Floruit

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Floruit ( /ˈflɔːrju.ɪt/ ; abbreviated fl. or occasionally flor.; from Latin for "flourished") denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. [1] [2] In English, the unabbreviated word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished. [1]

Contents

Etymology and use

Latin : flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin verb flōreō, flōrēre "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun flōs, flōris, "flower". [3] [2]

Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person or movement. More specifically, it often is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but some other evidence exists that indicates when they were alive. [4] For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204, and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as "John Jones (fl. 1197–1229)", even though Jones was born before 1197 and died possibly after 1229.

The term is often used in art history when dating the career of an artist. In this context, it denotes the period of the individual's artistic activity. [5]

In some cases, it can be replaced by the words "active between [date] and [date]", depending on context and if space or style permits.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "floruit". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2021-01-29.
  2. 1 2 "floruit". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
  3. Cassell's Latin Dictionary
  4. Adeleye, Gabriel; Kofi Acquah-Dadzie; Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough (1999). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: a Resource for Readers and Writers . Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p.  147. ISBN   0-86516-423-1 . Retrieved 1 June 2010. fata morgana Morgan.
  5. Johnson, W. McAllister (1990), Art History: Its Use and Abuse, University of Toronto Press, p. 307, ISBN   0-86516-423-1 , retrieved 1 June 2010