Floruit

Last updated

Floruit ( UK: /ˈflɔːruɪt,ˈflɒruɪt/ , US: /ˈflɔːrjuɪt/ ), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. [1] [2] In English, the unabbreviated word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished. [1]

Contents

Etymology and use

Latin : flōruit is the third-person singular perfect active indicative of the Latin verb flōreō, flōrēre "to bloom, flower, or flourish", from the noun flōs, flōris, "flower". [3] [2]

Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. More specifically, it often is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but some other evidence exists that indicates when he or she was alive. [4] For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204, and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as "John Jones (fl. 1197–1229)".

The term is often used in art history when dating the career of an artist. In this context, it denotes the period of the individual's artistic activity. [5]

In some cases, it can be replaced by the words "active between [date] and [date]", depending on context and if space or style permits.

See also

Related Research Articles

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. The inflectional change of verbs is called conjugation.

Grammatical conjugation the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection. Verbs may inflect for grammatical categories such as person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity, interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition, mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality, and reciprocity. Verbs may also be affected by agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class, noun classifiers, and verb classifiers. Agglutinative and polysynthetic languages tend to have the most complex conjugations albeit some fusional languages such as Archi can also have extremely complex conjugation. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or several modifications of it (stems). All the different forms of the same verb constitute a lexeme, and the canonical form of the verb that is conventionally used to represent that lexeme is called a lemma.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

The nominative case , subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. Generally, the noun "that is doing something" is in the nominative, and the nominative is often the form listed in dictionaries.

Noun part of speech in grammar denoting a figurative or real thing or person

A noun is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas. However, noun is not a semantic category, so that it cannot be characterized in terms of its meaning. Thus, actions and states of existence can also be expressed by verbs, qualities by adjectives, and places by adverbs. Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

Adjective part of speech that describes a noun or pronoun

In linguistics, an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or noun phrase or describes its referent. Its semantic role is to change information given by the noun.

A referendum is a direct and universal vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal and can have nationwide or local forms. This may result in the adoption of a new policy or specific law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a plebiscite or a vote on a ballot question.

English plurals How English plurals are formed; typically -(e)s

English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural. This article discusses the variety of ways in which English plural nouns are formed from the corresponding singular forms, as well as various issues concerning the usage of singulars and plurals in English. For plurals of pronouns, see English personal pronouns.

The plural, in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number. Plural of nouns typically denote a quantity other than the default quantity represented by a noun, which is generally one. Most commonly, therefore, plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may also denote more than fractional, zero or negative amounts. An example of a plural is the English word cats, which corresponds to the singular cat.

Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per and capita. The phrase thus means "by heads" or "for each head", i.e., per individual/person. The term is used in a wide variety of social sciences and statistical research contexts, including government statistics, economic indicators, and built environment studies.

In English, the plural form of words ending in -us, especially those derived from Latin, often replaces -us with -i. There are many exceptions, some because the word does not derive from Latin, and others due to custom. Conversely, some non-Latin words ending in -us and Latin words that did not have their Latin plurals with -i form their English plurals with -i. Some words' plurals end in -i even though they are not Latin, or that is not the Latin plural, e.g., octopi is sometimes used as a plural for octopus. Prescriptivists consider these forms incorrect, but descriptivists may simply describe them as a natural evolution of language.

Many languages have words expressing indefinite and fictitious numbers—inexact terms of indefinite size, used for comic effect, for exaggeration, as placeholder names, or when precision is unnecessary or undesirable. One technical term for such words is "non-numerical vague quantifier". Such words designed to indicate large quantities can be called "indefinite hyperbolic numerals".

The numero sign or numero symbol, , is a typographic abbreviation of the word number(s) indicating ordinal numeration, especially in names and titles. For example, with the numero sign, the written long-form of the address "Number 22 Acacia Avenue" is shortened to "№ 22 Acacia Avenue", yet both forms are spoken long.

In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word, phrase, or sentence. Most characteristically, markers occur as clitics or inflectional affixes. In analytic languages and agglutinative languages, markers are generally easily distinguished. In fusional languages and polysynthetic languages, this is often not the case. For example, in Latin, a highly fusional language, the word amo is marked by suffix -o for indicative mood, active voice, first person, singular, present tense. Analytic languages tend to have a relatively limited number of markers.

A possessive form is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense. This can include strict ownership, or a number of other types of relation to a greater or lesser degree analogous to it.

Bachelorette (/ˌbætʃələˈrɛt/) is a term used in American English for a single, unmarried woman. The term is derived from the word bachelor, and is often used by journalists, editors of popular magazines, and some individuals. "Bachelorette" was famously the term used to refer to female contestants on the old The Dating Game TV show and, more recently, The Bachelorette.

Where births are required to be officially registered, the entire name entered onto a births register or birth certificate may by that fact alone become the person's legal name. The assumption in the Western world is often that the name from birth will persist to adulthood in the normal course of affairs—either throughout life, or until marriage. Some possible changes concern middle names, diminutive forms, and changes relating to parental status. Matters are very different in some cultures in which a birth name is for childhood only, rather than for life.

Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected to indicate the relative degree of the property they define exhibited by the word or phrase they modify or describe. In languages that have it, the comparative construction expresses quality, quantity, or degree relative to some other comparator(s). The superlative construction expresses the greatest quality, quantity, or degree—i.e. relative to all other comparators.

English articles definite article "the" and indefinite articles "a" and "an" (and sometimes the word "some")

Articles in the English language are the definite article the and the indefinite articles a and an. Use of the definite article implies that the speaker assumes the listener knows the identity of the noun's referent. The use of an indefinite article implies that the speaker assumes the listener does not have to be told the identity of the referent. In some noun phrases, no article is used.

Tempore, in historical literature, denotes a period during which a person whose exact lifespan is unknown was known to have been alive or active, or some other date which is not exactly known, usually given as the reign of a monarch. The word is Latin, being the ablative singular of the noun tempus, temporis, "time", thus meaning "in the time (of)". It should be followed by a name in the genitive case. The theoretical full form might be vixit tempore Regis Henrici Primi.

References

  1. 1 2 "floruit". Oxford English Living Dictionaries: English. Oxford University Press. 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  2. 1 2 flo·ru·it. American Heritage Dictionary (5th [online] ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2017 [2011]. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  3. Cassell's Latin Dictionary
  4. Adeleye, Gabriel; Kofi Acquah-Dadzie; Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough (1999). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: a Resource for Readers and Writers. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 147. ISBN   0-86516-423-1 . Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  5. Johnson, W. McAllister (1990), Art History: Its Use and Abuse, University of Toronto Press, p. 307, ISBN   0-86516-423-1 , retrieved 1 June 2010