  30. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, p.94
  31. Sid. Apol. Carm. 7.234-240
  32. Hydatius, Chronicon, 110
  33. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis 96-102, Prosp. s.a. 439, Hyd. Chronicon, 116
  34. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, pp. 102-103.
  35. Annales Ravennates, s.a. 435; John of Antioch, fr. 201.3; Prosper of Aquitaine, s.a. 435, s.a. 438, s.a. 439; Cassiodorus, Chronica, s.a. 435; Chronica Gallica a. 452, 117 (s.a. 435), 118 (s.a. 436), 119 (s.a. 437), 123 (s.a. 439); Hydatius, 108 (s.a. 436), 110 (s.a. 437), 112 (s.a. 438), 117 (s.a. 439); Sidonius Apollinaris, vii.234-235 and 297-309; Merobaudes, Panegyrici, i fr. iib 11ff, i fr. iia 22-23, and ii.5-7; Jordanes, Getica, 176; ; Barnes, Timothy, "Patricii under Valentinian III", Phoenix, 29, 1975, pp. 166-168; Jones, pp. 24-26.
  36. Chron. Gall. s.a. 440, 442, 443, Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis,128
  37. Hyd. Chronicn, 125, 128, 131, 134
  38. Chronica Gallia 452, s.a. 448
  39. Hyd. Chronicon, 141-142
  40. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis 136, Sid. Apol. Carm. 5.214
  41. Chronica Gallica Anno 452, 133 (s.a. 438); Sid. Apol. carm. 5.210-218. Cited in Jones, p. 27. Jan Willem Drijvers, Helena Augusta, BRILL, ISBN   90-04-09435-0, p. 12.
  42. Priscus, fr. 16; Gregory of Tours, ii.7. It is possible that this happened after the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451 (Jones, p. 27).
  43. Priscus, fr. 7 and 8; Suda, Z 29. Cited in Jones, p. 27.
  44. John of Antioch, fr. 199.2; Jordanes, Getica, 191. Cited in Jones, p.27.
  45. It should be noted that Hunnish armies were never composed entirely of ethnic Huns but contained relative majorities of subject peoples.
  46. Sidonius Apollinaris, vii.328-331, 339-341; John Malalas, 358; Jordanes, Getica, 195; Gregory of Tours, ii.7. Cited in Jones, p.27.
  47. Bury, J.B., 1923, Chapter 9, § 4.
  48. Chronica Gallica a. 452, 139 (s.a. 451), 141 (s.a. 452); Cassiodorus, Chronica, 451; Additamenta ad chron. Prosperi Hauniensis, s.a. 451; Hydatius, 150 (a. 451); Chronicon Paschale, s.a. 450; Jordanes, Getica, 197ff; Gregory of Tours, ii.7; Procopius, i.4.24; John Malalas, 359; Theophanes, AM 5943. Cited in Jones, p. 27.
  49. Gregory of Tours, 2.7; Jordanes, Getica, 215ff. Cited in Jones, pp. 27-28.
  50. Prosper, s.a. 452; Jordanes, De Origine Actibusque Getarum 42.219.
  51. Hughes, Aetius: Attila's Nemesis, 180.
  52. Medieval Sourcebook: Leo I and Attila
  53. Given, J. (2014) The Fragmentary History of Priscus: Attila, the Huns and the Roman Empire, AD 430-476 Evolution Publishing, Merchantville, NJ ISBN   978-1-935228-14-1, p. 107
  54. Paul the Deacon, Historia Romana 14.12
  55. Heather, P. (2010) The Fall of the Roman Empire, Pan Macmillan. ISBN   9780330529839, p. 341
  56. Given, J. The Fragmentary History of Priscus, p. 126
  57. Given, J. The Fragmentary History of Priscus, p. 127
  58. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. 35
  59. Given, J. The Fragmentary History of Priscus, p. 128
  60. Edward Shepherd Creasy http://www.standin.se/fifteen06a.htm Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World "The victory which the Roman general, Aetius, with his Gothic allies, had then gained over the Huns, was the last victory of imperial Rome. But among the long Fasti of her triumphs, few can be found that, for their importance and ultimate benefit to mankind, are comparable with this expiring effort of her arms."
  61. Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Modern Library, New York, volume II, p.1089.
  62. McEvoy, Meghan (2013). Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West AD 367-455. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 294–295.
  63. Norwich, John. Byzantium: The Early Centuries
  64. Elton, Hugh (1992). "Defence in Fifth Century Gaul". Fifth Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?: 142.
  65. Hughes, Ian (2012). Aetius: Attila's Nemesis. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. p. 205.
  66. Hughes, Ian (2012). Aetius: Attila's Nemesis. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. pp. 66–73, 83–84, 118–119.
  67. Heather, Peter (2006). The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 291–292.
  68. Halsall, Guy (2007). Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 250, 254–255.
  69. Hughes, Ian (2012). Aetius: Attila's Nemesis. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. p. 201.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Flavius Anicius Auchenius Bassus,
Flavius Antiochus
Consul of the Roman Empire
432
with Flavius Valerius
Succeeded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIV,
Petronius Maximus
Preceded by
Flavius Anthemius Isidorus Theophilus,
Flavius Senator
Consul of the Roman Empire
437
with Flavius Sigisvultus
Succeeded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus XVI,
Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus
Preceded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI,
Flavius Nomus
Consul of the Roman Empire
446
with Quintus Aurelius Symmachus
Succeeded by
Flavius Calepius,
Flavius Ardaburius Iunior
Preceded by
Flavius Rufilius Opilio,
Ioannes Vincomalus
Consul of the Roman Empire
454
with Flavius Studius
Succeeded by
Procopius Anthemius,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VIII
Military offices
Preceded by
Flavius Gaudentius
Magister Militum per Gallias
425-429
Succeeded by
Eparchius Avitus
Preceded by
Flavius Sebastianus
Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae of the Western Roman Army
433-454
Succeeded by
Flavius Remistus
In 456