Flugelhorn

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Flugelhorn
Yamaha Flugelhorn YFH-8310Z.jpg
A standard 3-valved B flugelhorn
Brass instrument
Classification
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 423.232
(valved aerophone sounded by lip vibration)
DevelopedEarly 19th century
Playing range
Written range:
Range trumpet 3.svg
(lower and higher notes are possible)
Related instruments

The flugelhorn ( /ˈflɡəlhɔːrn/ ), also spelled fluegelhorn, flugel horn, or flügelhorn, is a brass instrument that resembles the trumpet and cornet but has a wider, more conical bore. [1] Like trumpets and cornets, most flugelhorns are pitched in B (some are in C). [2] It is a type of valved bugle, developed in Germany in the early 19th century from a traditional English valveless bugle. The first version of a valved bugle was sold by Heinrich Stölzel in Berlin in 1828. [3] The valved bugle provided Adolphe Sax (creator of the saxophone) with the inspiration for his B soprano (contralto) saxhorns, on which the modern-day flugelhorn is modeled. [4] [5]

Contents

Etymology

The German word Flügel means wing or flank in English. In early 18th century Germany, a ducal hunt leader known as a Flügelmeister blew the Flügelhorn, a large semicircular brass or silver valveless horn, to direct the wings of the hunt. Military use dates from the Seven Years' War, where this instrument was employed as a predecessor of the bugle. [4]

Structure and variants

A rotary valve flugelhorn Yamaha Flugelhorn YFH-436G.jpg
A rotary valve flugelhorn

The flugelhorn is generally pitched in B, like most trumpets and cornets. It usually has three piston valves and employs the same fingering system as other brass instruments, although four-valve versions and rotary-valve versions also exist. It can therefore be played by trumpet and cornet players although it has different playing characteristics. The flugelhorn mouthpiece is more deeply conical than either trumpet or cornet mouthpieces, but not as conical as a French horn mouthpiece. The shank of the flugelhorn mouthpiece is similar in size to a cornet mouthpiece shank.[ citation needed ]

Some modern flugelhorns feature a fourth valve that lowers the pitch a perfect fourth (similar to the fourth valve on some euphoniums, tubas, and piccolo trumpets, or the trigger on trombones). This adds a useful low range that, coupled with the flugelhorn's dark sound, extends the instrument's abilities. Players can also use the fourth valve in place of the first and third valve combination (which is somewhat sharp).

A compact version of the rotary valve Flugelhorn, is the oval shaped Kuhlohorn in B. It was developed for the German protestant trombone choirs.

A pair of bass flugelhorns in C, called fiscorns, are played in the Catalan cobla bands which provide music for sardana dancers.

Timbre

The tone is fatter and usually regarded as more mellow and dark than the trumpet or cornet. The sound of the flugelhorn has been described as halfway between a trumpet and a French horn, whereas the cornet's sound is halfway between a trumpet and a flugelhorn. [6] The flugelhorn is as agile as the cornet but more difficult to control in the high register (from approximately written G5), where in general it locks onto notes less easily.

Use and performances

Flugelhorn excerpt
B trumpet playing the same excerpt as above

The flugelhorn is a standard member of the British-style brass band, and it is also used frequently in jazz. It also appears occasionally in orchestral and concert band music. Famous orchestral works with flugelhorn include Igor Stravinsky's Threni , [7] Ralph Vaughan Williams's Ninth Symphony, [8] and Michael Tippett's third symphony. [9] The flugelhorn is sometimes substituted for the post horn in Mahler's Third Symphony, [10] and for the soprano Roman buccine in Ottorino Respighi's Pines of Rome . In HK Gruber's trumpet concerto Busking (2007) the soloist is directed to play a flugelhorn in the slow middle movement. [11] The flugelhorn figured prominently in many of Burt Bacharach's 1960s pop song arrangements. It is featured in a solo role in Bert Kaempfert's 1962 recording of "That Happy Feeling". Flugelhorns have occasionally been used as the alto or low soprano voice in a drum and bugle corps.

Another use of the flugelhorn is found in the Dutch and Belgian "Fanfareorkesten" or fanfare orchestras. In these orchestras the flugelhorns, often between 10 and 20 in number, have a significant role, forming the base of the orchestra. They are pitched in B, with sporadically an E soloist. Due to poor intonation these E flugelhorns are mostly replaced by the E trumpet or cornet.

The 1996 film Brassed Off features a flugelhorn performance of Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez, Adagio, as a key moment. [12] The solo is played by Paul Hughes. [13]

Notable players

Joe Bishop, as a member of the Woody Herman band in 1936, was one of the earliest jazz musicians to use the flugelhorn. Shorty Rogers and Kenny Baker began playing it in the early fifties, and Clark Terry used it in Duke Ellington's orchestra in the mid-1950s. Chet Baker recorded several albums on the instrument in the 1950s and 1960s. Miles Davis further popularized the instrument in jazz on the albums Miles Ahead and Sketches of Spain , (both arranged by Gil Evans) though he did not use it much on later projects. Other prominent flugelhorn players include Freddy Buzon, Freddie Hubbard, Tom Browne, Lee Morgan, Bill Dixon, Wilbur Harden, Art Farmer, Roy Hargrove, Randy Brecker, Hugh Masekela, Feya Faku, Tony Guerrero, Gary Lord, Jimmy Owens, Maynard Ferguson, Terumasa Hino, Woody Shaw, Guido Basso, Kenny Wheeler, Tom Harrell, Bill Coleman, Thad Jones, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Loughnane of the rock band Chicago, Mike Metheny, Harry Beckett, and Ack van Rooyen. Most jazz flugelhorn players use the instrument as an auxiliary to the trumpet, but in the 1970s Chuck Mangione gave up playing the trumpet and concentrated on the flugelhorn alone, notably on his jazz-pop hit song "Feels So Good". Mangione, in an interview on ABC during the 1980 Winter Olympics, for which he wrote the theme "Give It All You Got", referred to the flugelhorn as "the right baseball glove".[ citation needed ]

Pop flugelhorn players include Probyn Gregory (Brian Wilson Band), Ronnie Wilson of the Gap Band, Rick Braun, Mic Gillette, Jeff Oster, Zach Condon of the band Beirut, Scott Spillane of the band Neutral Milk Hotel, Terry Kirkman of the band The Association, and Rashawn Ross of the band Dave Matthews Band. Marvin Stamm played the flugelhorn solo on "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" by Paul and Linda McCartney. [14]

Classical flugelhorn players include Sergei Nakariakov and Kirill Soldatov [15]

Footnotes

  1. Yurochko, Bob (2001). A Short History of Jazz. p. 182. ISBN   9780830415953.
  2. "Flügelhorn". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  3. Baines, Anthony (January 1993). Brass Instruments: Their History and Development. Courier Corporation. p. 230. ISBN   9780486275741.
  4. 1 2 Baines, Anthony C.; Herbert, Trevor. "Flugelhorn". Grove Music Online . Oxford Music Online. Retrieved 17 March 2017.(subscription required)
  5. "Flugelhorn (Contralto Saxhorn) - Adolphe Edouard Sax (1859-1945)". Artsandculture.google.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  6. Forsyth, Cecil (1922). Orchestration. p. 165.
  7. "Stravinsky: Threni | News | The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  8. Stumpf II, Robert. "Classical Net Review - Maestrino - Stokowski Conducts New Music". Classical Net. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  9. Clements, Andrew (28 February 2019). "Tippett: Symphonies Nos 3 & 4; Symphony in B flat review | Andrew Clements's classical CD of the week". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  10. "Symphony No.3 (Mahler, Gustav) - IMSLP: Free Sheet Music PDF Download". imslp.org. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  11. "BIS Records - HK Gruber - Busking". bis.se. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  12. Watkins, Jack (24 April 2017). "How we made Brassed Off". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  13. "Brassed Off (1996) - IMDb" . Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  14. "Uncle Albert - Admiral Halsey by Paul McCartney". Songfacts. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  15. "A. Vivaldi Double Cello Concerto g-moll (arr. for 2 flugelhorns)".

Related Research Articles

Brass instrument Class of musical instruments

A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips. Brass instruments are also called labrosones or labrophones, from Latin and Greek elements meaning 'lip' and 'sound'.

Cornet Musical instrument

The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality. The most common cornet is a transposing instrument in B, though there is also a soprano cornet in E and cornets in A and C. All are unrelated to the Renaissance and early Baroque cornett.

Euphonium Brass instrument

The euphonium is a medium-sized, 3 or 4-valve, often compensating, conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced". The euphonium is a valved instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valves, though some models with rotary valves do exist.

French horn Type of brass instrument

The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays a horn is known as a horn player or hornist.

Saxhorn Family of valved brass instruments

The saxhorn is a family of valved brass instruments that have conical bores and deep cup-shaped mouthpieces. The saxhorn family was developed by Adolphe Sax, who is also known for creating the saxophone family. The sound of the saxhorn has a characteristic mellow tone quality and blends well with other brass.

Trombone Type of brass instrument

The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Unlike most other brass instruments, which have valves that, when pressed, alter the pitch of the instrument, trombones instead have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. However, many modern trombone models also have a valve attachment which lowers the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet.

Trumpet Musical instrument

The trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group ranges from the piccolo trumpet with the highest register in the brass family, to the bass trumpet, which is pitched one octave below the standard B or C Trumpet.

Tuba Type of musical instrument of the brass family

The tuba is the lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, the sound is produced by lip vibration, or a buzz, into a mouthpiece. It first appeared in the mid-19th century, making it one of the newer instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The tuba largely replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for "trumpet".

Baritone horn Low-pitched brass instrument

The baritone horn, or sometimes just called baritone, is a low-pitched brass instrument in the saxhorn family. It is a piston-valve brass instrument with a bore that is mostly conical but it has a narrower bore than the similarly pitched euphonium. It uses a wide-rimmed cup mouthpiece like that of its peers, the trombone and euphonium. Like the trombone and the euphonium, the baritone horn can be considered either a transposing or non-transposing instrument.

Tenor horn

The tenor horn is a brass instrument in the saxhorn family, and is usually pitched in E. It has a bore that is mostly conical, like the flugelhorn and baritone horn, and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece.

Mellophone

The mellophone is a brass instrument typically pitched in the key of F, though models in B, E, C, and G have also historically existed. It has a conical bore, like that of the euphonium and flugelhorn. The mellophone is used as the middle-voiced brass instrument in marching bands and drum and bugle corps in place of French horns, and can also be used to play French horn parts in concert bands and orchestras.

Flumpet

The Flumpet is a hybrid brass instrument that shares the construction and timbral qualities of a trumpet and flugelhorn. The Flumpet was invented for Art Farmer by David Monette and is currently in production by Monette. The Flumpet is in the key of B♭.

A natural trumpet is a valveless brass instrument that is able to play the notes of the harmonic series.

Marching brass

Marching brass instruments are brass instruments specially designed to be played while moving. Most instruments do not have a marching version - only the following have marching versions:

Bore (wind instruments)

In music, the bore of a wind instrument is its interior chamber. This defines a flow path through which air travels, which is set into vibration to produce sounds. The shape of the bore has a strong influence on the instrument's timbre.

Soprano helicon

A Soprano Helicon is a coiled brass instrument from the helicon family.

Saxotromba

The saxotromba is a valved brass instrument invented by the Belgian instrument-maker Adolphe Sax around 1844. It was designed for the mounted bands of the French military, probably as a substitute for the French horn. The saxotrombas comprised a family of half-tube instruments of different pitches. By about 1867 the saxotromba was no longer being used by the French military, but specimens of various sizes continued to be manufactured until the early decades of the twentieth century, during which time the instrument made sporadic appearances in the opera house, both in the pit and on stage. The instrument is often confused with the closely related saxhorn.

Fanfare band

A fanfare band, fanfare corps, fanfare battery, fanfare team, horn and drum corps, bugle band, drum and bugle corps, or trumpet and drum band is a military or civilian musical ensemble composed of percussion instruments, bugles, natural horns and natural trumpets. Fanfare bands are the descendants of the old medieval trumpet and drum teams that sounded fanfares on important occasions and are related to drum and bugle corps internationally.

Horn (instrument) Family of wind instruments made of a tube

A horn is any of a family of musical instruments made of a tube, usually made of metal and often curved in various ways, with one narrow end into which the musician blows, and a wide end from which sound emerges. In horns, unlike some other brass instruments such as the trumpet, the bore gradually increases in width through most of its length—that is to say, it is conical rather than cylindrical. In jazz and popular-music contexts, the word may be used loosely to refer to any wind instrument, and a section of brass or woodwind instruments, or a mixture of the two, is called a horn section in these contexts.

German horn

The German horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell, and in bands and orchestras is the most widely used of three types of horn, the other two being the French horn and the Vienna horn. Its use among professional players has become so universal that it is only in France and Vienna that any other kind of horn is used today. A musician who plays the German horn is called a horn player. The word "German" is used only to distinguish this instrument from the now-rare French and Viennese instruments. Although the expression "French horn" is still used colloquially in English for any orchestral horn, since the 1930s professional musicians and scholars have generally avoided this term in favour of just "horn". Vienna horns today are played only in Vienna, and are made only by Austrian firms. German horns, by contrast, are not all made by German manufacturers, nor are all French-style instruments made in France.

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