Forced conversions of Muslims in Spain

Last updated

The Moorish Proselytes of Archbishop Ximenes, Granada, 1500 by Edwin Long (1829–1891), depicting a mass baptism of Muslims The Moorish Proselytes of Archbishop Ximenes, Granada, 1500.jpg
The Moorish Proselytes of Archbishop Ximenes, Granada, 1500 by Edwin Long (1829–1891), depicting a mass baptism of Muslims

The forced conversions of Muslims in Spain were enacted through a series of edicts outlawing Islam in the lands of Spain. This effort was overseen by three Spanish monarchies during the early 16th century: the Crown of Castile in 1500–1502, followed by Navarre in 1515–1516, and lastly the Crown of Aragon in 1523–1526. [1]

An edict is a decree or announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism, but it can be under any official authority. Synonyms include dictum and pronouncement.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.

Spain Country in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Contents

After Christian kingdoms finished their reconquest of Islamic Spain in 1492, the Muslim population stood between 500,000 and 600,000 people. At this time Muslims who lived under Christian rule were given the status of Mudéjar, legally allowing the open practice of Islam. In 1499, the Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros began a campaign in the city of Granada to force religious compliance with Christianity with torture and imprisonment; this triggered a Muslim rebellion. The rebellion was eventually quelled and then used to justify revoking the Muslims' legal and treaty protections. Conversion efforts were redoubled, and by 1501 officially no Muslim remained in Granada. Encouraged by the success in Granada, the Castile's Queen Isabella issued an edict in 1502 which banned Islam for all of Castile. With the annexation of the Iberian Navarre in 1515, more Muslims still were forced to observe Christian beliefs under the Castilian edict. The last realm to impose conversion was the Crown of Aragon, whose kings had previously been bound to guarantee the freedom of religion for its Muslims under an oath included in their coronations. In the early 1520s, an anti-Islam uprising known as the Revolt of the Brotherhoods took place, and Muslims under the rebel territories were forced to convert. When the Aragon royal forces, aided by Muslims, suppressed the rebellion, King Charles I (better known as Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire) ruled that those forcible conversions were valid; thus, the "converts" were now officially Christians. This placed the converts under the jurisdiction of the Spanish Inquisition. Finally, in 1524, Charles petitioned Pope Clement VII to release the king from his oath protecting Muslims' freedom of religion. This granted him the authority to officially act against the remaining Muslim population; in late 1525, he issued an official edict of conversion: Islam was no longer officially extant throughout Spain.

<i>Reconquista</i> period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula

The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, and the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.

Christianity is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion faith based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Most, but not all Christians get baptized, celebrate the Lord's Supper, pray the Lord's Prayer and other prayers, read or listen to the Bible, have clergy, and attend group worship services.

Mudéjar Muslim people living in Christian territories in the Iberian Peninsula

Mudéjar refers to an architecture and decoration style in (post-Moorish) Christian Iberia that was strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship, reaching its greatest expression in medieval Aragon, Andalusia and the city of Toledo. The distinctive Mudéjar style is still evident in regional architecture, as well as in music, art, and crafts, especially Hispano-Moresque ware, lustreware pottery that was widely exported across Europe.

While adhering to Christianity in public was required by the royal edicts and enforced by the Spanish Inquisition, evidence indicated that most of the forcibly converted (known as the "Moriscos") clung to Islam in secret. In daily public life, traditional Islamic law could no longer be followed without persecution by the Inquisition; as a result, the Oran fatwa was issued to acknowledge the necessity of relaxing sharia, as well as detailing the ways in which Muslims were to do so. This fatwa become the basis for the crypto-Islam practiced by the Moriscos until their expulsions in 1609–1614. Some Muslims, many near the coast, emigrated in response to the conversion. However, restrictions placed by the authorities on emigration meant leaving Spain was not an option for many. Rebellions also broke out in some areas, especially those with defensible mountainous terrain, but they were all unsuccessful. Ultimately, the edicts created a society in which devout Muslims who secretly refused conversion coexisted with former Muslims who became genuine practicing Christians, up until the expulsion.

Morisco Muslim-descended community in Spain

Moriscos were former Muslims and their descendants who were pressured heavily by the Catholic church and the Spanish Crown under the threat of death to convert to Christianity after Spain outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population in the early 16th century.

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. It has been described as "one of the major intellectual achievements of Islam" and its importance in Islam has been compared to that of theology in Christianity. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists.

Oran fatwa

The Oran fatwa was a responsum fatwa, or an Islamic legal opinion, issued in 1504 to address the crisis that occurred when Muslims in the Crown of Castile were forced to convert to Christianity in 1500–1502. The fatwa sets out detailed relaxations of the sharia requirements, allowing the Muslims to conform outwardly to Christianity and perform acts that are ordinarily forbidden in Islamic law, when necessary to survive. It includes relaxed instructions for fulfilling the ritual prayers, the ritual charity, and the ritual ablution, and recommendations when obliged to violate Islamic law, such as worshipping as Christians, committing blasphemy, and consuming pork and wine.

Background

The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz (1848–1921), depicting the 1492 surrender of Granada, the last Muslim-ruled kingdom in Spain. La Rendición de Granada - Pradilla.jpg
The Capitulation of Granada by Francisco Pradilla Ortiz (1848–1921), depicting the 1492 surrender of Granada, the last Muslim-ruled kingdom in Spain.

Islam has been present in Spain since the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the eighth century. At the beginning of the twelfth century, the Muslim population in the Iberian Peninsula  — called "Al-Andalus" by the Muslims — was estimated to number as high as 5.5 million; among these were Arabs, Berbers and indigenous converts. [2] In the next few centuries, as the Christians pushed from the north in a process called reconquista , the Muslim population declined. [3] At the end of the fifteenth century, the reconquista culminated in the fall of Granada, with the Muslim population of Spain estimated to be between 500,000 and 600,000 out of a total Spanish population of 7 to 8 million. [2] Approximately half of the Muslims lived in the former Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state in Spain, which had been annexed by the Crown of Castile. [2] About 20,000 Muslims lived in other territories of Castile, and most of the remainder lived in the territories of the Crown of Aragon. [4] These Muslims living under Christian rule were known as the Mudéjars.

Umayyad conquest of Hispania war

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus (756–788). The conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe.

Iberian Peninsula peninsula located in the extreme southwest of Europe

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory. It also includes Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of approximately 596,740 square kilometres (230,400 sq mi)), it is the second largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian.

al-Andalus southern portion of the Iberian Peninsula once inhabited by Moors

al-Andalus, also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe. The name more generally describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed, eventually shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and then to the Emirate of Granada.

In the initial years after the conquest of Granada, Muslims in Granada and elsewhere continued to enjoy freedom of religion. [1] This right was guaranteed in various legal instruments, including treaties, charters, capitulations, and coronation oaths. [1] For example, the Treaty of Granada (1491) guaranteed religious tolerance to the Muslims of the conquered Granada. [5] Kings of Aragon, including King Ferdinand II and Charles V, swore to protect the Muslims' religious freedom in their oaths of coronation. [6] [7]

Ferdinand II of Aragon King of Aragon, Sicily, Naples, and Valencia

Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth; had the child survived, the personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile would have ceased.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506. He stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly 4 million square kilometres, and were the first to be described as "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Three months after the conquest of Granada, in 1492, the Alhambra Decree ordered all Jews in Spain to be expelled or converted; this marked the beginning of intolerant policies. [8] In 1497, Spain's western neighbor Portugal expelled its Jewish and Muslim populations, as arranged by Spain's cardinal Cisneros in exchange for a royal marriage contract. [9] Unlike the Jews, Portuguese Muslims were allowed to relocate overland to Spain, and most did. [10]

Alhambra Decree document

The Alhambra Decree was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391. Due to continuing attacks around 50,000 more had converted by 1415. A further number of those remaining chose to convert to avoid expulsion. As a result of the Alhambra decree and persecution in prior years, over 200,000 Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40,000 and 100,000 were expelled, an indeterminate number returning to Spain in the years following the expulsion.:17

Kingdom of Portugal kingdom in Southwestern Europe between 1139 and 1910

The Kingdom of Portugal was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.

Persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal

On 5 December 1496, King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims to take effect by the end of October of the next year.

Conversion process

In the beginning of the sixteenth century, Spain was split between two realms: Crown of Castile and the smaller Crown of Aragon. The marriage between King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile united the two crowns, and ultimately their grandson Charles would inherit both crowns (as Charles I of Spain, but better known as Charles V, per his regnal number as Holy Roman Emperor). Despite the union, the lands of the two crowns functioned very differently, with disparate laws, ruling priorities, and treatment of Muslims. [11] There were also Muslims living in the Kingdom of Navarre, which was initially independent but was annexed by Castile in 1515. [12] Forced conversion varied in timeline by ruling body: it was enacted by the Crown of Castile in 1500–1502, in Navarre in 1515–1516, and by the Crown of Aragon in 1523–1526. [1]

In the Crown of Castile

Kingdom of Granada

The Kingdom of Granada (red) within the Crown of Castile (solid black borders) Reino de Granada loc 1590.svg
The Kingdom of Granada (red) within the Crown of Castile (solid black borders)

Initial efforts at forcing the conversions of Spanish Muslims were started by Cardinal Cisneros, the archbishop of Toledo, who arrived in Granada in the autumn of 1499. [13] In contrast to Granada's own archbishop Hernando de Talavera, who had friendly relations with the Muslim population and relied on a peaceful approach towards conversions, [14] Cisneros adopted harsh and authoritarian measures. [14] He sent uncooperative Muslims, especially noblemen, to prison where they were treated severely (including reports of torture) until they converted. [15] [16] Cisneros ignored warnings from his council that these methods might violate the Treaty of Granada, which guaranteed the Muslims freedom of religion. [15] Instead, he intensified his efforts, and in December he wrote to Pope Alexander VI that he converted 3,000 Muslims in a single day. [15]

The forced conversions led to a series of rebellions, initially started in the city of Granada. This uprising was precipitated by the riotous murder of a constable who had been transporting a Muslim woman for interrogation through the Muslim quarter of Granada; it ended with negotiations, after which the Muslims laid down their weapons and handed over those responsible for the murder of the constable. [17] Subsequently, Cisneros convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella that by attempting a rebellion, the Muslims lost their rights in the treaty, and must now accept conversions. [17] [18] The monarchs sent Cisneros back to Granada to preside over a renewed conversion campaign. [17] [18] Muslims in the city were forcibly converted in large numbers 60,000 according to the Pope, in a letter to Cisneros in March 1500. [18] Cisneros declared in January 1500 that "there is no one in the city who is not a Christian." [17]

Although the city of Granada was now under Christian control, the uprising spread to the Granadan countryside. The leader of the rebellion fled to the Alpujarra mountains in January 1500. Fearing that they would also be forced to convert, the population there quickly rose up in insurrection. [19] However, after a series of campaigns in 1500–01 in which 80,000 Christian troops were mobilized and King Ferdinand personally directed some operations, the rebellion was defeated. [20] [19] The terms of surrender of the defeated rebels generally required them to accept baptism. [19] [21] By 1501, not a single unconverted Muslim remained in Granada. [22]

The rest of Castile

Unlike the Muslims of Granada, who were under Muslim rule until 1492, Muslims in the rest of Castile had lived under Christian rule for generations. [23] Following the conversions in Granada, Isabella decided to impose a conversion-or-expulsion decree against the Muslims. [24] Castile outlawed Islam in a legislation dated July 1501 in Granada, but it was not immediately made public. [22] The proclamation took place on February 12, 1502, in Seville (called the "key date" of this legislation by historian L. P. Harvey), and then locally in other towns. [22] The edict affected "all kingdoms and lordships of Castile and Leon". [22] According to the edict, all Muslim males aged 14 or more, or females aged 12 or more, should convert or leave Castile by the end of April 1502. [25] Both Castile-born Muslims and immigrants were subject to the decree, but slaves were excluded in order to respect the rights of their owners. [22] The edict justified the decision by saying that after the successful conversion of Granada, allowing Muslims in the rest of Castile would be scandalous, even though it acknowledged that these Muslims were peaceful. The edict also argued that the decision was needed to protect those who accepted conversion from the influence of the nonconverted Muslims. [22]

On paper, the edict ordered expulsion rather than a forced conversion, but it forbade nearly all possible destinations; in reality, the Castilian authorities preferred Muslims to convert than emigrate. [26] Castile's western neighbor Portugal had already banned Muslims since 1497. [27] The order explicitly forbade going to other neighboring regions, such as the Kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, the Principality of Catalonia, and the Kingdom of Navarre. [22] Of possible overseas destination, North Africa and territories of the Ottoman Empire were also ruled out. [22] The edict allowed travel to Egypt, then ruled by the Mamluk Sultanate, but there were few ships sailing between Castile and Egypt in those days. [28] It designated Biscay in the Basque country as the only port where the Muslims could depart, which meant that those from the south (such as Andalusia) would have to travel the entire length of the peninsula. [25] The edict also set the end of April 1502 as the deadline, after which Islam would become outlawed and those harboring Muslims would be punished severely. [28] A further edict issued on September 17, 1502, forbade the newly converted Muslims to leave Castile within the next two years. [25]

Historian L.P. Harvey wrote that with this edict, "in such a summary fashion, at such short notice", Muslim presence under the Mudéjar status came to an end. [28] Unlike in Granada, there were few surviving records of events such as mass baptisms, or how the conversions were organized. [28] There are records of Christian celebrations following the conversions, such as a "fairly elaborate festivity" involving a bullfight in Ávila. [28]

In Navarre

The lands of Navarre south of the Pyrennes (red) were annexed by Castile in 1515, thus extending Castile's prohibition of Islam there. Conquista de Navarra.svg
The lands of Navarre south of the Pyrennes (red) were annexed by Castile in 1515, thus extending Castile's prohibition of Islam there.

Navarre's queen Catherine de Foix (r. 1483–1517– ) and her co-ruling husband John III had no interest in pursuing expulsion or forced conversions. [12] When the Spanish Inquisition arrived in Navarre in the late fifteenth century and began harassing local Muslims, the Navarran royal court warned it to cease. [12]

However, in 1512, Navarre was invaded by Castile and Aragon. [12] The Spanish forces led by King Ferdinand quickly occupied the Iberian half of the kingdom, including the capital Pamplona; in 1513, he was proclaimed King. [12] In 1515, Navarre was formally annexed by the Crown of Castile as one of its kingdoms. [12] With this conquest, the 1501–02 edict of conversion came into effect in Navarre, and the Inquisition was tasked with enforcing it. [12] Unlike in Castile, however, few Muslims appeared to accept the conversion. [12] Historian Brian A. Catlos argues that the lack of baptismal records and a high volume of land sales by Muslims in 1516 indicate that most of them simply left Navarre to escape through the lands of the Crown of Aragon to North Africa (the Crown of Aragon was by this time inhospitable to Muslims). [12] Some also stayed despite the order; for example, in 1520, there were 200 Muslims in Tudela who were wealthy enough to be listed in the registers. [12]

In the Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon in Spain Corona Aragó Espanya.svg
The Crown of Aragon in Spain

Despite presiding over the conversions of Muslims in his wife's Castilian lands, Ferdinand II did not extend the conversions to his Aragonese subject. [29] Kings of Aragon, including Ferdinand, were required to swear an oath of coronation to not forcibly convert their Muslim subjects. [6] He repeated the same oath to his Cortes (assembly of estates) in 1510, and throughout his life he was unwilling to break it. [30] Ferdinand died in 1516, and was succeeded by his grandson Charles V, who also swore the same oath at his coronation. [30]

The first wave of forced conversions in the Crown of Aragon happened during the Revolt of the Brotherhoods. Rebellion bearing an anti-Muslim sentiment broke out among the Christian subjects of Valencia in the early 1520s, [31] and those active in it forced Muslims to become Christians in the territories they controlled. [32] Muslims joined the Crown in suppressing the rebellion, playing crucial roles in several battles. [32] After the rebellion was suppressed, the Muslims regarded the conversions forced by the rebels as invalid and returned to their faith. [33] Subsequently, King Charles I (also known as Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire) started an investigation to determine the validity of the conversions. [34] The commission tasked with this investigation started working in November 1524. [35] Charles ultimately upheld the conversions, putting the forcibly converted subjects under the authority of the Inquisition. [34] Supporters of this decision argued that the Muslims had a choice when confronted by the rebels: they could have chosen to refuse and die, but did not, indicating that the conversions happened out of free will and must remain in effect. [32]

At the same time, Charles tried to release himself from the oath he swore to protect the Muslims. [36] He wrote to Pope Clement VII in 1523 and again in 1524 for this dispensation. [36] Clement initially resisted the request, but issued in May 1524 a papal brief releasing Charles from the oath and absolving him from all perjuries that might arise from breaking it. [37] The Pope also authorized the Inquisition to suppress oppositions to the upcoming conversions. [37]

On November 25, 1525, Charles issued an edict ordering the expulsion or conversion of remaining Muslims in the Crown of Aragon. [32] [38] Similar to the case in Castile, even though the option of exile was available on paper, in practice it was almost impossible. [34] [39] [40] In order to leave the realm, a Muslim would have had to obtain documentation from Siete Aguas on Aragon's western border, then travel inland across the entire breadth of Castile to embark by sea from A Coruña in the northwest coast. [34] The edict set a deadline of December 31 in the Kingdom of Valencia, and January 26, 1526 in Aragon and Catalonia. [34] Those who failed to arrive on time would be subject to enslavement. [34] A subsequent edict said that those who did not leave by December 8 would need to show proof of baptism. [34] [41] Muslims were also ordered to "listen without replying" to Christian teachings. [41]

A very small number of Muslims managed to escape to France and from there to the Muslim North Africa. [41] Some revolted against this order for example, a revolt broke out in the Serra d'Espadà. [42] The crown's troops defeated this rebellion in a campaign which included the killing of 5,000 Muslims. [42] After the defeat of the rebellions, the entire Crown of Aragon was now nominally converted to Christianity. [43] [38] Mosques were demolished, first names and family names were changed, and the religious practice of Islam was driven underground. [44]

Muslim reaction

Crypto-Islam

A passage from the works of the Young Man of Arévalo, a crypto-Muslim writer in the sixteenth century. Aljamiado.png
A passage from the works of the Young Man of Arévalo, a crypto-Muslim writer in the sixteenth century.

For those who could not emigrate, conversion was the only option to survive. [45] However, the forcible converts and their descendants (known as the "Moriscos") continued to practice Islam in secret. [45] According to Harvey, "abundant, overwhelming evidence" indicated that most forcible converts were secret Muslims. [46] Historical evidence such as Muslims' writings and Inquisition records corroborated the former's retained religious beliefs. [46] [47] Generations of Moriscos were born and died within this religious climate. [48] However, the newly converted were also pressured to conform outwardly to Christianity, such as by attending Mass or consuming food and drink which are forbidden in Islam. [45] [49] The situation led to a non-traditional form of Islam in which one's internal intention ( niyya ), rather than external observation of rituals and laws, was the defining characteristic of one's faith. [48] Hybrid or undefined religious practice featured in many Morisco texts: [50] for example, the works of the Morisco writer Young Man of Arévalo from the 1530s described crypto-Muslims using Christian worship as replacement for regular Islamic rituals. [51] He also wrote about the practice of secret congregational ritual prayer ( salat jama'ah ), [52] collecting alms in order to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca (although it is unclear whether the journey was ultimately achieved), [52] and the determination and hope among the secret Muslims to reinstitute the full practice of Islam as soon as possible. [53]

Oran fatwa

The Oran fatwa was a fatwa (an Islamic legal opinion) issued in 1504 to address the crisis of the 1501–1502 forced conversions in Castile. [54] It was issued by North African Maliki scholar Ahmad ibn Abi Jum'ah and set out detailed relaxations of sharia (Islamic law) requirements, allowing Muslims to conform outwardly to Christianity and perform acts that were ordinarily forbidden when necessary to survive. [55] The fatwa included less stringent instructions for the performance of ritual prayers, ritual charity, and ritual ablution; it also told the Muslims how to act when obliged to violate Islamic law, such as by worshiping as Christians, performing blasphemy, or consuming pork and wine. [56] The fatwa enjoyed wide currency among the converted Muslims and their descendants, and one of the surviving Aljamiado translations was dated 1564, 60 years after the original fatwa was issued. [57] Harvey called it "the key theological document" for the study of Spanish Islam following the forced conversions up to the Expulsion of the Moriscos, a description which Islamic studies scholar Devin Stewart repeated. [54] [55]

Emigration

Muslims who wished to emigrate following the edict in Aragon were required to get documentation in Siete Aguas in the south-east and then travel through an overland route to A Coruña in the north-west Castile. Because this prescribed method was so difficult to complete within the imposed deadline, in practice the Muslims of Aragon had to accept forcible conversion. Prescribed route of emigration - Muslim expulsion from Aragon.svg
Muslims who wished to emigrate following the edict in Aragon were required to get documentation in Siete Aguas in the south-east and then travel through an overland route to A Coruña in the north-west Castile. Because this prescribed method was so difficult to complete within the imposed deadline, in practice the Muslims of Aragon had to accept forcible conversion.

The predominant position of Islamic scholars had been that a Muslim could not stay in a country where rulers made proper religious observance impossible: [58] therefore, a Muslim's obligation was to leave when they were able to. [57] Even before the systematic forced conversion, religious leaders had argued that Muslims in Christian territory would be subject to direct and indirect pressure, and preached emigration as a way to protect the religion from eroding. [23] Ahmad al-Wansharis, the contemporary North African scholar and leading authority on Spanish Muslims, [59] wrote in 1491 that emigrating from Christian to Muslim lands was compulsory in almost all circumstances. [23] Further, he urged severe punishment for Muslims who remained and predicted that they would temporarily dwell in hell in the afterlife. [60]

However, the policy of the Christian authorities was generally to block such emigration. [61] Consequently, this option was only practically doable for the wealthiest among those living near the southern coast, and even then with great difficulty. [61] For example, in Sierra Bermeja, Granada in 1501, an option of exile was offered as an alternative to conversion only for those who paid a fee of ten gold doblas, which most citizens could not afford. [62] [63] In the same year, villagers of Turre and Teresa near Sierra Cabrera in Almeria fought the Christian militias with help from their North African rescuers at Mojácar while leaving the region. [64] The people of Turre were defeated and the planned escape turned into a massacre; the people of Teresa got away but their properties, except what could fit into their small boats, were left behind and confiscated. [45]

While the edict of conversion in Castile nominally allowed emigration, it explicitly forbade nearly all available destinations for the Muslim population of Castile, and consequently "virtually all" Muslims had to accept conversion. [28] In Aragon, Muslims who wished to leave were required to go to Castile, take an inland route across the breadth of Castile through Madrid and Valladolid, and finally embark by sea on the northwest coast, all on a tight deadline. [34] Religious studies scholar Brian A. Catlos said that emigration "was not a viable option"; [39] historian of Spain L. P. Harvey called this prescribed route "insane" and "so difficult to achieve" that the option of exile was "in practice almost nonexistent", [34] and Sephardic historian Maurice Kriegel agreed, saying that "in practical terms it was impossible for them to leave the peninsula". [40] Nevertheless, a small number of Muslims escaped to France, and from there to North Africa. [41]

Armed resistance

The conversion campaign of Cardinal Cisneros in Granada triggered the Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501). [65] [66] The revolt ended in royalist victories, and the defeated rebels were then required to convert. [19] [21]

After the edict of conversion in Aragon, Muslims also took up arms, especially in the areas with defensible mountainous terrain. [67] The first armed revolt took place at Benaguasil by Muslims from the town and surrounding areas. [68] An initial royalist assault was repelled, but the town capitulated in March 1526 after a five-week siege, resulting in the rebels' baptism. [69] A more serious rebellion developed in the Sierra de Espadan. The rebel leader called himself "Selim Almanzo", invoking Almanzor, a Muslim leader during the peak of power for Spanish Muslims. [67] [70] The Muslims held out for months and pushed back several assaults [71] until the royalist army, enlarged to 7,000 men with a German contingent of 3,000 soldiers, finally made a successful assault on September 19, 1526. [72] The assault ended in the massacring of 5,000 Muslims, including old men and women. [72] [67] Survivors of the massacre escaped to the Muela de Cortes; some of them later surrendered and were baptized, while others escaped to North Africa. [73] [67]

Sincere conversions

Some converts were sincerely devout in their Christian faith. Cisneros said that some converts chose to die as martyrs when demanded to recant by the Muslim rebels in Granada. [74] A convert named Pedro de Mercado from the village of Ronda refused to join the rebellion in Granada; in response, the rebels burned his house and kidnapped members of his family, including his wife and a daughter. [74] The crown later paid him compensation for his losses. [74]

In 1502, the whole Muslim community of Teruel (part of Aragon bordered with Castile) converted en masse to Christianity, even though the 1502 edict of conversion for Castilian Muslims did not apply to them. [75] Harvey suggested that they were pressured by the Castilians across the border, but historian Trevor Dadson argued that this conversion was unforced, caused instead by centuries of contact with their Christian neighbors and a desire for an equal status with the Christians. [76]

Related Research Articles

Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros Catholic cardinal

Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, O.F.M., known as Ximenes de Cisneros in his own lifetime, and commonly referred to today as simply Cisneros, was a Spanish cardinal, religious figure, and statesman. Starting from humble beginnings he rose to the heights of power becoming a religious reformer, twice regent of Spain, Cardinal, Grand Inquisitor, promoter of the Crusades in North Africa, and founder of the Complutense University, today the Complutense University of Madrid. Among his intellectual accomplishments, he is best known for funding the Complutensian Polyglot Bible, the first printed polyglot version of the entire Bible. He also edited and published the first printed editions of the missal and the breviary of the Mozarabic Rite, and established a chapel with a college of thirteen priests to celebrate the Mozarabic Liturgy of the Hours and Eucharist each day in the Toledo Cathedral.

La Convivencia is an academic hypothesis regarding the period of Spanish history from the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early eighth century until the expulsion of the Jews in 1492. It claims that in the different Moorish Iberian kingdoms, the Muslims, Christians and Jews lived in relative peace. According to this interpretation of history, this period of religious diversity differs from later Spanish and Portuguese history when - as a result of expulsions and forced conversions - Catholicism became the sole religion in the Iberian Peninsula.

This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.

Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)

The rebellion of the Alpujarras of 1568–71, sometimes called the War of the Alpujarras or the Morisco Revolt, was the second such revolt against the Castilian Crown in the mountainous Alpujarra region. The rebels were Moriscos, the nominally Catholic descendants of the Mudéjares following the first rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501).

Islam in Spain

Islam was a widespread religion in what is now Spain and Portugal for nine centuries, beginning with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and ending with its prohibition by the modern Spanish state in the mid-16th century and the expulsion of the Moriscos in the early 17th century. Although a significant proportion of Moriscos returned to Spain or avoided expulsion through various means, and the decree never affected the country's large enslaved Muslim population, the indigenous practice of Islam had faded into obscurity by the 19th century.

Muhammad I of Granada 13th-century founder of the Nasrid Emirate of Granada

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr, also known as Ibn al-Aḥmar and by his epithet al-Ghalib billah, was the first ruler of the Emirate of Granada, the last independent Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula, and the founder of its ruling Nasrid dynasty. He lived during a time when Iberia's Christian kingdoms—especially Portugal, Castile and Aragon—were expanding at the expense of the Islamic territory in Iberia, called Al-Andalus. Muhammad ibn Yusuf took power in his native Arjona in 1232 when he rebelled against the de facto leader of Al-Andalus, Ibn Hud. During this rebellion, he was able to take control of Córdoba and Seville briefly, before he lost both cities to Ibn Hud. Forced to acknowledge Ibn Hud's suzerainty, Muhammad was able to retain Arjona and Jaén. In 1236, he betrayed Ibn Hud by helping Ferdinand III of Castile take Córdoba. In the years that followed, Muhammad was able to gain control over the southern cities, including Granada (1237), Almería (1238) and Málaga (1239). In 1244, he lost Arjona to Castile. Two years later, in 1246, he agreed to surrender Jaén and accept Ferdinand's overlordship in exchange for peace.

Treaty of Granada (1491)

The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between Boabdil, the sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily. It ended the Granada War which had started in 1482, culminating in the siege and battle of Granada beginning in spring 1491.

Spanish Inquisition organization

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America. According to modern estimates, around 150,000 were prosecuted for various offenses during the three centuries of duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed.

Emirate of Granada Historic Iberian state

The Emirate of Granada, also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar. After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.

Expulsion of the Moriscos

The Expulsion of the Moriscos was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609. The Moriscos were descendants of Spain's Muslim population that had converted to Christianity by coercion or by Royal Decree in the early 16th century. Since the Spanish were fighting wars in the Americas, feeling threatened by the Turks raiding along the Spanish coast and by two Morisco revolts in the century since Islam was outlawed in Spain, it seems the expulsions were a reaction to an internal problem of the stretched Spanish Empire. Between 1609 through 1614, the Crown systematically expelled Moriscos through a number of decrees affecting Spain's various kingdoms, meeting varying levels of success.

Granada War war

The Granada War was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada. It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending all Islamic rule on the Iberian peninsula.

Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile)

The Kingdom of Granada was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile from the conclusion of the Reconquista in 1492 until Javier de Burgos' provincial division of Spain in 1833. This was a "kingdom" ("reino") in the second sense given by the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española: the Crown of Castile consisted of several such kingdoms. Its extent is detailed in Gelo del Cabildo's 1751 Respuestas Generales del Catastro de Ensenada (1750–54), which was part of the documentation of a census. Like the other kingdoms within Spain, the Kingdom of Granada was abolished by the 1833 territorial division of Spain.

Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501) series of uprisings in 1499–1501

The Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501) was a series of uprisings by the Muslim population of the Kingdom of Granada, Crown of Castile against their Catholic rulers. They began in 1499 in the city of Granada in response to mass forced conversion of the Muslim population to the Catholic faith, which were perceived as violations of the 1491 Treaty of Granada. The uprising in the city quickly died down, but it was followed by more serious revolts in the nearby mountainous area of the Alpujarras. The Catholic forces, on some occasions led personally by King Ferdinand, succeeded in suppressing the revolts and inflicted severe punishment on the Muslim population.

Young Man of Arévalo Spanish crypto-Muslim author

The Young Man of Arévalo was a Morisco crypto-Muslim author from Arévalo, Castile who was the most productive known Islamic author in Spain during the period after the forced conversion of Muslims there. He traveled widely across Spain to visit crypto-Muslim communities and wrote several works about Islam which includes accounts from his travels. His real identity and dates of birth and death are unknown, but most of his travels took place in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Mudéjar revolt of 1264–1266 13th century revolt by some Muslim communities in Castile

The Mudéjar revolt of 1264–1266 was a Mudéjar rebellion in the Lower Andalusia and Murcia regions of the Crown of Castile. The rebellion was in response to Castile's policy of relocating Muslim populations from these regions and was partially instigated by Muhammad I of Granada. The rebels were aided by the independent Emirate of Granada, while the Castilians were allied with Aragon. Early in the uprising, the rebels managed to capture Murcia and Jerez, as well as several smaller towns, but were eventually defeated by the royal forces. Subsequently, Castile expelled the Muslim populations of the reconquered territories and encouraged Christians from elsewhere to settle their lands. Granada became a vassal of Castile and paid an annual tribute.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 Harvey 2005, p. 14.
  2. 1 2 3 Carr 2009, p. 40.
  3. Harvey 1992, p. 9.
  4. Carr 2009, pp. 40–41.
  5. Carr 2009, p. 52.
  6. 1 2 Harvey 2005, pp. 85–86.
  7. Carr 2009, p. 81.
  8. Harvey 1992, p. 325.
  9. Harvey 2005, pp. 15–16.
  10. Harvey 2005, pp. 20.
  11. Harvey 2005, pp. 257.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Catlos 2014, p. 220.
  13. Carr 2009, p. 57.
  14. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 27.
  15. 1 2 3 Carr 2009, p. 58.
  16. Coleman 2003, p. 6.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Carr 2009, p. 60.
  18. 1 2 3 Harvey 2005, p. 31.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Carr 2009, p. 63.
  20. Harvey 2005, p. 36.
  21. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 45.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Harvey 2005, p. 57.
  23. 1 2 3 Harvey 2005, p. 56.
  24. Edwards 2014, p. 99.
  25. 1 2 3 Edwards 2014, p. 100.
  26. Harvey 2005, pp. 567.
  27. Harvey 2005, p. 15.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Harvey 2005, p. 58.
  29. Harvey 2005, p. 29.
  30. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 86.
  31. Harvey 2005, p. 92.
  32. 1 2 3 4 Harvey 2005, p. 93.
  33. Lea 1901, p. 71.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Harvey 2005, p. 94.
  35. Lea 1901, p. 75.
  36. 1 2 Lea 1901, p. 83.
  37. 1 2 Lea 1901, p. 84.
  38. 1 2 Catlos 2014, p. 226.
  39. 1 2 3 Catlos 2014, p. 227.
  40. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 99.
  41. 1 2 3 4 Lea 1901, p. 87.
  42. 1 2 Harvey 2005, pp. 99–100.
  43. Harvey 2005, p. 101.
  44. Catlos 2014, pp. 226–227.
  45. 1 2 3 4 Harvey 2005, p. 49.
  46. 1 2 Harvey 2006.
  47. Harvey 2005, p. 102,256.
  48. 1 2 Rosa-Rodríguez 2010, p. 153.
  49. Harvey 2005, p. 52.
  50. Rosa-Rodríguez 2010, pp. 153–154.
  51. Harvey 2005, p. 185.
  52. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 181.
  53. Harvey 2005, p. 182.
  54. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 60.
  55. 1 2 Stewart 2007, p. 266.
  56. Harvey 2005, pp. 61–62.
  57. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 64.
  58. Harvey 2005, pp. 63–64.
  59. Stewart 2007, p. 298.
  60. Hendrickson 2009, p. 25.
  61. 1 2 Harvey 2005, p. 48.
  62. Carr 2009, p. 65.
  63. Lea 1901, p. 40.
  64. Harvey 2005, pp. 48–49.
  65. Lea 1901, p. 33.
  66. Carr 2009, p. 59.
  67. 1 2 3 4 Harvey 2005, p. 100.
  68. Lea 1901, p. 91.
  69. Lea 1901, pp. 91–92.
  70. Lea 1901, pp. 92.
  71. Lea 1901, pp. 93–94.
  72. 1 2 Lea 1901, p. 94.
  73. Lea 1901, p. 95.
  74. 1 2 3 Carr 2009, p. 64.
  75. Harvey 2005, p. 82.
  76. Dadson 2006.

Bibliography